Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Awareness

Knowledge and awareness of endo-perio lesions among dentists in Bhatinda city

Dr Mandeep Kaur, Dr. Jitender Kaur, Dr. Inderpreet Kaur, Dr. Jatinder Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 1221-1226

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of endo-perio lesions’ knowledge and awareness among dentists in Bhatinda city.
Materials and Methods: The study includes 156 dentists who responded to the survey among 180 dentists. Twelve questions about demographic data, risk factors, and the definition of the disease were asked in the two-part survey. The data was examined using the T test, Chi-square test, and Mann-Whitney U test in Minitab 17 statistical software.
Results: Periodontists and endodontists were shown to be considerably aware of endo-perio lesions (p=0.001 and p <0.001, respectively). It was discovered that general practitioners were largely unaware about these lesions.
Conclusion: Other than endodontists and periodontologists, general dentists were found to have less knowledge of endo-perio lesions.

Health Awareness and Attitude Towards COVID-19 Pandemic Among University Students Under Healthcare Training in Al-Madinah

Roaa Y. Hassan, Karimah Alhussein Shararah, Shahad Abdullah Almuwallad, Shahad Khalid Alahmadi, Ghofran Abdullah Al-Harbi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 2087-2092

The modern coronavirus infectious disease COVID-19 has been labeled internationally as a pandemic and is considered an emergency to the public health. Many studies were targeting university students as they play a great role after healthcare workers in relaying and spreading the awareness of COVID-19 and its preventive measures among colleagues, families, and friends. Therefore, it is of great importance to increase the knowledge and awareness about COVID-19.
Objectives: In this review article, we compare the most relevant studies that measure health awareness and attitude towards the COVID-19 pandemic.
Method: The articles are obtained from electronic databases such as PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar that are published during 2020.
Conclusion: Most studies showed high level of awareness among university students, and social media was found to be their main source of information. Among all the selected research papers, we found that the studies conducted in both the United Arab Emirates and Qassim Universities showed results that may be comparable to our topic

Prevalence of hypertension among sanitary workers in a tertiary care center, Shahjahanpur, Uttar Pradesh: A cross-sectional study

Saumitra Swaroop Sinha, Vishal Sukhdev Rathod, Snehal N Pawar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 1863-1868

Hypertension is an important public health problem and it has no obvious
signs or symptoms making the persons unaware of condition. World Health
Organization (WHO) has stated that around 1.3 billion people around the world suffers
from hypertension and less than one in five have their blood pressure under control
Methods: A cross sectional study, Study setting: Community medicine department of
Tertiary care center. Study population: The study population included all the sanitary
workers in tertiary care center. Study duration 2 months. Sample size: 311 Results:
Only 10.7% of the workers were current tobacco users, while almost 15% were current
alcohol users. More than three fourth of the study participants were physically active.
More than 50% of the participants were obese (≥ 25.00 kg/m2). Abdominal obesity was
present in about 35% of the participants. Prevalence of hypertension among the
sanitary workers was 36.6% (95% CI: 31.3-41.3%). Only 34 (10.9%) participants were
aware of their hypertension status and 80 (25.7%) of the participants were newly
diagnosed to have hypertension. Prehypertension was present in 114 out of 277
participants (41.1%; 95% CI: 35.3-47.2%) without any known history of hypertension.
Among the 34 patients with known history of hypertension, only 12 (35.3%) belonged to
controlled status category. Current tobacco users had 1.61 times higher prevalence of
hypertension when compared to those who are not current users and this was
statistically significant (P = 0.003). Current alcohol users had significant association
with hypertension (aPR-1.25; P = 0.02). Conclusions: The current study found that
more than one-third of the sanitary workers had hypertension. However, almost threefourth
of the hypertensives were not aware about their status.

Assessment of awareness about common pediatric eye disorders among primary school teachers and epidemiological factors associated with it

Pravinkumar G Dhuwadhapare, Nandkishor G Raut, Amit J Jogdande

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 1540-1544

Childhood ophthalmic disorders have an important role to play in the child’s development, academic achievements, self-esteem and their quality of life. Recently there are no update on awareness among school teachers regarding the common pediatric eye disorders. Therefore this study was designed to assess the awareness among the teachers regarding the prevailing eye disorders. Objectives: To assess the awareness among primary school teachers about common pediatric eye diseases prevailing in the society and epidemiological factors associated with it. Methodology: This community based cross sectional study was conducted on the primary school teachers. Total 168 study subjects participated in the study. Data was collected using google form after obtaining consent. Data was auto saved in google database and analyzed with help of excel and SPSS 21 software. Results: This study included total 168 participants, out of which 93 (55.36%) were male and 75(44.64 %) were female. Level of adequate awareness among primary school teachers was about 34 percent. Female teachers and teachers with post graduate degree had adequate level of awareness and this association was found to be statistically significant. Discussion: Level of awareness was found to be less when compared to studies done in adult population. Also some factors like more awareness among more qualified teachers was in concurrence with finding from other studies. Conclusion: There is inadequate awareness among primary school teachers like minimum age of undergoing cataract surgery, exact distance of vision testing in school children, Primary treatment of congenital dacryocystitis and congenital glaucoma.

Knowledge and awareness on the usage of antibiotics and analgesics among dental undergraduates

Nitinpreet Kaur, Gursimrat Kaur Brar, Sonu Gupta, S.P.S Sodhi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 217-226

Antibiotics primarily used in treating the bacterial infections when administered unnecessarily can cause antibiotic resistance making the bacteria non responsive against antimicrobials. Analgesics that are used to relieve pain are one of the routinely used medications. Hence, the aim of this study was to check the knowledge and awareness regarding use of both antibiotics and analgesics amongst dental undergraduates. Total 324 participants from different profs and interns submitted their responses for the online questionnaire. A highly statistically significant difference was observed in the knowledge of participants for both analgesics and antibiotics. It can be concluded that the knowledge and awareness on the use of antibiotics and analgesics among dental undergraduates is low indicating lack of basic understanding of oral dose, indications and risks of both medications.

Awareness amongst mothers towards Mamata Scheme

Dr. Mamata Rani Giri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 9, Pages 220-223

Mamata Scheme is conditional cash transfer maternity benefit scheme given to address maternal and infant under nutrition in Odisha.
Objective: To assess the knowledge and perception of pregnant women and mothers with child less than 1 yr of age regarding Mamata Scheme.
Methodology: Community based cross sectional study was conducted from 2021 to 2022 in a field practice area of Dept. Of Community Medicine, PRM Medical College, Baripada. The study subjects included all pregnant women with at least six months of completed gestation and all lactating mothers having child less than 1 yr of age registered at AWCs / Mini AWCs during the study period. A pre-tested, pre-designed questionnaire were used for data collection. Data was analyzed using MS Excel.
Results: Out of 157 study subjects, all the mothers were aware about the amount paid Rs.5000 in two installments under Mamata Scheme. Ante-natal registration and dT vaccination required as the criteria for 1st installment was known to all the participants. 149 (94.90%) had knowledge regarding the intake of IFA & 97 (61.78%) had knowledge to attend one counselling session at the AWC for getting the 1st installment. Knowledge regarding criteria for 2nd installment, 138 (87.90%) mothers were known about the registration of the child after birth at AWC. Regarding the various vaccination status most of the mothers, 150 (95.5%) were known to OPV & Pentavalent vaccinations. Almost all the mothers 155(98.73%) had knowledge regarding the exclusive breast feeding followed by 148(94.27%) for complementary feeding. 139(88.53%) mothers had good perception towards Mamata Scheme.
Conclusion: The Knowledge and perceptions of mothers regarding the scheme needs to be enhanced further through IEC activities.


Vijayalakshmi R , Niranjani S , Karpagavalli G .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 3076-3079

HPV infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections, affecting both the gender equally worldwide. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is a family of closely related non-enveloped a doublestranded DNA virus with currently more than 200 different sequenced genotypes.Two human papilloma virus types (16 and 18) are responsible for nearly 50% of cervical cancers. The India academy of paediatrics committee on immunization recommends offering HPV vaccine to all the female of appropriate age who can offered the vaccine. It is ideal that the vaccine is administered prior to the sexual debut to avoid the transmission of the virus and hence recommended, that age 10-15 should be vaccinated.
A quantitative descriptive study was conducted to assess the level of awareness regarding HPV virus and acceptance level of HPV vaccination among study participants. The research was conducted in selected villages of Chengalpattu district among young girls and boys (10-15 years of age). Total of 300 study participants who met with the inclusion criteria were selected by convenient sampling technique. Two separate questionnaires were used to assess the knowledge and level of acceptance. Informed consent was obtained from all the participants and their parents

A survey on prevalence of diabetes mellitus due to junk food intake in young individuals.

Sneha Harshini S; Mrs.S. sangeetha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 766-777

The aim of the present study was to assess knowledge and awareness about the prevalence of diabetes mellitus due to consumption of junk food among the general population.
Junk food is also known as fast food due its ease of making and consumption. It is also called HFSS , High fat, salt or sugar. It’s concise packing and attractive colours draw children's attention.
A cross-sectional study in the form of a survey was conducted among the parents of the victims in particular along with the general population. Through the online platform the survey was done by distributing the questionnaire. Around 100 responses were collected, data was circulated, results were collected and statistically analysed through SPSS software.

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards Cervical Cancer Screening and HPV Vaccine among Medical Fraternity: An Observational Study

Dr. Ratna Tejaswi Papola, Dr. Shubhra Agarwal, Dr. Maryada Jain, Dr. Priyanka Pachauri .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 9, Pages 289-295

Aims and Objectives: Our goals are to determine how well educated female medical professionals are on HPV infections and vaccination.
Materials and Methods- An observational research was done to study the level of familiarity physicians have with HPV infection and vaccination. In order to study people's openness to and perspective on vaccination, as well as their familiarity with the illness and its symptoms, a survey was done.
Results: Three hundred doctors agreed to take part in the study. They're among the age group of 25 and 40, with an average age of 35.78. The fact that HPV is an STD is common knowledge among 201 professionals. About two-thirds (291) of doctors have cited HPV as a possible reason for cervical cancer. In fact, just 93 people (31% of the total) know that vaginal infections may raise the probability of developing cervical cancer. Only 70 of the doctors and nurses tested positive for Pap smears or HPV, and only 25 had ever been vaccinated against the virus.
Conclusion: Insufficient medical education could have negative effects on the health of the general public, as stated in the conclusion. Aspiring health educators must therefore be well-versed on HPV, cervical cancer, and preventative strategies.


Dr. Mahitha .M.C., Dr. J.V. Dixit, Dr. Smita P Andurkar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 390-399

The widespread use of medical software applications and internet for browsing health related topics have become a novel way to improve health and health care delivery system. Especially, in these days when covid 19 pandemic have struck the world so badly that people have less access to hospitals for their routine medical care, mHealth have shortened the distance between a patient and doctor. Advancements in mobile technologies and better reach of mobile networks have accelerated the usage of mobile apps and other electronic devices for planning ,programming and executing various health care services round the globe. Even in India during the covid pandemic, use of mobile apps like Arogya Setu have made a great impact in planning and provision of health care. This study aims at assessment of awareness on mHealth among undergraduate medical students in a tertiary centre at Maharashtra, India.
A cross sectional study was conducted among undergraduate medical students of Government Medical College, Aurangabad, Maharashtra. A pretested semi structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the medical students. About 400 students studying in first year and second year were included in the study. An informed consent was attached along with the questionnaire. Collected data was entered in MS Excel and analyzed using SPSS 26 trial version. Quantitative data was expressed in terms of mean and standard deviation, categorical data was expressed as frequencies and percentages. Chi-square test was used to check the association between the parameters. Data was represented in tabular and graphical form.
Among the 379 participants,226(59.63%) were males and 153(40.36 %) were females.55.4% belonged to age group above 20 years,85.22% were Hindus. 82.32% belonged to Class I socioeconomic class according to modified B G Prasad’s classification. Among the respondents,47.75% only had adequate knowledge, 54.8% had appropriate attitude and 64.3% followed appropriate practice regarding mHealth.
About 70% thought that usage of health related apps is not a wastage of time.87.07
% browse internet for health related queries and 76.78% of them spend only less than 30 minutes for that. 67.8% do not prefer to recommend health related apps to their colleagues. About 57% are expecting more health related apps in future, after solving the glitches in the currently available ones. Among the respondents, 95 (55.8%)of those belonging to age group less than 20 years have adequate knowledge regarding m-health, while only 40.6% of those belonging to age group more than 20 years had adequate knowledge in this regard (p value= 0.0015). Males had more knowledge about mHealth than females (p=0.0015).102 respondents belonging to 1st year MBBS(54.5%) had adequate knowledge as compared to 79 belonging to 2nd year MBBS(41.4%) (p=0.004).
Males had a better attitude regarding mHealth than females(p= 0.016).Also, respondents aged less than 20 years had better appropriate practice of mHealth than others (p=<0.00).
In this study,it has been found that more awareness must be created among health
care professionals regarding use of mHealth in healthcare delivery. Majority of the respondents agreed upon the utility of health related apps in easy access to national guidelines and lab reference, faster medical score and dose calculations and for acquiring knowledge, developing skills and for evidence based practice. Hence in this context, developing an e-platform for the same can save time ,money and manpower to a great extend.
Therefore, focus must be on creating apps which are user friendly and which provides maximum data in short span of time. Periodic quality checks on apps must be given to ensure accurate content delivery.

Knowledge and practices of menstrual hygiene in adolescent school girls of urban and rural schools of Gadag district

Dr. Shruti Bhavi Patil

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 127-132

Background: Menstruation is generally considered unclean in the Indian society though its a
physiological process indicating beginning of reproductive life. Several prohibitions and the
negative attitude of parents in discussing the related issues openly have blocked the access of
adolescent girls to the right kind of information. Various studies indicate that a huge
information gap exists among rural and urban adolescent girls regarding menstrual hygiene.
The data about the level of knowledge and practices which are followed by them with respect
to menses are beneficial in planning a program for improving the awareness level with
respect to their quality of life.
Materials and Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted from July
2018 to September 2018 on 708 school going adolescent girls of Gadag district, Karnataka.
Girls between age group 11 to 18 years were included. Data was collected by a predesigned,
pretested questionnaire.
Result: Awareness of menstruation was only among 12.07% of rural school girls and 38.09%
among urban school girls. The first source of information regarding menstruation was mother
in 8o% and only 17% from friends in both urban and rural girls. 18% of urban school girls
always missed school and 35% of urban girls missed sometimes. Only 5.39% girls in rural
areas always missed and 15.57% in rural areas missed sometimes. 76.22% girls from rural
schools used sanitary pads and 68.31% of girls used in urban schools. Around 50% of girls
both in rural as well as urban schools changed their pads twice a day. It was found that among
the urban school girls 70.45 % of them disposed the sanitary pads by wrapping it in a paper,
10.82% flushed it in the toilets. In the rural schools, surprisingly 71.53% of them buried the
sanitary pads, 7.56% flushed it and only 20.83% of them wrapped it in a paper. 40.93% of
urban girls and 34.52% of rural school girls still practiced in the social taboos like diet
restrictions, not attending religious functions or places of workshop.
Conclusion: There a need for adequate information both in rural and urban school girls. The
knowledge about hygienic practices is lacking. There is also a need to address social taboos in
both the groups. There is a need to emphasise on significance and physiological implications
of menstruation.


Dr. Minoti Baruah, Dr. Bandana Mahanta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1382-1389

Introduction: Awareness with recall (AWR), originally coined as intra-operative awareness, is a recognized risk of general anesthesia (GA). Based on individual factors, patients respond differently to GA. The safety of GA has increased drastically over the past 20 years; however, there is continued opportunity for assessment, evaluation and treatment of AWR. Gibbs, Gibbs and Lennox (1937) first identified AWR in 1937.
Materials and Methods: The Present study was conducted at the Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, Tertiary care center, Guwahati, Assam. Which includes 50 patients who underwent different routine general surgeries and 50 patients from Emergency. Pre-anaesthetic evaluation was done and noted down. In the operating room IV line established, multichannel monitor attached and standard monitoring including baseline pulse, NIBP, SPO2 and ECG connected. Entropy and NM monitoring equipment was attached. The choice of inducing agent, neuromuscular blocker and maintenance for general anaesthesia was based on the patient and nature of surgical procedure.
Results: These 200 patients were interviewed as per the protocol in hospital on the day of surgery. Our study found that among these 200 patients, 2 patients reported remembering something between going to sleep and waking up from anaesthesia, thus 2 cases of awareness were identified. 7 patients reported dreaming and 6 cases of possible awareness were identified.
Conclusion: Awareness occurs despite the usual clinical monitoring of anaesthetic depth like BP, HR and even with the use of entropy. There is currently no evidence that awareness and recall could be prevented by monitoring consciousness with sophisticated methods such as BIS or entropy. If a patient has suffered from awareness and recalls this postoperatively, psychiatric consultation and followup is recommended

Awareness of Dental Students towards CBCT: A Cross Sectional Study

Dr. Devashree Shukla, Dr. Ankit Dhimole, Dr. Kaushal Pati Tripathi, Dr. Dilraj Singh, Dr. Chandresh Shukla, Dr. Sommyta Kathal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2473-2479

Background: Due to its high resolution, low radiation dosage, and short screening time, cone beam computed tomography, an outstanding diagnostic 3D imaging modality that was recently developed for dento-maxillofacial imaging, is becoming more helpful. The purpose of this study was to analyse dentistry students' and general dental practitioners' awareness, knowledge, and attitudes concerning CBCT.
Materials and Methods: To measure their knowledge, awareness, and attitude regarding CBCT, 400 dental students and dental practitioners were given questionnaire. The replies of the participants were analysed using descriptive statistics, and the Chi-square test was employed to statistically analyse the variations in responses based on education level.
Results: The findings revealed that Post Graduate students were the most informed and aware of CBCT, followed by Interns, final BDS students, and General Practitioners.
Conclusion:The findings show that general practitioners are unaware of CBCT and have little expertise about it. As a result, it is suggested that more CDEs and workshops on diverse uses of CBCT be held in order to raise understanding and awareness among general practitioners.

Vitamin D status and its determinant among medical undergraduate students

Manoj Kumar Singh, Ishan Kumar Parasher, Deepti Mandsorewale, Geeta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 337-343

Background: Vitamin D is essential for calcium absorption, bones strengthening, hemopoiesis,
protection against heart failure, prevention against upper respiratory infection, acts as anti-oxidant and
strengthening immunity. Its deficiency has turn out to be epidemic globally, but still majority of
population is unaware about the problem. The prevalence can be appreciated in all age groups in both
the genders, such as, youngsters, adult, pregnant women and geriatric group. As vitamin D functions in
bone remodeling and its normal growth, the deficiency leads to retarded growth and skeletal deformities
in infants and adolescents, whereas, muscle weakness and fractures are common in adults. Present study
was carried out to sensitize the medical undergraduates regarding deficiency, prevention and treatment
of vitamin D.

Knowledge, awareness and acceptance of covid-19 vaccine among general population in urban Raigarh, Chhattisgarh: A cross-sectional study

Ashish Baghel, Sofia Noor, Anjana Tiwari, Simmy Gavel

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1253-1260

Introduction: While there are considerable enthusiasm and anticipation for the COVID-19
vaccine, little is known about vaccine hesitancy specifically for COVID-19 in the general
population. Identifying specific populations, their characteristics with regards to vaccine
knowledge, awareness & acceptance will help as key components of a successful vaccination
strategy. Hence the present study was carried out to assess the knowledge, awareness &
acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination among general population of urban Raigarh,
Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 participants
of urban Raigarh regarding knowledge, awareness & acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine from
April-June 2021. The methodology comprises of primary data collection through survey in a
pre-designed pre-tested proforma by face to face interview.
Results: Total 400 participants among general population who had an average age of 34.3
years ±11.8 years with slight male preponderance (53.2%). Nearly half (58.2%) of
participants were from the slum, (45.2%) came under middle socio-economic class and (49%)
were self-employed. Majority (77.25%) knew about COVID-19 vaccination programme,
while (46.75%) knew about common side effects of vaccine. More than half (54.25%) were
aware that it boost up immunity against COVID-19 infection and (77.5%) were having good
knowledge regarding COVID-19 vaccination, and (36.5%) were afraid of taking COVID-19
vaccine, while (39%) were concerned about its side effects.
Conclusion: The study identified that majority of responders were aware regarding COVID-
19 vaccine, still many have doubts & concerns about its potential efficacy and safety thereby
providing an important outlook for feasible interventional awareness programs to enhance
vaccination rates. The study also identified that the concerns regarding the vaccine adverse
effects acted as the leading barrier for vaccine acceptance.

Health Insurance: It’s Awareness, Coverage and Factors Influencing Its Subscription In Field Practice Area Of KIMS, Koppal, Karnataka

Anil Kumar L, Chethana K V, Shrinivas,Mallikarjune Biradar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2176-2183

Background: Health is a human right. In order to achieve Universal Health Coverage and to bridge the gap between the community and the provision of quality health care, there is a need to improve the financial protection for health. Health insurance is a promising way for improving health by reducing health expenditure and providing financial protection Objectives: Assessment of awareness about health Insurance schemes, assessment of coverage of health insurance schemes and the factors influencing the subscription and utilization of Insurance Schemes. Materials and Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted in the RHTC Irkalagad, a field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, KIMS Koppal during February and March 2020 among 500 individuals aged 18years and above using predesigned semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Out of 500 individuals, 59% of the participants were aware of health insurance, the awareness about health insurance was significantly associated with gender and socio-economic status. Only 29% of the participants were subscribed to health insurance and 6.8% of those insured availed the benefits. Majority(78.5%) of the participants reported lack of awareness was the reason for nonsubscription to health insurance.

Study of Awareness and Responsibility Towards Global Climate Change (GCC) Among Students in a Medical College

Prudhviraj, Jahnavi, Praveen

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2773-2780

Background:Climate change has emerged as one of the most devastating environmental threats in 21st century. The United Nation's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) stated that there is overwhelming evidence that humans are affecting the global climate. Human behaviour is integral not only to causing global climate change but also to responding and adapting to it. As medical students will impart their knowledge to future society so that study was done among them to assess their knowledge levels towards climate change and their responsibility to tackle this. Objectives: To assess the knowledge levels towards GCC among 1st year medical students, To assess their responsibility towards mitigating the GCC.
Materials and Methods: First year medical and dental students of Siddartha medical college, Vijayawada who had given the verbal consent were included in this study. A self-administered, pre-tested, questionnaire was used. Responses were analysed by using SPPSS v.16 software.
Results: Majority of students were females. Among the students 75% came from urban background, 88.9% had schooling in private sector, 98.2% participants were aware that GCC is a major problem. However, only 57.3% were aware that GCC is induced by human beings. Knowledge on causes (94.2%), effects (91.2%), and control measures (98.8%) of GCC was appreciable and 33.1% were participated in public awareness activities.
Conclusion: Males are knowledgeable regarding the fact that humans are responsible for GCC, and they were active in taking up the responsibility to prevent it. Students studied in Government were aware of recyclable materials.


Dr. Kavitha BS,Dr. Shashiraj HK, Dr. Shomi Anand

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1685-1688

Introduction: The spread of COVID-19 pandemic globally has left us with many unanswered questions about the spread, modality of treatment and preventive measures to be taken to reduce its spread. Lack of sufficient knowledge about the virus and the lack of clarity about preventive measures has led to lot of confusion about healthcare practices. First year medical students although not involved in treatment of COVID-19 patients they can act as information providers and sensitize the community about the pandemic. Hence the present study was taken up among first year medical students.
Aim: To assess the basic knowledge about Novel Corona virus disease and its spread and clear the myths among them regarding COVID-19.
Materials and methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted among first year medical students belonging to 2019-20 batch. Data was tabulated using Microsoft office excel sheet and the response were expressed as total count and percentages distribution. Data was analyzed using EPI INFO (Version 7).
Results: Majority of the study participants have good knowledge about the virus, origin of the first case and mode of spread.92.25% of the study participants knew that elderly and people with comorbidities were more prone for coronavirus disease. 100% of the study participants knew that RT-PCR test has the diagnostic test for COVID-19. The entire study participants knew about non availability of a vaccine to prevent COVID-19 infection and some vaccines were in different stages of clinical trials.
Conclusion: The students of first year MBBS have good background knowledge and awareness about coronavirus disease which will help us to use them as the information providers to sensitize community people about various preventive measures one has to take to prevent the spread of COVID-19 pandemic.

Evaluation of Public awareness, Knowledge and Approval of Oral Implant Treatment in South Indian Population: A cross sectional study

Nayana Prabhu; Saumya Kapoor; Sushma Yadav

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 833-840

Background - Presently, dental implants are favourable treatment alternatives for
completely or partially edentulous patients. Research has reported substantial improvement
in attitude of patients toward dental implants, however in developing nations with poorer
access to dental care, acceptance of this treatment alternative isn’t yet completely known.
Objective: A survey from a representative sample of Indian population was made to assess
the level of public awareness, sources of information, need for information and
expectations from dental implants in semi urban southern part of India.
Material and Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving 377 adult patients was
conducted via systematic multi-choice questionnaire at a tertiary care medical university in
southern part of India. The data collected was interpreted using SPSS version 20. A pvalue
of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.


Oviya M; Jayanth Kumar V; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 460-472

The aim of this study is to determine the understanding regarding the relationship between malocclusion and TMJ problems among dental students. The purpose of this study is to create awareness and determine the understanding of the relationship between malocclusion and TMJ problems among dental students. This study was conducted based on a questionnaire which consists of 10 questions through a web-linked application called Survey Monkey. A convenient sample size of 100 consecutive dental students who are currently practicing in Chennai participated in the study. As an overall result, most of the participants are aware of the relationship between malocclusion and TMJ problems. As a conclusion, awareness on the relationship between malocclusion and TMJ problems among dental students in Chennai is adequate but certain knowledge has to be brushed up among them for a higher level. Furthermore, they need to be trained on these grounds to help them treat their patients with more consent and awareness.


Reshmi B; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 521-530

Coronavirus disease caused by SARS-COV2, a potentially fatal disease has become a global public health concern. As the understanding of this novel disease is evolving, dental students and professionals should have an in-depth knowledge and understanding and should be updated with the practices that have to be adapted to identify a possible COVID-19 infection .Not only knowledge but also an update on diagnostics, treatment ,variant ,side effects will be required to survive the infection on the upper hand .Knowledge of diagnostic tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still evolving, and a clear understanding of the nature of the tests and interpretation of their findings is important.The aim of the study was to assess the awareness of diagnostic tests for COVID-19 among dental students.This questionnaire containing 10 questions regarding awareness about the diagnostic test were given to 100 students including interns , final year students ,and third year students through google forms and responses were collected and results were tabulated using SPSS software.In this survey 79.8% were females and 20.2% were males. 16.2% were third years, 12.2% were final years , 34.3 % were interns and 37.4% were post graduates. 66.6% of the students know PCR is used for diagnosing and detecting viruses responsible for COVID 19 and 33.4% don't know that PCR is a key test for diagnosing COVID and detecting viruses.7-11 The study concluded the respondents had moderate awareness about the diagnostic tests for COVID-19.

Awareness of Precision Attachment in Fixed Partial Denture among dental students

Ajrish George; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 485-490

Background Precision attachment is one of the attachment, usually used in long-span fixed partial denture. It has historic value of advantage. It is the combination of cast-partial(removable partial denture) and fixed partial denture. It is usually used in ares of cantilever as precision attachment provide equal and balanced force distribution to the retainers. The precision attachment needs more sound practical and theoretical knowledge by the professional. So this is a technique sensitive procedure. This study involves accessing the awareness about the use of precision attachment in fixed partial denture among the dental students. Aim: To access the awareness about precision attachment among dental students Materials and Methods 206 students across different institution in and around Chennai were accessed. Survey plant an online live survey software was used in the survey. Series of questions were computed and was shared among students across different dental institutions. The percentage of each category(first year, second year, third year, final year, intern, postgraduate students) of students was accessed separately. Results The results were obtained using the survey planet software.In the present study there were of 206 participants. Of which 12% were 1 year, 22% were second year, 32% were third year, 23.3% were final year, 18.6% were postgraduates.68% of the students were aware about use of precision attachments in fixed partial dentures. Conclusion The students were moderately aware of precision attachment use in Fixed partial dentures. In the era of developing implantology students should also know about the other prosthetic replacement. This will enable the students to do a perfect treatment plan.

Comparative evaluation of awareness of link between oral and systemic health among undergraduate dental and medical students

Dr. Anupama Desai; Dr. Harish Kumar; Dr. Roquaiya Nishat; Dr. Shivanand Aspalli; Dr. Nagappa. G

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 602-609

Background: Oral health maintenance is indispensable for the upkeep of overall health, and a close association has been found between oral diseases and several systemic conditions.
Aims and objectives: To assess the status of awareness of link between oral health and systemic health among undergraduate dental and medical students.
Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was performed using a standardized questionnaire, wherein 20 questions were asked related to oral hygiene care, practice done and association of potential link between oral and various other systemic diseases like diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, myocardial infarction, respiratory diseases, osteoporosis. A total of 300 subjects were randomly selected for the study, wherein 150 were third and final year medical students and the other 150 third and final year dental students.
Results: Dental students had more number of mean positive responses and less negative responses in comparison to their medical counterparts, and this difference was found to be statistically significant. Thereby, it is perceptible that dental students had more awareness with respect to the link between oral and systemic health. Moreover, it was also noted from the responses of the first six questions that dental students had better oral health behavior, knowledge and status than the medical students.
Conclusion: Our study shed some light on the lacunae that exists in the inter-field (medical and dental) training from the undergraduate level which can be rectified by modifying the regulations.


Hala Mohamed Sanad; Gayathri Priya; Jameela Jassim Mukhaimer; Govindaraj V. Asokan; Safia Belal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 180-191

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a common health problem in many countries, including Bahrain. However, little data exists about the awareness and the level of knowledge of vitamin D among Arab Gulf populations. Method: A cross-sectional study design was employed. A self-administered questionnaire was administered to an adult sample of 335 participants seeking information on their knowledge about vitamin D. Findings: 81.2% of the study participants had unsatisfactory total knowledge score of vitamin D. Level of education and the sources of information about vitamin D were the main significant factors that appear to influence the participants’ vitamin D awareness status. Most the participants recognized that exposure to sunlight encourages the production of vitamin D, however, only a small proportion of participants were aware of the sources of vitamin D in daily food intake and health consequences of vitamin D deficiency. Conclusion: There is inadequate knowledge and awareness regarding vitamin D deficiency among adult Bahrain population. Health campaigns are urgently needed in order to improve the community’s knowledge about the benefits and sources of vitamin D

Awareness And Practice Of Infection Control Protocol During Covid-19 Pandemic In Dental Clinics In Southern India- An Original Research

Dr. Abhishek Pandey; Dr. Smita Dutta; Dr. Rahul Maria; Dr Ambika K Nandini

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6527-6539

Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic has forced dentists to prepare themselves by updating their knowledge and receive training to face the present and after effects of COVID-19. The present survey was thus conducted to assess the knowledge, risk perception, attitude, and preparedness of the dentists in India about COVID-19.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was carried out among registered dentists in south India. A self-administered, anonymous, questionnaire comprising of 25 close- ended questions was circulated to gather the relevant information. A total of 1120 dentists submitted a response, out of which 1000 complete responses were included in the statistical analysis. Pearson’s Chi-square test was used for inter-group statistical comparison.
Results: 80% of the dentists had a fair knowledge about the characteristics of COVID-19. 61% and 50% of the dentists had taken infection control training and special training for COVID-19, respectively. 52% of the dentists had the perception that COVID-19 is very dangerous. Only 42% of the dentists were willing to provide emergency services to patients. Most of the dentists had an opinion that there is a need to enhance personal protective measures.
Conclusion: In the present study, South Indian dentists have presented satisfactory knowledge with adequate awareness as the majority of them had a fair level of knowledge with significantly higher knowledge among female respondents and those with post-graduation studies. As we are going through an evolutionary phase where new advances are expected to evolve, dentists will definitely emerge successfully out from the crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Dr. Niha Naveed; Dr. Thailavathy; Dr. Kannan Sabapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 1620-1625

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) is a global public-health emergency. Dental professionals are considered to be at high risk, as most dental treatment procedures can lead to the spread of infection due to the direct proximity with saliva, blood and generation of aerosols.
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, awareness and hygiene practices regarding COVID-19 among dental students in Chennai, India during these critical times.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A self-administered, structured, close-ended 15-point questionnaire was distributed among the undergraduate and postgraduate dental students in Chennai. A total of 198 participants completed the questionnaire. Convenience sampling method was used for data collection and the distribution of responses was presented as percentages. RESULTS: Among the 198 participants a total of 54 (27.2%) exhibited high level of knowledge while 67 (33.8%) demonstrated moderate knowledge and 77 (38.8%) demonstrated low level of knowledge. Mean knowledge score was 8.5, minimum and maximum scores were 4 and 15 respectively among the dental students.
CONCLUSION: Most the participants seemed to have inadequate knowledge about COVID19 and precautionary measures taken to prevent COVID19 from spreading. These show vulnerabilities in the knowledge of dental students to deal with the current scenario and thus, there is a need to improve the knowledge of dental students through health education and training programmes. After the condition is normalised, further research on the subject are also required.

Patron-Musicians: A Socio- Imperialism In Sikkim

Dr. Kumar Sargam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6449-6454

Patrons – Musicians’ relations has been discussed in a variety of context over the years in different disciplines. There are a wide range of study on patrons- musicians’ relations in Sikkim. The studies dwell on economic interaction with music between upper caste and the lower caste. In Sikkim there are mainly three musicians caste the Damai, the Badi and Gaine who directly or indirectly provide auspicious music to other castes. However, these auspicious music makers are untouchable from whom the food and water may not be accepted. The musician caste Damai are the musicians cum tailor with whom traditional way of patronage is still alive in the countryside. This study oriented on the social and traditional way of patronage among the Dalit Caste the Damai Musicians. This study is important to understand the social interaction and social transformation of Damai musician in Sikkim. Researcher visited to the remote village of Dalits in Sikkim and study the distinct culture of musician and the way of patronage. After the peasantry become weak and the influence of modern music become strong, the loop of traditional way of patronage become feeble. Because of urbanism and modern influence in music, Damai musicians change the traditional way of patronize and become the professional. The instruments like Damaha, Temko, Sahanai, Narsingha and Jhyali they only used to play for the patrons’ in all rituals accordingly in traditional way but after the education empowerment, and the caste system and untouchable means is in declining position, the Damai musicians get more opportunity to spread away. Thus, the so-called impure caste is surviving by means of music in modern ways of patronage. The lifestyle in which they are still living in remote countryside is below than the average and they are suffering from hand to mouth. Dalits or untouchable caste, from whom water may not be accepted but, plays auspicious and pure music in most of the Hindu religious festival and rituals. The orthodox society and the musician caste are still in loop, however the way of patronizing is changing, and the relation between the patron castes and the musician caste is still surviving because of auspicious and pure music among the impurity.

Self-Reported Multicultural Competency among Moral Education and History Education Pre-service Teachers in an educational Institution in Malaysia

Grace Amanda Basianak Kumbong; Tan Bee Piang

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 5983-5996

Moral Education and History Education are both part of a student's social and political socialisation in Malaysia. These two curriculum programmes aim to help each student behave in accordance with the social norms expected in Malaysia, including respecting and obeying the values of democracy and rule of law. However, teachers may have their own value judgments, so how to prepare teachers to deal with students' different value systems in a diverse classroom is a challenge for teacher programmes. Teachers with high multicultural competency feel confidence and comfortable when confronted with diverse student needs. This study aims to identify the status of multicultural competency among the Moral Education and History Education pre-service teacher in an educational institution in Malaysia. Multicultural competency among these teachers is identified based on a tripartite model comprised of three aspects: ‘Awareness’, ‘Knowledge’ and ‘Acting’. The data collection methods used in this study are from the quantitative approach. 90 respondents were asked to answer a questionnaire adapted from the ‘Munroe Multicultural Attitude Scale Questionnaire’ (MASQUE) and ‘Teacher Multicultural Attitude Survey’ (TMAS). The results of this study present that the Moral Education and History Education pre-service teacher shows a higher level of multicultural awareness and knowledge; however, the results also note that these pre-service teachers acting on injustice or inequalities to be relatively low. This study suggests that the development of multicultural competency in teacher education programmes should more strongly emphasise the components of skill or demonstrating multicultural competence in future.

Understanding, Attitudes and Precautions with Corona Virus Amongst Communal of Eastren India, India: an Opinion Poll Survey

Dr RuchiBhuyan; Dr Sanat Kumar Bhuyan; Sidhant Bhuyan; Akankshya Sahu; Gautam Rath

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 1126-1135

Aim: This research sought to raise information among the general population in Odisha, India regarding COVID-19.
Materials and methods: In March-April 2020, the cross-section study of 440 participants from diverse locations and backgrounds in Odisha included socio-demographic processes including protective steps against COVID-19 information results, which included strong and accurate queries.
Results: Most respondents received excellent COVID-19 knowledge and intelligence. Much of the respondents (46,10%) were 18-30 years old including 36,80% graduated from postgraduated, 30,20% did graduate, 23,06% passed 12th, so 5,09% participated 10th. Near to 98.40% of COVID-19 and 73.30% of COVID-19 have recorded a pandemic. The sources of a corona virus throughout China was identified as an infectious illness by 93.60% to 90.70%. Around 65.90 percent recorded an incubation time of 14 days with respect to signs and indications. Participant records of serious conditions such as sickle coughing (84.30%), fever (85.20%), nasal congestion (64.5%) and headaches (59.80%). About 90.70% stated that this can spreads via outlets and 78.40% stated that it can transmit via exposure to infected items. 88% stated they regularly wash their hands, while 85% has said social distinction is the main determinant of security. 79.80% reported staying home & calling helpline, while you notice COVID-19 signs.
Conclusions: Healthcare and also the Govt. of India and also the Govt. of Odisha are making huge efforts to address COVID-19 and also to aware the community and to raising understanding regarding COVID-19.


Dr. Lokesh Mukut Vaishnav; Dr. Ashok Mehendale

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 2066-2074

Background : A serious threat to both general and medical community is the proper collection and proper dumping of the Bio-medical Waste. In India, 1.87 lakh healthcare facilities with 17.01 lakh beds generates 519 tonnes of biomedical waste every day, Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). There are Healthcare Facilities (HCF) that still handle and accumulate such wastes inappropriately without understanding its hazardous repercussions on environment and human society. Study is attributed to awareness and negligence related issues. It covers a wide spectrum of information required for Healthcare Facilities (HCF) in regards to modifications in Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules, 2016’ (BMWM2016) from year 2016 till November 2019 and rules amended in view of the COVID-19 pandemic. Aim : Effectiveness of Training Program on awareness among Nursing Staff, Lab Technicians and Sanitary Workers regarding Bio-medical Waste management at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Central India.
Methodology : Interventional Study will be implicated from September 2020 to December 2022 in Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital (AVBRH) Tertiary Care Hospital, Sawangi, Wardha, Central India by the Post Graduate Student. Assessment of awareness will be 
done by distributing a set of questionnaires and then training the Healthcare Personnel (HCP), regarding Bio-Medical Waste Management based upon direct observation in the workplace. A total of 422 Nurses, Lab Technicians and Sanitary Workers will be enrolled as study participants. The Study participants will be demonstrated regarding proper standards of Bio-Medical Waste management.
Expected Outcomes/Results and Conclusion : Data will be analyzed and appropriate statistical tests will contemplate the results of stud


Supriyanto Eddo; Gumilang Saindra Arsa; Dinata Vialyne; Retno Palupi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 675-680

Background: Dental practice has risks to occupational health for the body in terms of ergonomics. Broadly speaking, ergonomics is the study of humans to create work systems that are healthier, safer, and more comfortable. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are disorders of the muscles, tendons, joints, vertebrae, peripheral nerves, and vascular system that can be caused by various factors, including occupational factors such as posture distortion, too long a static posture, and repetitive movements. Pupose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the level of awareness about ergonomics to Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) in the dental profession students of Universitas Airlangga. Methods: Data were collected through online questionnaires and analyzed using the Pearson Chi-Square technique. Results: Out of 55 students, 100% (55) dentistry profession students were aware of the importance of ergonomics. Then 84.9% (45) students experienced symptoms of musculoskeletal abnormalities and another 15.1% (8) students did not experience musculoskeletal symptoms. Statistically, there is no significant relationship between the level of awareness about ergonomics towards Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) in the dental profession students of Universitas Airlangga. Conclusion: The level of awareness about ergonomics is not significantly related to Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) in the dental profession students of Universitas Airlangga.

Awareness towards radiation protection safety among the dental health workers in Odisha: A poll study

Dr. Sanat Kumar Bhuyan; Dr. Ruchi Bhuyan; Siddhant Bhuyan; Akankshya Sahu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 1208-1220

Objective: This study focused on the evaluation of the knowledge and x-rays of specific dental professionals with highlight in view of education on these regularradiographic practices.
Materials and methods: A poll was conveyed among 500 dentists of Odisha, India, which were based demographic details including the use of radiographic intraoperative devices.
Results: All private experts were utilizing conventional X-ray machines. 85% said that dental X- ray beams were hurtful. 92% knew about NCRP/ICRP , 71% aware of ALARA principle, while just 56% knew about AERB rules. Yet, certain radiation protective estimates like utilizing lead apron, lead barriers and position distance rule were not followed by the greater part of the private specialists.
Conclusions: The current study shows that majority of dentists in Odisha didn’t practice rehearse Methods for radiation safety to restrict patients' excessive contact to radiation. To improve the overall dentists' radioactive knowledge-dose control procedure, efforts must be made and technical education.

Neonatal Danger Signs: Knowledge Inmothers Of Children Aged Less Than 1 Year In Uae.

Raagapriya Madhan Kumar; Dr. Koushik. M; Dr.B. Charumathi; Dr.Timsi Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 3451-3459

Introduction:The neonatal period comprising the first 4 weeks (28 days) of a child's life after birth is critical and dangerous events might occur. Structural, functional changes occur rapidly in this period. It is very important for mothers to be aware of the danger signs in neonates during this period. This study was done to find the prevalence of knowledge and awareness of danger signs among mothers of children aged less than 1 year.
Methods: A Community based cross-sectional study was carried out in United Arab Emirates from June 2020 to August 2020. Simple random sampling method was used and the sample size was calculated as 150. Mothers of children aged below 1 year were included in the study. A semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire was used in this study for interview purposes. Informed oral consent in common languages- English, Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, and Malayalam was obtained.
Results: The prevalence of good knowledge of danger signs among mothers of children aged less than 1 year in this study was found out to be 28.6%. 91.2% of the mothers have reported having sought medical care when any of the mentioned Danger signs occurred whereas 8.7% of them had opted to treat at home.
Conclusion:In spite of extensive coverage of maternal and child health services, the knowledge and awareness of the danger signs in neonates are fairly low in the mothers. Therefore more awareness and health education campaigns need to be implemented.

Insights Of Medical-Legal Problems Among Dental Practitioners

Murtaza S Hussain; Shravani G. Deolia; Himanshu Shende; Jenish Patel; Rutuj N. Waghmare; Gargi Nimbulkar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 1675-1683

BACKGROUND- Practicing medicine in India has revolutionized during the last five decades affecting the healthcare delivery in both positive and negative directions. The doctor-patient relationship has undergone a transition throughout the ages. The perception has been changing due to some malpractices of doctors; people started looking at doctor's community with distrust. Thus a health care professional must know about medico-legal problems to protect oneself from legal issues. OBJECTIVES- To evaluate the knowledge attitude and practice of medico-legal problems among dentist practitioners residing in Vidharbha region. METHODS- The cross sectional study was done in a Private Dental College and were assessed through a self-administered, pretested, validated, close ended, unstructured questionnaire. It was made available to all levels of dentistry being under graduates, post graduates, staff and interns. Data was collected , entered in excel sheet and analyzed using SPSS-21 version. RESULTS- A total of 180 of 181 dentists participated in this study. A total of 92 respondents were males and 88 were females. Lack of knowledge among dental professionals was highlighted in this present study having a poor result of 53.3% regarding the medico legal issues. It was found that only 45.5% of the dental practitioners had knowledge regarding the importance of dental record keeping, which was unsatisfactory. The overall grading showed that majority participants had poor knowledge with fair attitude and practices. CONCLUSION- It was found that majority of the respondents had poor knowledge about medico legal issues. Therefore, it is recommended that Continuing Dental Education and Continuing Medical Education programs should be conducted frequently to create awareness and reinforce practice to safeguard against medico legal issues in dentistry


Raja kumar; Jothi Priya; V. Vishnu Priya; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2307-2321

Dengue is especially affecting the tropic and subtropic regions of the planet . It's mainly caused by Dengue, a member of Family Flaviviridae. Four serotypes of Dengue are DENV1, DENV2, DENV3 and DENV4. 67,000 people are diagnosed by Dengue and it's been reported by NVBPCP. The aim of this study is to make awareness on risk factors and complications of Dengue virus among college students .The Survey on awareness about the danger factor and complications of Dengue virus among college students was conducted employing a google form link. We've distributed our survey among 100 college students. Then , we used a sampling method. Also, we've used statistical software as SPSS for our data. 59.05 % agreed that they're conscious of Dengue virus, 40.95% are still not aware . 58.10 % agreed that it had been transmitted by files, 27.62 % responded thanks to mosquitoes, 11.43 % responded thanks to Aedes mosquito, 2.86 % responded and still don’ t know. Awareness camps , social media , workshops , seminars could also be conducted to make awareness of risk factors and complications of Dengue virus among college students.


V.A Muralidharan; Sindhu Ramesh; Dr.Gheena. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 169-185

Endodontic infection is the infection of the root canal system and the microorganisms play a tremendous role in pulpal and periapical disease. The primary aim of endodontic treatment is to remove as many bacteria as possible from the root canal system. This can be achieved by a combination of local and systemic use of antibiotics. The use of antibiotics in dentistry especially in endodontics has become a practice towards inappropriate prescription and overdose leads to adverse side effects and bacterial resistance. An undergraduate student will have only limited knowledge in this regard. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and perception on usage of antibiotics among undergraduate students for endodontic therapy.This present study is a cross-sectional, descriptive questionnaire study conducted among dental undergraduate students in Chennai, India. The study was conducted from March to April 2020. A descriptive questionnaire study was conducted among 320 dental students in the city. A structured questionnaire was prepared focussing on antibiotics indication in dentistry particularly in endodontic treatment. Assessment of subjects awareness and attitude towards use of antibiotics for patients after endodontics procedures included in the questions relating to the knowledge of the basic antibiotics regime and its course. The subjects were requested to respond to each item in the specific format given. All the participants were allowed to choose one of the given three to four choices for each item in the questionnaire.A large population of students of 320 were familiar with this antibiotic resistance. Compared with the juniors, the senior students have a wider knowledge for prescribing antibiotics for various endodontic procedures.Most of the students prescribed Amoxicillin (30.82%)for any endodontic treatment for a duration of three days (26.42%) compared to other antibiotics.This study concludes that undergraduate dental students may prescribe antibiotics inappropriately and hence a proper and extensive guideline must be given to them to be followed . A thorough knowledge and awareness must be there on the antibiotic regime and its usage to all students before entering their clinics.

How are the Understanding and Awareness of 8 family Functions with Family Participation of Growth And Development Infants and Children in West Nusa Tenggara Province? (SKAP Data 2019)

Misroh Mulianingsih; Karjono .; Zuliardi .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 4101-4111

Introduction. Requirements to be able to care for and raise children optimally, parents must understand and realize the importance of understanding and awareness of 8 family functions. In fact, as many as 88% of families in Indonesia have never heard the 8 family functions. The research objective was to analyze the understanding and awareness of 8 family functions with family participation of Growth and Development infants and children based on 2019 SKAP data. Method. This research used analytical research design with cross-sectional approach and logistic regression test used secondary data from SKAP 2019, namely families who have infants and children at NTB Province with total of 5885 families. Result. The results of this study found that understanding and awareness of 8 family functions and family participation in physical abnormalities of infants and children at NTB province in 2019 were both in good categories, and had a significant correlation between the two with a p-value of 0.000. After conducting the test simultaneously, the results showed that families who have an understanding and awareness of good economic function will be 2.7 times better in participating in the physical growth and development of infants and children compared to families who have less understanding and awareness of economic function. Conclusion. This research focused on relationship between understanding and awareness of 8 family functions with family participation of Growth and Development infants and children. Based on these results, it is hoped that the BKKBN will optimize the program to increase family economic resilience through UPPKS activities and the development of a Prosperous Family Service Center (PPKS).


John Francis; Jothi priya; Lavanya prathap; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2236-2247

Everyone gets separated after a few days when they get bored due to that depression. Self quarantine reduces the economic development of the country. Everyone working has many responsibilities but due to this self quarantine in this lockdown shortage of money leads the country to drop in economic status. Due to self quarantine many are affected mentally, they usually get depressed and lose their peace. Cannot concentrate in what they are doing and change in their mood swings. Self quarantine Self quarantine is most useful during the time of spreading disease. This study is done with the help of an online survey. Many are used to this self quarantine. Many ill effects are there in self quarantine like obesity, due to obesity leads to myocardial infarction but other than these many useful things are occurring due to self quarantine like reducing usage of vehicles which reduces global warming. This study created awareness about the self quarantine and told how to spend free time properly


Aksha sharen Arul Edwin; Jothi Priya; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2173-2184

Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) is a cancerous disease that affects the lymph nodes within the human body. The location of the disease is how it is classified and diagnosed. The majority of the patients can be potentially cured with the use of radiotherapy and multi-agent chemotherapy, a proportion of them will relapse or develop resistant disease for which treatment options are limited. The aim of the study Is to determine the knowledge awareness about recent advances in the treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The objective is to study the level of awareness and knowledge about advanced treatment methods for Hodgkin’s lymphoma and associated risk factors among the Indian population. A survey was conducted from April to May among 100 people in the state of Tamil Nadu, India by preparing a set of standard questionnaires and answers were collected through online survey methods such as google forms. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS software and chi square analysis was done for correlation. The results clearly indicate that 57% percent of the population is aware about the recent advances in the treatment methods for Hodgkin’s lymphoma and 42% percent of the population not aware about the treatment methods for Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The conclusion of this study is that the above statistical analysis about knowledge awareness on recent advances in the treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma has provided a clear view of current advanced treatment procedure and technique for the betterment of patients in future.


Vigneshwaran Ravichandran; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Manjari Chaudhary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 772-784

Sleep disturbance is one of the most commonly reported health complaints. Studies have shown that cigarette smoking is associated with sleep disorders in the general population. Many studies have shown the association of active smoking with sleep disturbances . But studies examining the association between active and passive smoking with insufficient sleep are limited. A questionnaire was created with a set of 12 questions related to active smoking , passive smoking and sleep disturbances. 100 random participants of adults and aged males by random sampling method . The participants were asked to fill the questionnaire in an online forum. The results were collected and statistically analysed. Almost half of the participants (48 %) have a smoking habit. Among the participants , employers and students have a high level of smoking habit (81%). 52 % of the participants have exposure to passive smoking. 70% of the participants have sleep disturbances. 64 % of the participants have sleep related breathing problems. 67 % of the participants have awareness on passive smoking. 78 % of the participants are willing to quit smoking and to avoid passive smoking. The present study highlighted the effects of active and passive smoking in sleep insufficiency and sleep disturbances. Thus the association of active and passive smoking with insufficient sleep in the adult and aged male population is determined.

Knowledge About Esthetic Veneer Treatment For Enhancing Smile In Undergraduate Dental Students


European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3070-3096

Background: The most important feature in maintaining and improving a person’s esthetic appearance and self-esteem is only by an attractive smile. Smiling is the best method to influence people. The dynamic part of the face is the oral region, with tooth and gingival display during functional lip movement which is unique to an individual, people with ugly smiles develop a high risk of psychological problems. Esthetic dentistry was motivated by the growing accessibility of media and online information has been highly demanded by the patients and tooth color is also used for veneers. Aim: The main aim of this study is to assess the awareness about the esthetic veneer treatment for enhancing smiles in undergraduate dental students. Materials and method: A survey based questionnaire was done to assess the knowledge about the veneer treatment. A self designed 16 questions were framed and the responses were collected through google form app.Thedatas were statistically analysed by SPSS software. Results: Results were represented in the form of bar diagrams and 71% of the respondents are aware of veneer treatment. This study shows a high-level self-consciousness about the veneer treatment 76% of the students agreed that they can brush veneer, 63% were answered for porcelain veneer. Conclusion: The present study concluded that the undergraduate dental students are highly aware of the esthetic veneer treatment for enhancing smile.


B.V.M. Anirudh; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Nivethigaa. B

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 737-747

Sedentary lifestyle has become a huge concern in one's life, in which physical inactivity has become a major health problem. Prevalence of sedentary life is increasing nowadays and is seen more commonly in the student population. Sedentary lifestyle leads to obesity is an important health concern which is increasing day by day around the globe. It affects the whole body which mainly causes cardiovascular problems.The Aim of this research is to bring awareness about sedentary lifestyle, obesity and cardiovascular disease in the student population.A questionnaire of a total 15 questions were prepared and was uploaded through surveyplanet. The responses were collected and then interpreted as pie charts and bar graphs. A total of 100 undergraduate college students have taken the survey. The data was analysed by IBM-SPSS software where descriptive statistics and chi square test was done, where the results are plotted as graphs and pie charts.A total of 100 college students have taken up the survey in which 47% were male and 53% were female. In a question pertaining to how many people were following a healthy diet- 74 % have answered yes and 26% said no. The next question was about exercising everyday in which 62 % said yes while 38% said no. In which 47% males and 15% females have answered yes.97% agree that sedentary lifestyle leads to complications such as obesity. 90% of the students are aware about the increase in sedentary lifestyle among students. 69% have answered that unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity,smoking etc were the common causes of obesity. 95% agree that obesity causes respiratory problems. Almost 95 % students agree that obesity causes systemic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension which will ultimately lead to cardiovascular problems.Chi square test was done between gender and people who are following a healthy diet and exercising daily where p<0.05 which is statistically significant.Our study showed that almost all students were aware about sedentary lifestyle and its complications, but the females in the study have shown that they do not follow a healthy diet and do not exercise regularly which makes them prone to obesity and ultimately cardiovascular problems. To avoid these problems, awareness has to be spread in colleges about the seriousness of obesity and its harmful effects and how to prevent it.


Bipin .; Keerthi Sasanka; Kavitha .; Kiran kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1605-1621

Forensic odontology deals with legal investigations in which it primarily involves the identification of the offender by comparing dental records to a bite mark left on the victim. It is especially used for the application of the principal of law and criminal investigation.Aim of the study is to evaluate knowledge and awareness on forensic dentistry. This special brand deals with the dental evidence obtained from the victim. As the field of forensic dentistry focuses on the methods of detection, collection and analysis of bite mark remains is very helpful in crime investigations to analyse the acquired evidence. In the past decades oral pathologists had major responsibilities in developing forensic science. A cross sectional study on undergraduates was carried out using a questionnaire with close ended questions. The survey had 15 questionnaires circulated in Google forms and 100 responses were obtained from the population, representation of data was in pie chart and bar graphs. Majority of the study population answered yes as they feel forensic odontology is very much essential to deal with crime investigation. 62.7% of the study population responded positively where they are able to differentiate the work of forensic anthropologists and a forensic odontologist first. The students' knowledge on forensic odontology and what it deals with, was significant with the year of study where final year students are more aware about forensic odontology. P value = 0.00(<0.05) which is statistically significant. This study concludes that most of the participants have knowledge and awareness on the role of forensic dentistry among dental undergraduates.


Shreejha M. V; Kavitha. S; Vishnu Priya. V; Gayathri. R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 311-323

Introduction: There has been a global rise in the use of natural products and natural medicine among
people. Proper regulation of natural medicine and products ensure good quality to control standards,
enhance the consumers safety that facilitate their modern healthcare system, mainly because of their lack
of side effects.
Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the knowledge, awareness and attitude, towards natural
medicine and products among adults.
Materials and methods :A cross sectional study was conducted among the adults [101people]. The
questionnaire was circulated online through google forms and the collected data were analysed using SPSS
software. The Pearson Chi square test was done in association with the gender of the respondents.
Results: The survey results showed that 79.2% of the people have knowledge about natural medicine.
90.1% of the participants believe natural medicines are effective, 75% of the participants use natural
medicine products in their regular life, 61.4% said natural medicine is more effective than pills.
Conclusion: The present study showed that the awareness and knowledge on natural medicine among
adults is quite good.


Faazila Fathima; Remmiya Mary Varghese; Dr.Senthil Murugan P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1879-1886

Orthodontic tooth movement prior to prosthetic treatment is necessary for some patients, in order to optimize both esthetic and functional aspects of dental treatment.A patient may require prosthetic orthodontic interdisciplinary treatment when he/she has missing teeth.Orthodontic treatment will help in correcting the tooth alignment such that sufficient space is available for replacement.However,even though various options are available for treatment of missing teeth, patients preference is of utmost importance. The aim of the study is to assess the frequency of adolescents with missing teeth willing to undergo orthodontic correction before prosthetic replacement.It is a university setting study. 322 adolescent patients reporting to the orthodontic department in Saveetha dental college were included in the study. These patients were assessed for missing teeth and their willingness to undergo orthodontic correction. The data was entered in SPSS and analyzed using Chi square test. From the results, it was observed that the majority (54%) of the adolescents with missing teeth were not willing to undergo orthodontic correction before prosthetic replacement. Individuals in the age group of 16 to 20 years (65% ) showed more willingness for orthodontic treatment. Also, 58% of the females in the study population were willing for orthodontic correction while only 39% of the males preferred orthodontic correction.Within the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that the majority of the adolescents with missing teeth were not willing for orthodontic correction before prosthetic replacement.This may be due to increased treatment time required and lack of awareness on the effectiveness of interdisciplinary treatment approach.


E. Dhivya sri,; A. Jothi Priya; Hannah R; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2210-2221

To investigate the awareness about pandemic disease between both rural and Urban populations.Self - administered questions were prepared. The questions were distributed in Google forms and hundreds of participants participated. The statistical data was analysed.Present study showed that a substantial number of participants have adequate awareness regarding an infectious respiratory illness (45% close), risk of pandemic (42.3%), available vaccines (52.3%), majority of participants (82%) would pandemics cause sudden, widespread morbidity and mortality as well as social political and economic disruption.Although there is an appropriate knowledge and awareness regarding various aspects of pandemic disease both Urban and rural population still, active interventions are required in all areas of pandemic not only to improve their knowledge and awareness regarding pandemic between both rural and Urban population adults also.


Divyashri S; Jothi priya A; Vishnu priya V; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2197-2209

Segregation refers to basic separation of different categories of waste generated at some source and thereby reducing the risk as well as cost of handling and disposal. Segregation is the most crucial step in biomedical waste management. There are 4 major types of waste, they are general, infectious, hazardous and radioactive. To create awareness among the college students about the segregation and disposal of medical waste.This study involved the segregation of medical waste and disposal among the age group of 18 to 25 yrs. A set of 15 questionnaires were framed and sent through the online google form link. The questionnaire is based on the knowledge,attitude and information about the segregation and disposal of medical waste. Among 100 medical students 77% were aware about the segregation of the medical waste & 23% of the students were not aware about the segregation of the medical waste. To create awareness among the college students about the segregation of medical waste. From that we can protect our health and environment.


Jayadharani. C; Dr. Durairaj Sekar; Dr. Ganesh Lakshmanan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 616-625

Pandemic is a global affection which has effects on health, social and political levels,As many countries are trying to tackle the current COVID pandemic, this study aims at analysing the popular perception on the capabilities of India in managing a pandemic among the local population. A questionnaire was distributed through an online google forms link to about 100 South Indian population, The study population were asked to fill out the online form after reading each question thoroughly. The results were collected and Data was analysed using SPSS software version 20. From the results, the majority of the study population answered positive responses regarding India’s capability of managing pandemic and also awareness of Pandemic among people of India.. 100% of the population were aware of the pandemic and its outbreaks. This study gives an insight on the popular perception toward India’s capability of managing pandemic, and creating an awareness on its spread.


Ashinie. C; M. Jeevitha; Mrs.S. Sangeetha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 869-882

Adolescence is an important period of transition from girlhood to womanhood. Menstruation is the physiological process that indicates the onset of puberty. The practice of menstrual hygiene also depends on socioeconomic, cultural and religious differences. Menstrual hygiene plays an important role in the overall health of women. The aim of the study is to analyse the knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls in the Chennai population. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among 102 girls of Chennai population to analyse their knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene through an online survey. A self administered questionnaire was prepared with 10 closed ended questions and circulated among the parents through online survey forms “Google forms”. The responses were collected and statistically analysed by SPSS using chi square test. The results were represented by bar charts and frequency tables.Among the 102 participants 98.8% of them are aware of menstrual hygiene 96.1% of the girls use sanitary pads as the absorbent, and about 99% of them dispose of their used absorbents in dustbins. 94.1% have knowledge on the effect of not following good menstrual hygiene. The study concludes that the girls of Chennai population have adequate knowledge and good practice of menstrual hygiene


Roshan A; Dr.Keerthi Sasanka; Sridevi. G

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1646-1657

Cancer is defined as the uncontrollable growth of cells that invade and cause damage to surrounding tissues. Oral cancer appears to be a growth or a pain in the mouth that doesn't go away. Oral cancer, including lip, tongue, cheek, mouth floor, hard and soft palate, sinuses, and pharynx (throat), can be life- threatening if not diagnosed and treated early. Cancer that occurs inside the mouth is sometimes referred to as oral cancer or oral cancer of the cavity. Mortal cancer is one of several types of cancer in a category called head and neck cancers. Mouth cancer and other cancers of the head and neck are often treated in the same way. This study was designed to create and assess awareness on oral cancer among employees of gas agencies in Tiruppur district. A self administered questionnaire prepared and circulated via google form link. The data was manipulated, analysed and tabulated. The obtained data was represented as cumulative percentage in pie charts. Association analysis between age groups of the participants and awareness on oral cancer was done by Pearson Chi square test (SPSS version 22) and the data was depicted in a Bar graph. The results of the study revealed that the participants were aware that smoking, chewing tobacco, and pan leads to increased chance of oral cancer. The present study concludes that the people of Tirupur were aware of the incidence of oral cancer and risk factors associated with it.


Mohamed Thameemul Ansari; M.Dhanraj Ganapathy; A.K. Anjali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 785-798

Green tea is the most popular drink consumed across the world. It is made from Camellia Sinensis plant. The
dried tea leaves are processed and used to produce various types of tea products. Green tea drinking habits
have many health benefits. Health professionals like medical and dental students are undergoing high
pressure during their Study time. Green tea may benefit them from its Consumption range and knowledge
about green tea among dental students is unknown.A questionnaire-based study was conducted. 18 questions
were created about green tea drinking habits, about its uses, about its Origin, and its View on green tea. A
survey was conducted through online platforms ( Google forms ) and responses were collected. The data
Collected were Collected, analyzed and tabulated according to the Values.The knowledge and awareness
about health benefits of green tea consumption was adequate among dental students.


Sarvasri T; Dr. L. Keerthi Sasanka; Kavitha S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 723-736

Eating a variety of foods rich in nutrients from all the food groups promotes healthy teeth and gums. This means eating a balanced diet of fruits, vegetables, protein drinks, drinks high in calcium and whole grains for a healthy smile and a healthy body. The aim of the present study is to find out whether the dental students are aware about the various diets for detoxifications and maintenance of oral health. A cross-sectional survey based study was conducted among the dental students on the various diets for detoxification and maintenance of oral health. The questionnaire was distributed through the “Google forms” website to around 100 Dental students. 79% were aware of the various diets taken for detoxification and maintenance of oral health. 83% thought that there is a link between oral health and oral health conditions. This study concludes that the dental students were aware about the various diets for detoxification and maintenance of oral health


KirthickKumaran. A.S; KeerthiSasanka. L; ArchanaSanthanam .; Kirankumar .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1635-1646

The aim of this study was to create awareness on fundamntals of fixed prosthodontics among dental students.It is the specialised area of dentistry involving the replacement. Missing teeth of the cast prosthesis is permanently cemented.Complete development of dental process leads to new complete virtual environment without any physical model situation.This study was a cross-sectional survey based study conducted among the dental students on the fundamentals of fixed prosthodontics. The questionnaire was distributed through the “Google forms” website to around 100 Dental students.In the present study about 56% of the population are aware of the prosthodontics and 44% of the population is not aware of the prosthodontics. Regarding the parts of fixed partial dentures 39% of the population are aware and 61% of the population are not aware of it. This concludes that the knowledge and awareness on the fixed prosthodontics is moderate among the dental students, in which among them the second year undergraduates had a higher knowledge on the fixed prosthodontics.

Knowledge, Attitude And Practise Of Dentists Towards Management Of Patients During Covid-19 Pandemic - A Questionnaire Survey

Sudarsan R; Surendar Sugumaran; Anjaneyulu K

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2621-2643

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has become a growing public health challenge for countries across the world. The risk of cross infection can be high between patients and dental practitioners due to the characteristics of the dental setting. Dentists should constantly be aware of such infectious threats that challenge the routine infection control regimen. The aim of this study was to assess the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) regarding the COVID-19 pandemic among dental undergraduate students. An online questionnaire that consisted of a series of questions regarding dentists’ demoFigureic details; their knowledge about the incubation period, the symptoms, mode of transmission and infection control measures for prevention of COVID-19; and their attitude toward treating patients with COVID-19 was used. The study was conducted among undergraduate students of a private dental institute. Data was collected from filled questionnaires and analysed using SPSS software. A total of 209 undergraduate dental students participated in the online survey. A majority of students (96.7%) believe that transmission of COVID-19 can be prevented by using standard and isolation precautions given by CDC, WHO, ICMR and 73.2% were aware of the guidelines to be followed during the COVID-19 lockdown. 92.3% had not undergone any online training for management of patients during COVID-19. Study participants (62.7%) also expressed a positive attitude towards willingness to perform emergency dental procedures. Almost half the study population refused to perform their clinical rotation in a hospital without clear COVID-19 infection control isolation policy. Majority of the participants had sufficient knowledge regarding transmission and risk of spread of COVID-19 in dental settings. Students also demonstrated a positive attitude toward performing dental treatment provided adequate guidelines were followed in the hospital.


Fahad Abdulrasheed Alafghani, Mohammad Qaseem Alturkostani, Ramez Saad Allehyani, Jaber Essa Alhaij, Basel Hussain ALrefaei, Bashaer Bashah Alnadwi, Amer Saeed alnadwi, Abdulrahman Hassan Alghamdi, Ebtesam abd almohsen fahad, Nehal Abdulrahman Koshak

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 228-238

       The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) annually hosts more than three million Muslim pilgrims from around 184 countries during the Hajj pilgrimage. Respiratory tract infection (RTI) is a major public health challenge during the Muslim pilgrimage to Makkah. It is necessary to take health precautions among these pilgrims the uptake of health preventive measures among Hajj pilgrims from Saudi Arabia, bacteremia, otitis media, and bacterial meningitis, in addition to a significant cause of sinusitis, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, and peritonitis. Complications of each of these diagnoses are common. Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of hospitalization and intensive care unit among pilgrims in Saudi hospitals during Hajj. During the 1986 Hajj season, pneumonia was the second most common cause of hospitalization with the highest case fatality ratio among those aged over 50 years, therefore pneumococcal vaccination is recommended. Clinical symptoms, signs and physical examination findings alone cannot differentiate pneumonia disease from infections caused by other pathogens,to our knowledge there is no study that has explored the knowledge, attitude, and practices related to pneumococcal infection and vaccination among all Hajj pilgrims in KSA.
Aim of the study:To assessment of awareness and Attitude toward Prevention of Pneumococcal Infection and vaccination among Hajj and Umrah Pilgrims from Makkah in 2018
.Methods:Methods: Across sectional descriptive study conducted among pilgrims who resident in Makkah city during May 25, 2018 to 24 October 2018  Hajj 2018,  Our total Sample size of pilgrims participants were (500)
Results: the majority of participants (67.0%) have a weak knowledge while Range (1-21) Mean± SD (8.155±3.011). While more than half of them (61.0%) have a positive attitude about the disease, while Range (0-8) Mean± SD (3.944±1.098
)Conclusion:Before Hajj doctors must teach and inform all the participants about how to deal with any infectious disease, particularly pneumonia.Significant opportunities for improving Knowledge and awareness among Hajj pilgrims about the importance of using preventive health measures. Moreover, emphasizes the need for better communication between official health authorities in Saudi Arabia and all Hajj pilgrims regarding Hajj health information.