Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Tissue Engineering


In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Osteoconductive Properties of Novel GelMa/Eggshell-Derived Calcium Phosphate Composite Scaffold

Jodal Mohammedamim Ahmed; Shehab Ahmed Hamad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1-19

GelMa/ES-HA composite scaffold was sucessfully fabricated via freeze-drying process.
The cytotoxicity of composite scaffolds was low after 24 h incubations (The viability of
cells was above 85%). However, the cell viability decreased over time (71.9% after 48
h and 60.0% after 72 h). ALP activity of the cells grown on scaffold samples was
significantly higher than that of polystyrene plates under the same condition (p <0.05).
Also, ALP activity of scaffold samples increased over time. Osteocalcin synthesis for
the cells cultured on the GelMa/ES-HA scaffold was significantly higher than on the
polystyrene plate after 6 days of culture. The results of ALP activity and osteocalcin
synthesis suggest that the bioactive GelMa/ES-HA scaffold improved the development
of a mature osteoblast phenotype. SEM micrographs of the HOS cells grown on the
scaffold after culturing for 3 days confirmed the favorable cells growth of cells on the
surface of scaffold or between its pores and also formation of calcium deposits.
The histological examination of bone sections showed deposition of osteoid bone in all
studied groups after 1-week and immature bone spicules rimmed by osteoblasts were
observed more clearly in treatment groups. Significant osteoid matrix synthesis and
mineralization accelerated was by early cell differentiation. The number of osteocytes
and osteoblasts as mean values increased during the transition from the 1, 4 to 8 and
12-weeks of healing intervals among treatment groups. While, the Osteoclast
population in treatment groups decreased over time. The production of Osteocalsin,
Osteopointin and Osteronectin in treatment groups significantly increased over time
(p< 0.05). Furthermore, the difference between Osteocalsin, Osteopointin and
Osteonectin production in all treatment group and control groups was significant (p<
0.05) except for the 1 week groups. The maximum Osteocalsin, Osteopointin and
Osteronectin production belonged to 3 months treatment group which were 34.26,
42.43 and 34.26, respectively; which this values for 3 months control groups were
17.49, 14.73 and 14.50.
The results of this study showed that the novel GelMa/ES-HA composite scaffold is a
bioactive, biocompatible, biodegradable bone graft with desired mechanical and
swelling properties and excellent potential for enhancing bone regeneration process
which could serve as a promissing candidate for bone and dental tissue engineering
applications.

ENAMEL REGENERATION - A REVIEW

Ranjana V; Gifrina Jayaraj; Gayathri R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1384-1394

Outermost covering of the teeth is dental enamel. Enamel is the hardest substance and highly mineralized tissue present in the human body which is almost 96%. It is formed by developing enamel organ epithelial cells called ameloblasts. The protein present in the enamel that helps in the mineralization process is Amelogenin. It is revealed that stem cells can be used for whole tooth regeneration and enamel regeneration but the main problem faced in fabricating cell free synthetic enamel is the formation of the complex interprismatic substance. The main aim of this review was to analyze and review on the various methods of enamel regeneration. This review was done based on the articles obtained from various search engines such as PubMed, PubMed central and Google scholar. They were collected with a restriction in time basis from 1997 - 2020. The inclusion criteria were original research papers, review articles, in vitro studied among various conditions and articles that contain pros and cons. Exclusion criteria came into account for retracted articles and articles of other languages. All the articles were selected based on Enamel Regeneration. The level of evidence of the reviewed articles were categorized as per the criteria of the centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, Oxford, UK. Enamel is the hardest mineralized tissue, which can withstand masticatory forces and gives protection to underlying dentin and pulp. Enamel cannot be regenerated since the ameloblast which forms the enamel, gets degenerated. Therefore, it should be preserved, as there is no material found to exactly duplicate it.