Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : in vitro


Enhancing Accumulation of Flavonoids in Callus of the Rare Medicinal Iphiona scabra Plant

Sabha S.S. Mustafa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 5604-5618

Iphiona scabra ( family Astraceae), is a medicinal endangered wild plant growing in Sinai Peninsula. It is rich in flavonoids and used in traditional medicine as an antispasmodic drug. Flavonoids have various biological activities like anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, Alzheimer’s disease suppression and anti-cancer. The aim of this study was to use tissue culture technique for callus production of I. scarba and enhancing productivity of callus biomass and total flavonoids content (TFC) in solid culture medium. Shoot tips have been cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2.4-D) at concentrations 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 mg/l with kinetin (Kin) at 0.10 mg/l for the initiation of callus. For mass production of callus it was transferred to MS supplemented with thidiazuron (TDZ) 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 mg/l combined with 0.5mg/l 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Callus biomass was transferred to MS medium with different concentrations of either yeast extract as an elicitor or phenylalanine as a precursor at concentrations of 0.0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/l. The best concentration that gave the highest accumulation of TFC was MS medium supplemented with 25 mg/l yeast extract. It gave 5.44 fold increase in callus biomass on the fourth week. The best treatment was MS medium fortified with 25 mg/l phenylalanine on the sixth week. That gave the highest fresh weight of callus 7.93 g/jar and accumulation of TFC 5.33 fold. Such potential method biotechnological strategies ensure better homogenous and stable production of sustainable flavonoids throughout the year under controlled environmental conditions

In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Osteoconductive Properties of Novel GelMa/Eggshell-Derived Calcium Phosphate Composite Scaffold

Jodal Mohammedamim Ahmed; Shehab Ahmed Hamad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1-19

GelMa/ES-HA composite scaffold was sucessfully fabricated via freeze-drying process.
The cytotoxicity of composite scaffolds was low after 24 h incubations (The viability of
cells was above 85%). However, the cell viability decreased over time (71.9% after 48
h and 60.0% after 72 h). ALP activity of the cells grown on scaffold samples was
significantly higher than that of polystyrene plates under the same condition (p <0.05).
Also, ALP activity of scaffold samples increased over time. Osteocalcin synthesis for
the cells cultured on the GelMa/ES-HA scaffold was significantly higher than on the
polystyrene plate after 6 days of culture. The results of ALP activity and osteocalcin
synthesis suggest that the bioactive GelMa/ES-HA scaffold improved the development
of a mature osteoblast phenotype. SEM micrographs of the HOS cells grown on the
scaffold after culturing for 3 days confirmed the favorable cells growth of cells on the
surface of scaffold or between its pores and also formation of calcium deposits.
The histological examination of bone sections showed deposition of osteoid bone in all
studied groups after 1-week and immature bone spicules rimmed by osteoblasts were
observed more clearly in treatment groups. Significant osteoid matrix synthesis and
mineralization accelerated was by early cell differentiation. The number of osteocytes
and osteoblasts as mean values increased during the transition from the 1, 4 to 8 and
12-weeks of healing intervals among treatment groups. While, the Osteoclast
population in treatment groups decreased over time. The production of Osteocalsin,
Osteopointin and Osteronectin in treatment groups significantly increased over time
(p< 0.05). Furthermore, the difference between Osteocalsin, Osteopointin and
Osteonectin production in all treatment group and control groups was significant (p<
0.05) except for the 1 week groups. The maximum Osteocalsin, Osteopointin and
Osteronectin production belonged to 3 months treatment group which were 34.26,
42.43 and 34.26, respectively; which this values for 3 months control groups were
17.49, 14.73 and 14.50.
The results of this study showed that the novel GelMa/ES-HA composite scaffold is a
bioactive, biocompatible, biodegradable bone graft with desired mechanical and
swelling properties and excellent potential for enhancing bone regeneration process
which could serve as a promissing candidate for bone and dental tissue engineering
applications.

NON-ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES AND IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ROASTED SOYBEAN AND FLAXSEED

Dharshini .; Dr.Sumayaa. S; Dr.A. Julius; Dr.M.V.Dass Prakash

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1717-1726

The roasted forms of flaxseed and soybean were chosen for study as they are found to be enriched with phenolic components. They are also found to possess medicinal benefits particularly against non-communicable diseases like cancer. Hence the investigator analyzed the non-antioxidant enzymes and in vitro antioxidant activity of roasted soybean and flaxseed. After a deeper analysis, it was observed that flaxseed possessed greater anti-oxidant activity than soybean comparatively.

Evaluation Of Digestibility Value And Rumen Fermentation Kinetic Of Goat’s Local Feed Based Ration

Hamdi Mayulu; F. Rahayu; M. Christiyanto; M. I. Haris; T. P. Daru; S.N. Rahmatullah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 3703-3711

Digestibility is an indication of the presence of nutrient available in the feed ingredient consumed by livestock. The quality of nutrient is determined by the level of digestion of the food substances absorbed in the digestive tract. This research aimed to evaluate the dry matter digestibility (DMD), organic matter digestibility (OMD), concentration of volatile fatty acid (VFA) and N NH3 with the addition of local feed Supan supan (Neptunia plena L. Benth) and Kolomento (Leersia hexandra Swartz). The reseach was conducted on January 2018 in Animal Feed and Nutrition Laboratory of Animal Husbandry and Agriculture Faculty, Diponegoro University, Semarang. The research method used in vitro analysis with completely randomized design with five treatments is T1 (Leersia hexandra Swartz 100 %); T2 (Neptunia plena 100%); T3 (Leersia hexandra 15%+(Neptunia plena L. Benth 15%+70% Other Feedstuffs); T4 (Leersia hexandra 20%+(Neptunia plena 20% + 60% Other Feedstuffs); T5 (Leersia hexandra Swartz 25% + (Neptunia plena L. Benth 25%+50% Other Feedstuffs). The data were analyzed with analysis of variance at 95% significant level, followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test. The resource results showed that the treatment had significant impact (P<0.05) to KcBK, KcBO, N NH3, and VFA. The results indicated that T3 has the best KcBK and KcBO 40.13% and 46.63%. The best production of N NH3 contained in T2=8.18 mM and the best VFA T5=50.21 mM. It was concluded that use of local feedstuffs by quantity can contribute to the production of goats.