Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : HCV

Prevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infections among Donors in The Blood Bank of A Tertiary Care Centre and Comparison with General Population

Dr. AshaJyothi. T, Dr. C. Aruna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 21-27

Aim: To annalyseseroprevalence of HIV, HbsAg, HCV, syphilis and malaria in
pretransfusion blood and comparison with general population.
Methodology:It was retrospective study, conducted at Osmania General Hospital,
Telangana during the year from July 2016-June 2018. HIV, HBsAg, HCV tests were
done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure using the third
generation kits.The donor questionnaire form with details of donor and results of
serological tests are maintained in the blood bank.Venous blood so collected is screened
for HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), HCV, syphilis and malaria.HIV, HBsAg,
HCV tests were done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure using
the third generation kits.

Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with hepatitis C infection

Dr.(Maj.) Rakesh Saxena, Dr Mahendra Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2051-2054

Background: HCV is often accompanied by significant medical and psychiatric co-morbidities that can
complicate the course of illness. Some of the more common co-occurring disorders that have received
empirical attention include depression, substance use disorders (SUDs), and chronic pain.Aim of the
study: To study prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with hepatitis C infection. Materials and
methods: The present study was conducted in the Department of Psychiatry in the Medical Institute. For
the study, we selected patients whose blood work was positive for antibody to HCV and have the
presence of HCV RNA confirmed by the use of PCR. A total of 50 patients were selected for the study.
For the evaluation of psychiatric disorders in the patients, the patients were given a questionnaire to
complete. Results: A total of 50 subjects were included in the study. 35 subjects were male and 15
subjects were female. Mean age of the patients was 46.23 years. We observed that 9 patients had bipolar
disorder, 15 patients had schizophrenic psychosis, heavy alcohol use was seen in 21 patients, PTSD was
seen in 14 patients, substance use was observed in 19 patients and depression was seen in 33 patients.
Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that patients with hepatitis C
infection have high prevalence of psychiatric disorders, the most common psychiatric disorders in
hepatitis C patients are depression and heavy alcohol use. The quality of life of the patients are
significantly affected by the psychiatric disorders.


Aliya Fatima, Mustafeed uddin, Efshana jabeen, Md. Rizwan Ansari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 249-256

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections account for a
substantial proportion of liver diseases worldwide. These viruses are responsible for liver
damages ranging from minor disorders to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma
(HCC). Approximately 7% of the world’s population (350 million people) are infected with
HBV and 3% (170million people) with HCV.
Aim & Objectives: To study Prevalence of Hepatitis B & Hepatitis C viruses infections in
Chronic liver disease patients .
Materials & Methods: A total of 100 Cases of CLD attending Gastroenterology department
were included in the study during the period of January 2015 – June 2016. Demographic
data and clinical findings were recorded using a structured proforma. All the samples were
screened for HBsAg detection( ERBALISA SEN HBsAg)& anti HCV antibodies detection by
ELISA (HCV MICROLISA) following the kit manufacturer’s instructions.

Differential Recruitment of Monocytes Subsets in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients

Nora E. El-Bassiouni; Mona E. Madkour; Raafat I. Atta; Mohamed D. El Talkawy; Azza M. El Amir; Alyaa A. Farid; Noha A. Amin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 6071-6082

Background: Collagen producing myofibroblast activation of is critical for pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Aim of the work: To study the expansion of peripheral monocyte subsets in HCV patients. Subjects and Methods: Sixty HCV patients were classified according to METAVIR score into 4 stages of liver fibrosis, 15 age and sex-matched controls were include. Flowcytometric analysis of peripheral blood monocytes subsets and CCR2+ve cells was
carried out using monoclonal anti-CD45, anti-CD14, anti-CD16, anti-collagen type I and anti-CCR2antibodies. MCP-1 and SAP levels were assessed using ELISA. Results and Conclusions: A down regulation (p< 0.01) in the classical monocytes subset and an up regulation (p< 0.01) in both the non-classical monocytes and monocytes
producing collagen subsets were notice in HCV patients compared to controls. A marked increase (p< 0.01) in the levels of MCP-1 and monocytes expressing CCR2 with a significant decrease (p< 0.01) in SAP levels, which paralleled the progression of liver fibrosis, were also noticed. MCP-1 and CCR2 may trigger monocytes recruitment to the injured liver promoting the development of collagen type I producing monocytes. The shift
of classical monocyte subset towards the non-classical and collagen producing subsets may be present a predictive non-invasive biomarkers for progress of liver fibrosis.

Estimate Viral RNA Of Hepatitis C Of Β-Thalassemia Patients In Nineveh Province

Ali Adel Dawood; Asmaa Mohammed Khaleel; Ahmed Mohammed Hayawi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1-8

Hepatitis C infection is the main occasional agent of chronic liver disease and might lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. β-thalassemia and hemodialysis patients are most susceptible to HCV as a result of the continuous blood transfusion. Aim of the study: This study aimed to estimate the quantitative of HCV-RNA in the serum of β- thalassemia patients in Nineveh province using RT-PCR in the GeneXpert system. Methods: We detected anti-HCV using ELISA. Determine the viral RNA using Xpert® HCV viral load technique. Result: The positive detection result of anti-HCV is 48 out of a total of 752 thalassemia patients. Only 12 out of 48 enrolled HCV Ct value with a rate of 1.59% of the total β- thalassemia patients. Conclusions: The prevalence of HCV in thalassemic patients in Nineveh province is less than those found in the other Iraqi provinces or adjacent countries. The routine using of immunobiological and biochemical tests for hepatic enzymes should be the routine pursuit in thalassemia and dialysis clinical centers.

Assessed Valuate of Soluble Programmatic Cell Death Ligand 1 (PD-1) in Sera of Hepatitis C Virus in Iraqi Patients

Seenaa Wdaah AlSalih; Alaa Raisan Rashid; Syakirah Samsudin; Moatasem AlSalih

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 57-63

Objective: The present study aims at detecting the concentration of human PD-1 in
samples taken from hepatitis C virus patients related to the healthy control group which
studying the relation between viral load associated with (PD-1) concentration.
subject of the treatment group content from 68 samples which is selected randomly
from the patients with HCV, subdivide into 32 males and 36 females aged 23-76 years
with 30 healthy individuals divided 20 males and 10 females. During first April to end of
June 2020.
ELISA kit from (Shanghai Yehua Biological Technology Company, China) was used to
measure programmed death concentration. While Real time-PCR technique (Device
Smart Cycler, USA) was used for calculating the viral load, according to Sacace
Biotechnology kit. The result was a high concentration of PD-1 in patients 295.709±29.36
and 168.337 ± 80.906) compared to healthy (106.014±63.90, 110.176 ± 36.681).
Respectively, and significant difference. and we found that PD1 concentration was
directly proportional to viral load
Conclusion: We have found that there is an enhancement in PD-1 concentration in
patients associated with healthy control groups, and We also found that PD1
concentration was directly proportional to viral load, Whenever, increased the viral load,
had risen the PD 1 concentration.

Study the genetic variation of KIR genes in patients with HCV in Wasit Province/ Iraq

Nada M. Sadoon; Kadhum J. Gattia; Ahmed D. Jabbar; Naeem M. Mohsen

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4379-4402

One of the global public health diseases is the hepatitis C. It is widely distributed and primarily begin with acute infection. Some of them spontaneously clear the virus by their immune system. However, more than half of HCV infected individuals will develop their infection to chronic. No effective vaccine has been discovered against HCV until know. In most patients with 8-12 weeks of all oral drug regimens, direct-acting antiviral treatment will result in a virologic cure. Since the virus targets the immune system, study of KIR genes is involved in this research. Detection on these genes conducted by qPCR technique. This work aimed to detect KIR genotypes in patients with HCV compared with healthy subjects and to find out the effect of each gene as an indicator of the decline or progression of the infection. The results showed BX genotype was more frequent in patients, KIR2DL4 and KIR2DL5 genes were frequent in patients more than in control. However, KIR2DL1, KIR2DS2, KIR2DS3, KIR3DL2, KIR2DS1, KIR2DS4 and KIR2DL5 were significantly frequent in patients with HCV (RNA+). In conclusions; genes of KIR2DL1, KIR2DS2, KIR2DS3, KIR3DL2, KIR2DS1, KIR2DS4 and KIR2DL5 considered as risk factors for persistent and leading to the late infection.

Study the role of cytokines (IL-6 and TGFᵦ-1) and apoptosis-related proteins (PD-1 and STAT3) in the outcome of HCV infection in Wasit Province/Iraq

Nada M. Sadoon; Kadhum J. Gattia; Ahmed D. Jabbar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4361-4378

Hepatitis C virus is one of the public health disorders in the world. It’s blood-borne, causes acute disease and may extend to chronic infection, if HCV is untreated, it can progress and lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis and cancer of the liver and then death. Since the virus targets the immune system, here in this finding two cytokines (IL-6 and TGFᵦ-1) and two apoptosis-related proteins (PD-1 and STAT3) were tested serologically by Enzyme Linked-Immunosorbant Assy (ELISA) technique to detect the changes in their levels during the infection. The results revealed that IL-6 and TGFᵦ-1were abnormally raised in patients with HCV compared with healthy peoples (P<0.001). Apoptosis-related proteins involved in this study were PD-1 and STAT3, both were also elevated in HCV patients rather than control (P<0.001). The age group (46-55) of patients was the most group displayed higher levels in IL-6, TGFᵦ-1, PD-1 and STAT3. In conclusion, IL-6 was good indicator on the liver inflammation during HCV, TGFᵦ-1stimulates the transformation of the infected hepatocytes to be fibrotic, cirrhotic or cancer cells. PD-1 considered as a checkpoint for the impairment of T cell during infection, continuous stimulation of STAT3 by IL-6 and other factors contribute to HCV progression.