Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : ELISA

Comparison Of Dengue NS1 Antigen ICT, NS1 ELISA & RTPCR Among The Patients Having <5 Days Of Dengue Like Fever

Satish Kumar Somoori, Siva Prasad Reddy B, Shama Tomar, P Sravanthi Reddy .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 4750-4754

Introduction: Dengue viral infection is an arboviral disease which is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Dengue cases are now increasing a global burden especially in tropical and subtropical countries.1 The patients with dengue fever have high levels of nonstructural protein-1 (NS1) protein in their serum after onset till <5 days.   The present study aims to establish most sensitive and reliable method for the early diagnosis of dengue infection.
Materials & Methods: Total 110 patients were screening who were having <5 days of history of dengue like fever at NIMS Medical College, NIMS University, Jaipur from June 2020 to Oct 2022.  For Dengue NS1 ICT & ELISA J. Mitra Pvt Ltd. Kits were used. Dengue RTPCR was done by TRU PCR 3B Black Bio kits as per standard protocol.5
Results: Out of 110, total 72 (65.45%) cases were positive (either by ICT, ELISA & RTPCR).  Among 72 dengue positive cases 48 (66.6%) were male while 24 (33.4%) were females. Male: female ratio was 2:1 observed.  55 patients were positive by Dengue NS1 ICT, 59 were positive by NS1 ELISA while 72 cases were positive by RTPCR.
Conclusion: Early detection and diagnosis are very important in the case of dengue infection as if it is not treated it may lead to many complications. RTPCR is the most sensitive and specific method for the early diagnosis of dengue. After this covid pandemic most hospitals have RTPCR lab facilities which can be utilized for dengue detection by RTPCR.

To study the seroepidemiology of measles at a tertiary care centre

Dr. Meda Shailaja Rani, Dr. P Tejaswi Sai, Dr. V Sudha Rani, Dr. P Shashikala Reddy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 5, Pages 61-70

Back ground: The "gold standard" for diagnosing an MV infection in a lab is the presence of particular immunoglobulin M (IgM), which can be detected using either an ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay)or immunofluorescence. A most popular type of testing is serological because it is quick, affordable, and reliable and can be done in a high-throughput setting. According to earlier research comparing IgM tests, with RT-PCR-based assays as a reference, sensitivities ranged from 89.9 to 98.8% and specificities ranged from 92.5 to 97.9%.
With this background, this study was conducted to serologically diagnose clinically suspected cases of measles by IgM Antibody detection in our setting and also to correlate measles infection with vaccination status.
Materials and Methods: We included all patients aged less than 24 years belonging to both genders visiting the Paediatrics/Medicine OPD at Sir Ronald Ross Institute of Tropical and Communicable diseases, Nallakunta, Hyderabad, during March 2019 to March 2020. The sample size considered was 100. ELISA kit with IgM for measles was used to serologically diagnose measles in suspected cases.

Prevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infections among Donors in The Blood Bank of A Tertiary Care Centre and Comparison with General Population

Dr. AshaJyothi. T, Dr. C. Aruna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 21-27

Aim: To annalyseseroprevalence of HIV, HbsAg, HCV, syphilis and malaria in
pretransfusion blood and comparison with general population.
Methodology:It was retrospective study, conducted at Osmania General Hospital,
Telangana during the year from July 2016-June 2018. HIV, HBsAg, HCV tests were
done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure using the third
generation kits.The donor questionnaire form with details of donor and results of
serological tests are maintained in the blood bank.Venous blood so collected is screened
for HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), HCV, syphilis and malaria.HIV, HBsAg,
HCV tests were done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure using
the third generation kits.

Outcome of rickettsial infections in children aged less than 12 years: Clinical descriptive study

Dr. Ragavendra H Desai, Dr. Shilpa Chandrashekaraiah, Dr. Sudhindrashayana Fattepur, Dr. Uma Chikkaraddi, Dr. Madhu PK, Dr. Mahesh, Dr. Harish

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 2197-2202

Rickettsial infections are one of the important causes of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) and these needs to be differentiated from other febrile illnesses. Rickettsial infections are grossly under-diagnosed in India. All children aged less than 12 years admitted in paediatric ward with fever without an identifiable source of infection and one or more of the following clinical features: rash, oedema, hepatosplenomegaly, Lymphadenopathy, an Eschar and a tick bite or tick exposure were suspected to have rickettsial infection. All suspected cases were subjected to rickettsial IgM/IgG ELISA test and tests to exclude other diseases. Scrub typhus and Indian tick typhus elisa positive (mixed infection) noted in 14% of cases. Complications like meningoencephalitis (5.8%), shock (5.8%), DIC (2.9%) was observed in the study. There was good clinical response on initiation of doxycycline within 48hrs of initiation of treatment. Case fatality rate of rickettsial disease in this study was 5.8% (n=2). Rickettsial diseases are difficult to diagnose, unless suspected but treatment is easy, affordable and often successful with dramatic response to antimicrobials.

A study on the clinical profile of children aged less than 12 years with rickettsial infections

Dr. Ragavendra H Desai, Dr. Shilpa Chandrashekaraiah, Dr. Sudhindrashayana Fattepur, Dr. Madhu PK, Dr. Mahesh, Dr. Harish

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 2190-2196

Rickettsial diseases are one of the most re-emerging infections of the present time. They are generally incapacitating and difficult to diagnose. Untreated cases can have fatality rates as high as 30-35% but when diagnosed properly, they are often easily treatable. It is a time bound prospective hospital based observational study and All children aged less than 12 years admitted in paediatric ward with fever without an identifiable source of infection and one or more of the following clinical features: rash, oedema, hepatosplenomegaly, Lymphadenopathy, an Eschar and a tick bite or tick exposure were suspected to have rickettsial infection. The most common age group of presentation was between 1 and 5 yrs. The common symptoms in these children included fever (100%), rash 79.4%), edema of limbs (32.4%), puffiness of face (29.4%), generalised edema (20.6%), cough (20.6%), pain abdomen (14.7%), vomiting (11.8%), convulsions (8.8%), headache (2.9%) and arthralgia (2.9%). Signs like Hepatomegaly, facial puffiness, pedal edema, splenomegaly, ecchymosis present in 53.3%, 41.1%, 38.2%, 8.8% and 5.8% of the cases respectively, mimicking common illnesses. Thus warrants high index of suspicion. There is emergence of rickettsial disease in this part of north Karnataka which might have been overlooked earlier due to low index of suspicion.

Serological Evidence of Co-infection of Dengue, Leptospirosis and Scrub Typhus in Patients Presenting with Acute Febrile Illness in a Tertiary care Hospital

Rupinder Bakshi, Satinder Kaur, Tanveer Kaur, Ritika Ghai, Karashdeep Kaur, Ramanpreet Kaur, Jaspreet Kaur, Palika Sharma, Amritpal Kaur, Harbhajan Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2009-2020

Background: Acute febrile illness (AFI)is specified as sudden onset of fever of unknown
origin lasting for 1-14 days. AFI may be caused by pathogens like bacteria, viruses,
parasites, and fungi leading to infectious diseases. Dengue is a vector-borne viral disease
that is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Dengue NS1 Ag is released into the
blood during viral replication in infected patients and is detectable from the first day
after fever. As NS1 Ag can be identified promptly, it acts as a beneficial biomarker for
the early detection of dengue, allowing rapid management of dengue fever.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out on blood samples of
patients presenting with acute febrile illness in OPD/IPD of a tertiary care hospital from
September 2019- December 2019. Out of 694 samples, the samples which were 2 mL in
quantity, non-hemolytic, non-lipemic, maintained in cold chain along with complete
demographic data were selected for the present study i.e. n=270.
Results: Blood samples of 270 patients who presented with acute febrile illness and met
with our inclusion criteria were tested for dengue NS1 antigen/IgM antibodies based on
their fever history. Out of 270, 120 patients tested positive for dengue.
Conclusion: To conclude, patients in tropical countries presenting in the post-monsoon
season with acute febrile illness not responding to appropriate and adequate therapy
aimed for a suspected tropical infection such as dengue should be evaluated for
concurrent infections with other microorganisms.


Dr. Ajitha Reddy Edula,Dr. GJ Archana,Dr. Patruni Manoj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1961-1965

Introduction: Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that has rapidly spread in all regions of WHO in recent years. Dengue virus is transmitted by female mosquitoes mainly of the species Aedes aegypti. These mosquitoes are also vectors of chikungunya, yellow fever and Zika viruses. Dengue causes a wide spectrum of disease. This can range from subclinical disease (people may not know they are even infected) to severe flu-like symptoms in those infected. Although less common, some people develop severe dengue, which can be any number of complications associated with severe bleeding, organ impairment or plasma leakage. Aims and objectives of this study are to know the prevalence of acute dengue viral infection in cases presenting with clinical features suggestive of Dengue through seroanalysis at Kamineni Hospital, Narketpally, Telangana.
Materials & Methods: This study is a hospital based cross-sectional study conducted in the year 2018-2019 in the Department of Microbiology,Kamineni Hospital, Narketpally, Telangana state from August 2018 to March 2019. A total of 120 blood samples collected from patients admitted in Kamineni Hospital with clinical features suggestive of Dengue fever. The serum samples were tested for IgM antibodies for dengue virus by dengue IgM capture ELISA. All the patients’ serum samples were tested for dengue IgM antibodies by IgM capture ELISA. This test is a solid phase immunoassay, based on an immunocapture principle.
Data analysis: The data was spread over excel sheet and the results were expressed as percentages and represented with tables wherever required.
Results: 72 were males and 48 were females, most of the cases were of the 10-20 age group. Most of the cases reported were from the young age groups.52 samples were positive for IgM antibodies to Dengue. More number of positive cases is among the males. The common clinical features among all the patients admitted was fever (100%) followed by headache (n=96, 80%), arthralgia (n=93,80%). The prevalence of dengue was found more among the rural population (n=33, 49.2%) when compared to the urban population (n=19, 35.8%).
Conclusion: The prevalence of dengue infection was more among 0-10yrs age group (48.2%).A significant association was observed between dengue seropositivity and the clinical presentation of the study population i.e., hepatosplenomegaly, conjunctival congestion, skin rash, retro bulbar pain and hemorrhagic manifestations.


Aliya Fatima, Mustafeed uddin, Efshana jabeen, Md. Rizwan Ansari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 249-256

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections account for a
substantial proportion of liver diseases worldwide. These viruses are responsible for liver
damages ranging from minor disorders to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma
(HCC). Approximately 7% of the world’s population (350 million people) are infected with
HBV and 3% (170million people) with HCV.
Aim & Objectives: To study Prevalence of Hepatitis B & Hepatitis C viruses infections in
Chronic liver disease patients .
Materials & Methods: A total of 100 Cases of CLD attending Gastroenterology department
were included in the study during the period of January 2015 – June 2016. Demographic
data and clinical findings were recorded using a structured proforma. All the samples were
screened for HBsAg detection( ERBALISA SEN HBsAg)& anti HCV antibodies detection by
ELISA (HCV MICROLISA) following the kit manufacturer’s instructions.

IgE Reactivity to Latex in sera of Indian Patients: An Original Research

Dr. Heena Tiwari; Dr. Harshada Inamdar; Dr. Rahul VC Tiwari; Dr. Anil Managutti; Dr Rakhi Bharat; Dr. J. Sreedevi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 5936-5941

Aim: The purpose of our research was to assess and analyse IgE cross-reactivity in Indian patients sera in relation to latex extract.
Methodology: Sera from 27patients with latex allergy and control sera from nonsensitive individuals were studied for latex-specific IgE antibodies. Two antigen preparations were used from different rubber tree saps. All patients had skin prick test results that were positive to latex antigens, and all sera were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the various antigens.
Results: There were considerable differences in the reactivity of patient sera with the different antigens. Only 50% of the sera from patients with later allergy demonstrated significant levels of IgE to later as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Conclusion: The results indicate that reagents such as rubber tree sap, which contain multiple clinically significant antigenic components, should be included in evaluation of latex allergy and that differences in patient populations may result in serologic variances

Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG) Polyclonal Anti Body Production in Madura Bulls for Estrus Synchronization and Superovulation Program in Ruminants

Herry A. Hermadi; Sunaryo H. Warsito; Erma Safitri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1263-1269

This study aimed to produce polyclonal anti-body (Abpo) equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) in Madura bulls. The Abpo-eCG was an alternative hormone for the superovulation technique and estrus synchronization of ruminant. The isolation of sera eCG derived from local Indonesian pregnant mare sera at 1-3 months age had beed collected from jugular veins, and then purification with charcoal was done by chromatography Sephadex G100. After that, the produce of Abpo eCG have done in two Madura bulls carried out injected with 3,000 IU eCG from local Indonesian pregnant mare sera 3 times at 10 day intervals. Furthermore, Abpo eCG was isolated from serum taken from the jugular vein of bull, then extraction was done by adding absolute charcoal and ethanol and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15 minutes at 4oC. Next step, the identification of Abpo-eCG that producted from Madura bull by SDS-PAGE 12% method, Western Blot and Elisa indirect to find out the highest level at the 7th week of 408.50 mlU /mL. Then purified by CM Sephadex G-100 coloumn chromatography technique. The final product was made as a Frozen Dry dosage form.

Serodiagnosis of Human Herpesvirus-8 among Iraqi Blood Donors

Zainab B. Mohammed; Shatha F. Abdullah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 69-74

Human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) or known as Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus
(KSHV) is the etiologic agent for all clinic-epidemiological forms of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS).
Many studies have been documented that blood transfusion plays an important role in
HHV-8 transmission. This study was prepared to determine the frequency of HHV-8
antibodies among blood donors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on ninety blood
donors who attended the Iraqi National Centre for Blood Transfusion in February 2019 to
detect HHV-8 IgG antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunoassay method. Anti-HHV8-
IgG were detected in 78 out of 90 (86.6%) serum samples. A significant association has
been found between anti-HHV-8 detection and associated risk factors in blood donors such
as sexual relationships (legal and illegal), occupation, surgical and dental operations, blood
transfusion, cupping, tattooing, smoking and numbers of blood donation. Our results
confirmed that a high percentage of HHV8-IgG among blood donors may indicate an
increased threat to HHV-8 infection via blood transfusion.

Comparative Study Of Rheumatoid Factor - Igm Autoantibody Testing By Latex Agglutination Nephelometry And Elisa In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

Dr.C. Devi; Dr.R. Ravichandran; Dr. Logeswari Selvaraj; Dr.S. Ramesh; Dr.T. Aarthipriya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 4521-4527

Objectives: To test Rheumatoid factor (RF) IgM autoantibody in Patients with
Rheumatoid Arthritis by various methods like latex agglutination, Nephelometer and
ELISA. Comparative analysis of the sensitivity and specificity of the tests performed.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted for a period of six months from June
2018 to November 2018 in a tertiary care hospital in Chennai. 90 patients attending
Rheumatology OPD or admitted in the ward with the diagnosis of Rheumatoid arthritis,
satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were taken up for the study.
Inclusion criteria: Clinically diagnosed Rheumatoid Arthritis patient as per revised ACR
1987 classification criteria. Duration of symptoms (1yr- early (RA) 1 Yr. (Established RA).
Exclusion Criteria: Those with systemic connective tissue diseases like SLE, Scleroderma,
MCTD, Sjogren syndrome, those with chronic liver diseases, tuberculosis, subacute
Bacterial endocarditis, Pregnancy, Lympho reticular malignancies are excluded for the
study. Those with onset 16 years of age are also excluded. Under aseptic precautions about
3ml of blood was collected from each Patient. Rheumatoid factor (RF) IgM was tested for
each patient by all three methods Latex agglutination, Nephelometry and ELISA.
Results: IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) was detected in the sera of 90 patients with
Rheumatoid Arthritis. The percentage of positivity for Rheumatoid factor by Latex
agglutination, ELISA and Nephelometry were 41,64&60 respectively. Sensitivity and
Specificity of ELISA when compared to nephelometry were 63 & 33% followed by latex
agglutination 41 &59%.
Conclusion: Though nephelometry is considered as gold standard, in this study ELISA was
highly sensitive more even than nephelometry in Rheumatoid factor detection followed by
latex agglutination.

Hepatitis C Seroprevalence Among A Tertiary Hospital Based General Population In Northern India

Heena Sharma; Vasim Mahdi Zaidi; Dr.Gomty Mahajan; Suman Kumari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 4088-4094

Hepatitis C is a disease caused by enveloped, RNA virus belongs to Flaviviridae family. It causes inflammation of the liver that lead to liver cirrhosis and finally hepatocellular carcinoma. Its genome consists of open reading frame (ORF) codes for structural and non-structural proteins. The ORF have 5´ and 3´ UTR regions. Hepatitis C virus is cause of post transfusion hepatitis. Symptoms of HCV include fatigue, dark urine, belly pain, joint pain, itchy skin, sore muscles and jaundice. It is a blood-borne transmitted agent. Use of unsafe therapeutic injections also leads to HCV infection. Diagnosis of HCV infection can be done by various methods like Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) and Recombinant Immunoblot Assay (RIBA). The aim of this study is to estimate seroprevalence of Hepatitis-C in both sexes and different age groups in hospital based general population. And to study the trends of HCV infections in a tertiary hospital located at Northern India.
A prospective study was conducted for four months (January-April) at Tertiary Hospital in Northern India. Total numbers of 1643 blood samples were screened for the presence of anti-HCV antibodies in patient’s serum. Samples were tested by HCV TRI-DOT rapid test. Positive samples were retested by SD BIOLINE HCV rapid test and confirmed by ELISA.Out of 1643, 102 (6.2%) samples were HCV positive. Among seropositive samples, 48 were males (2.9%) and 54 were females (3.2%). HCV seropositivity was shown by 40 IPD patients (2.4%), 52 OPD patients (3.1%) and 10 ICU patients (0.6%). Among departments, patients from Recovery showed (0.6%), General ward (1.0%), Private room (0.2%), Neurology lab (0.1%) and Emergency (0.3%) showed HCV seropositivity. On analyzing age-wise seropositivity, it was found that maximum seropositivity was seen in 30-40 years (2.9%) followed by >55 years (1.4%), 40-55 years (1.2%) and<30 years (0.5%). Analysis of patients on the basis of risk factors showed that 17 had history of surgical operation (1.0%), 18 had history of blood transfusion (1.0%), 6 had history of dental procedure (0.3%), 25 showed history of injecting drug use (1.5%), 21 used contaminated syringes (1.2%) and 15 patients was under haemodialysis (0.9%). Professional health worker should protect themselves while handling infected blood. Counselling and testing should be done for those who are at risk for infection.

Determination of levels of Cytokines (HGF ,TNF- ,CXCL-13) in serum of hepatitis B patients in Wasit Province

Sabreen Hadi Hanash; Kareem Hamed Ghali; Ahmed DarwishJabbar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4279-4294

HBV infection is one of the major concerns and a constant threat to public health. Cytokines are used in biological studies as vital signs in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of progression a number of diseases such as CHB and HCC . This study aimed to evaluation the levels of HGF , TNF- α , CXCL-13 in HBV patients .Studies have shown that the hepatocyte growth factor is the engine for the development of HCC caused by infection with HBV, and may serve as an effective biomarker for targeted therapy. The study included 100 patients with positive HBs Ag (100% positive). Three cytokines (HGF , TNF- α , CXCL-13) were analyzed in the
serum of patients ,and the results showed highly significant increase inthe levels of those cytokines in patients comparing to healthy individuals(p≤0.01). Also ,the results showed there is a highly significant difference(P<0.001) of HGF levels when comparing between acute andchronicHBV patients .Our results concluded HGF , TNF- α , CXCL-13 play a key role in development of HBV.