Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : IL-6

To determine the relationship between biochemical indicators and the severity of COVID-19

Dr Saleha Shaheen

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5861-5865

Aim: To determine the relationship between biochemical indicators and the severity of COVID-19.
Methods: Blood samples were obtained by competent doctors and nurses in accordance with ICMR
guidelines. The samples were then forwarded to the central biochemistry laboratory for additional
analysis. The Access-2 completely automated chemical analyzer was used to test ferritin, quantitative
CRP, and IL-6, while the AU 480 analyzer was used to assess LDH.
Results: We included 200 confirmed covid-19 patients in our trial. All of the patients were above the
age of 18. The prevalence of HTN, diabetes, CKD, COPD, and Cardiac Disease in the study patients
was 40%, 32%, and 15%, respectively. 20 and 30 percent, respectively. In the current research, the
mean values of IL-6, ferritin, CRP, and LDH were shown to be higher in covid patients, with the rise
being greater in patients on intubation. The mean and standard deviation of biochemical parameters in
non-ICU, ICU, and intubation patients.
Conclusion: Serum CRP, LDH, IL-6, and ferritin levels that are increased may be employed as
laboratory indicators for a bad prognosis in COVID-19.

Association of IL-4 and IL-6 Gene Polymorphism with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Nktel Faaz AL-Saad; Mohammed A.K Alsaadi; Ali Hmood Al-saadi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 75-81

The case-control study was aimed to evaluate the effect of IL-4 and IL-6 gene
polymorphism on susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis in patients in Babylon province
and also measure the serum level of these cytokine in in sera of studied group. The
genotype association of rs2243250 (C/C, C/T, T/T) were significant (P<0.05) with (46.7,
38.3, 15)% respectively for PTB cases and (36.7, 26.6, 36.7)% respectively for control
group. Allele's frequency for patients and control for IL-4 (rs2243250) were also
significant (P<0.05) and the C allele represent the risk allele for PTB patients with odd
ratio (95% CI) of 1.93(1.15-3.24), while the T allele represent protective allele for control
group 0.52 (0.31-0.87). The genotype association of rs1800796 (C/C, G/C, G/G) were
significant (P<0.05) with (43.3, 38.3, 18.4)% respectively for PTB cases and (50, 15, 35)%
respectively for control group, whereas, the allele's frequency for patients and control of
IL-6 (rs1800796) were insignificant with (P>0.05). There was a significant difference in
mean level of both IL-4 and IL-6 serum concentration between pTB patients and controls
(P<0.01). Also, there were an insignificant effect of IL-4 (rs2243250) and IL-6 (rs1800796)
gene polymorphism on the difference in serum level of both IL-4 and IL-6 respectively in
studied groups (P>0.05).

Anti-Inflammatory and Gene Expression Studies of Terminalia chebula Extracts against Interleukins and TNF

Mustafa M. Farhan; Saeed Arrak Turkey; Nadhim M.H .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 229-237

Aims: Since ages, several plant extracts and Ayurvedic formulations were used to treat
ailments and such studies were well documented in the recent decades. Even some of
the plants were screened for their efficacy as immunomodulators to restore and
rejuvenate the immune system. The present study deals in screening for the possible
healing effects of Terminalia chebula on IL-2 and IFN-γ levels.
Methods: The raw and dried fruits of the sample were pulverized finely and extracted with
methanol. Following which their aqueous solutions are reextracted with hexane, ethyl
acetate and chloroform to study the possible cytotoxic effects. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-
stimulated macrophage cells were used throughout the study to measure the effect of
extracts on nitric oxide (NO) production using Griess method. Expression of
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were studied by real time
PCR quantification along with estimation of IL-1β and IL-6 cytokine levels using the
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results: The chloroform extract showed maximum NO inhibition at about 18.31±
1.6μmol/L. In accordance to the above result, COX2 and TNF-α were found to be
downregulated by 12 and 7 fold respectively at 100μg/mL (P < 0.005). Chloroform extract
significantly reduced IL-1β levels to 21.23 ± 0.21pg/ml (100μg/mL) and also lowered the
levels of IL-6 to 45.67± 3.31pg/ml (100μg/ml)
Conclusion: The present study confirmed the positive effect of the chloroform extract in
reducing the NO secretion and also by showing an inhibition in the expression of COX2,
IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. Thus to conclude Terminalia chebula could be used as the best antiinflammatory
candidate drug in addition to the many chemical compounds available in the
medical markets.

Study the role of cytokines (IL-6 and TGFᵦ-1) and apoptosis-related proteins (PD-1 and STAT3) in the outcome of HCV infection in Wasit Province/Iraq

Nada M. Sadoon; Kadhum J. Gattia; Ahmed D. Jabbar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4361-4378

Hepatitis C virus is one of the public health disorders in the world. It’s blood-borne, causes acute disease and may extend to chronic infection, if HCV is untreated, it can progress and lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis and cancer of the liver and then death. Since the virus targets the immune system, here in this finding two cytokines (IL-6 and TGFᵦ-1) and two apoptosis-related proteins (PD-1 and STAT3) were tested serologically by Enzyme Linked-Immunosorbant Assy (ELISA) technique to detect the changes in their levels during the infection. The results revealed that IL-6 and TGFᵦ-1were abnormally raised in patients with HCV compared with healthy peoples (P<0.001). Apoptosis-related proteins involved in this study were PD-1 and STAT3, both were also elevated in HCV patients rather than control (P<0.001). The age group (46-55) of patients was the most group displayed higher levels in IL-6, TGFᵦ-1, PD-1 and STAT3. In conclusion, IL-6 was good indicator on the liver inflammation during HCV, TGFᵦ-1stimulates the transformation of the infected hepatocytes to be fibrotic, cirrhotic or cancer cells. PD-1 considered as a checkpoint for the impairment of T cell during infection, continuous stimulation of STAT3 by IL-6 and other factors contribute to HCV progression.

Expression Of Interleukin-6 Levels In Elderly Sarcopenia

Resliany Rachim; Agus Sudarso; Shanti Pricillia Makagiansar; Syakib Bakri; Haerani Rasyid; A Makbul Aman; Hasyim Kasim; Arifin Seweng

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2837-2844

Background/Aim: Sarcopenia is a syndrome characterized by progressive loss of muscle mass and strength with a risk of adverse clinical outcomes such as physical disability, reduced quality of life, and death. Oxidative stress and inflammatory processes are known as factors that trigger sarcopenia by releasing the catabolic stimuli of IL-6. Based on this we study the dynamics of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in elderly sarcopenia in Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital Makassar.Method: This study was an analytic cross-sectional design conducted at the Geriatric Polyclinic of Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital, Makassar in March-June 2020. The assessed variables were degree of sarcopenia (probable sarcopenia, sarcopenia, dan severe sarcopenia) based on The European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People 2 (EWGSOP2) criteria, age, sex, number of comorbids, and IL-6 levels examination. Statistical analysis was performed by descriptive statistical calculations and frequency distribution as well as the Independent-t statistical test, and Anova test. Results: Studied from 82 subjects (51 females, 62.2%) with the mean of 68.95 years of age. The prevalence of probable sarcopenia was 40.2%, sarcopenia 8.5%, severe sarcopenia 6.1%, and normal 45.1%. IL-6 levels were found to be significantly increased according to the severity of sarcopenia (normal, 52.81 ng/; probable sarcopenia, 67.47 ug/L; sarcopenia, 135.36 ng/L; and severe sarcopenia, 287.99 ng/L). Based on age, IL-6 levels increased significantly with age (60-74 years, 63.28 ng/L; 75 years, 139.35 ng/L). Based on the number of comorbids, IL-6 levels increased significantly according to the number of comorbids (1-3 comorbids, 52.86 ng/L; 4 comorbids (120.84 ng/L). Conclusion: In the elderly subject, IL-6 levels increases according to the severity of sarcopenia. IL-6 levels also increases with age, and the number of comorbids.

Relation of COVID-19 infection to outcomes of pregnancy during the pandemic in Kirkuk city

Ebaa Ghassan Akram; Safaa Ibrahim Mohammed; Jaklen Zaea Khoshaba

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 4314-4318

Based on what is known at this time, pregnant women are at an increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19 compared to non-pregnant women. Additionally, pregnant women with COVID-19 might have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth. The study was conducted in the city of Kirkuk city during the period between February 1, 2020, and September 1, 2020, at Gynecology and children hospital. Through the study, 100 pregnant women were received, complaining of Covid-19 infections, which were diagnosed in Kirkuk, and now Real Time PCR was confirmed through nasopharyngeal swabs that were taken from the Hospital. The study also included measuring the level of blood pressure, sugar and IL-6 in those women during the fifth to eight week, where we were infected, and then in the 12th week of pregnancy took place, where communication was made, and a level was measured, and as a result, these women who completed the period with a pre-term labor, miscarriage before the 24th week of pregnancy or those completed the period with successful pregnancyThe study showed that were asymptomatic, 45% of cases of COVID-19 patients were with mild infection and 10% were with severe infection (P<0.001) In this study, 10 % of COVID-19 pregnant women suffer from hypertension, 13% were with Diabetes, 35% with UTI while 70% were suffered from fever. When reaching 24th week of pregnancy, and as shown in Table 3. The study showed that 40% COVID-19 pregnant women experienced completed the period with a preterm labor, 10% was with miscarriage before the 24th week of pregnancy, while 50% of them completed the period continued the pregnancy. In this study, 82.5 % of COVID-19 pregnant women with preterm labor were suffered previously from fever comparing with 55% of COVID-19 pregnant women without preterm labor.The study showed that the highest mean of serum IL-6 was found in women infected with COVID-19 comparing with healthy control (12.8±3.6 v.s. 29.3±3.1 ng/ml) (P: <0.001). Conclusions:The study showed a significant relation of COVID-19 infection with pregnant women who pre-term labor especially who have high body temperature.