Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : diabetes mellitus


Relation of HbA1c Control in Diabetic Patients and Complications of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients who performed Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

Mohamed Gaber Abd El Aziz Abd El Hamed; Aly Saad .; Tamer Mohamed Mostafa; Marwa Mohamed Gad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2162-2168

Background:Coronary artery disease is higher in risk with diabetes mellitus, and diabetesrelated
deaths can lead to ischemic heart disease. We examined the relationship between the
glycemic regulation as determined by Hemoglobin A1c and the occurrence of periprocedural
complications in patients who performed percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and had
Coronary artery Bypass Graft (CABG)
Objective: To identify associated complications and their sites with Percutaneous Coronary
Intervention in diabetic patientswho performed Coronary Artery Bypass Graft.
Methods:The cross-sectional analysis was performed at the cardiology department in Zagazig
University Hospital in which all 24 CABG & DM patients were included during the period
between January 2019 and January 2020 divided into 12 patients with controlled
DM(HbA1c>7)&12 patients with uncontrolled DM (HbA1c<7).Both patients had a complete
medical history, a detailed clinical evaluation, and preoperative laboratory work: role of the
renal, completion of blood counts as a marker for regulation of DM, ECG, and ECHO.
Glycosylated Hemoglobin HbA1c was used.

LGBM Classifier based Technique for Predicting Type-2 Diabetes

B. Shamreen Ahamed; Dr. Meenakshi Sumeet Arya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 454-467

In today’s world, Diabetes Mellitus is a disease, that is considered to be an extensive noncommunicable disease which has a great effect our day to day living. In the 21st century, changes in natural life style and labor culture are some of the main reasons for India to have 62 million diabetic cases as of today. Analytical Computational Techniques can be applied on clinical immense data, the enormous quantity of data produced in the healthcare schemes, there is a option to form medicinal intelligence which will initiative medical forecast andpredicting in future. By advancing medical intelligence and with the help of development model, prediction and detection of diabetes disease can be done. With the increase in complexity to the problems, the accuracy percentage also varies. LGBM - Light Gradient Boosting Algorithm is one such algorithm that can be used as it depends on decision tree algorithms and it can be used in predicting the accuracy to attain the desired results. With the
existing PIMA Indian Dataset the accuracy is calculated as 95.20% using LGBM Algorithm . Therefore by using the LGBM classifiers, we can develop a data model for diabetes detection and prediction.

Periprocedural Complications of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Diabetic Patients Who Underwent Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

Mohamed Gaber Abd El Aziz Abd El Hamed; AlySaad .; Tamer Mohamed Mostafa; Marwa Mohamed Gad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2155-2161

Background:There is an increase of risk of coronary artery disease about 4-fold with diabetes
mellitus, and ischemic heart disease is liable for diabetes-related deaths. In this study, we
examined the association between glycemic control, as determined by Hemoglobin A1c, and the
incidence of periprocedural complications in diabetic patients who had coronary artery bypass
graft (CABG) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Aim of the study:To assess the effect of control of DM on the outcome of PCI in patients who
underwent CABG.

Clinical profile of hemodialysis catheter related bloodstream infections.

Moturu Venkata Viswanath; Raghavendra Sadineni; Vara prasada Rao K; Praveen Kumar Kolla

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1421-1435

Introduction: Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is a critical problem in dialysis
center.
Aim: To study the prevalence of central venous catheter related blood stream infections and to
identify the microbiological profile of organisms causing CRBSI.
Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study carried out at Dialysis unit over
a period of two years on 145 hemodialysis patients, who had cultures of catheter and blood
samples were studied.
Results: A total of 557 haemodialysis catheters (tunnelled and non-tunnelled) were
inserted during the study period, and among them, CRBSIs was seen in 145 cases.Mean
duration of dialysis catheters in situ was 20.6days.99 (68.2%) patients were males, and 46
(31.7%) were females. Diabetes mellitus (76.5 %) was the most common premorbid illness
associated with CRBSI. 81.3% patients found to be below 10 mg/dl of Hb, and
68.3%patients had leucocytosis. Among 145 of CRBSI, blood cultures were positive in 48
patients, and 97 patients were culture negative.45.8% isolates were gram-positive and
52.8% isolates were gram-negative bacteria, and one isolate was found to be fungal
infection.Among gram positive, CONS were most isolated, followed by Enterococcus,
MSSA and MRSA.

Clinical profile of hemodialysis catheter related bloodstream infections

Moturu Venkata Viswanath; Dr. Raghavendra Sadineni; Dr. Vara prasada Rao K; Prof. Praveen Kumar Kolla

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 919-933

Introduction: Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is a critical problem in dialysis center.
Aim: To study the prevalence of central venous catheter related blood stream infections and to identify the microbiological profile of organisms causing CRBSI.
Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study carried out at Dialysis unit over a period of two years on 145 hemodialysis patients, who had cultures of catheter and blood samples were studied.

MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE EYEFUND IN CHILDREN WITH DIABETES MELLITUS.

Odilova Guljamol Rustamovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1469-1476

Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disease, therefore it is a priority medical and social problem. Often with diabetes, it is the ocular manifestations that primarily lead to the disability of patients. The review contains an analysis of the morphological experimental and clinical studies of fundus elements in patients with DM - original research, reviews and monographs by domestic and foreign authors, mainly in recent years. Clinical and morphological changes in diabetes are discussed, early diabetic changes in the retina, blood vessels, and macula are described. The important role of changes in the internal plexiform layer and ganglion cells

Clinical Study of Macular Oedema

Dr. Neha Shankar Shetty; Dr. Vijay Hari Karambelkar; Dr. Girish Arun Gadre

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 850-861

To study the clinical profile, etiology and various patterns of Macular Oedema. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional case study was done from December 2018 to May 2020 at Krishna institute of medical sciences, Karad. Detailed history and examination of the patients done including Amsler Grid, Color Vision using Ishihara’s Chart and Slit lamp 90D examination and dilated fundoscopy. Pattern of macular oedema was evaluated and subsequently documented using Fundus camera, OCT and FFA.

Detection Of Serum Calprotectin Level Changes For Early Diagnosis Of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy In Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Farid Fawzy Abd El-hafez; Ayman Abd-Elrahman Mohamed Nsr-Allah; Ahmed Kamal Abd Eljalil Mohamed; Aza Mostafa Ahmed; Amira Ahmed Mahmoud

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 2428-2437

Background: Calprotectin was identified as an endogenous Toll-liken receptor 4 (TLR4) activator and as a receptor for progressive glycation end products (RAGE), Elevated Calprotectin plasma levels have been recorded in various chronic inflammatory conditions, expecting microvascular alterations in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Objective: To make an up to date review of Serum level of Calprotectin as a predictor for early diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes patients. Patients and methods: A total number of 90 subjects were included in the study after fulfillment of the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Calprotectin was measured for all the 90 subjects. Results: Serum calprotectin levels were significantly higher in group III “diabetics with neuropathy” compared to group II “diabetics without neuropathy “and group I “healthy controls” Conclusion: In Type 2 diabetes patients with peripheral neuropathy, elevated levels of calprotectin have been identified.

Endogenous Antioxidant Activity Combination Of Moringa Leaf And Clove Flower Extracts Toward Diabetic Rats (Rattus Norvegicus)

Muhammad Fakhrul Hardani; Ririen Hardani; Sitti Rahmawati; Baharuddin Hamzah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1806-1813

In pathological conditions such as Diabetes Mellitus (DM), increased oxidative stress can cause a decrease in endogenous activity in the body so the body is unable to detoxify free radicals that cause cell damage. Some of natural antioxidant sources are moringa leaves (Moringa oleifera Lamk.) and clove flowers (Syzygium aromaticum Merry & Perril). The purpose of this study was to determine the enzyme activity of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) in a mixture composing of ethanol extract of moringa leaf and clove flower towards animals with DM conditions. This research is an experimental laboratory study using a post test only group design. The subjects of this study were 40 white male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) strain which were DM conditioned by streptozotocin induction. Rats were randomly grouped into 8 groups, and each group consisted of 5 rats. The combined dosage of the ethanol extract of moringa leaves and clove flowers used is a combination I : 150: 40 mg / kg body weight rat, combination II 100: 80 mg / kg body weight rat and III 50: 120 mg / kg body weight rat. The results showed that the combination of ethanol extract of moringa leaves (Moringa oleifera L. and clove flower (Syzygium aromaticum Merry & Perril) increased the antioxidant enzyme activity of SOD and GPx in animals with DM conditions.

Effect of Cold Hot Water Soaking in the Feet on the Value of Ankle Brachial Index in Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Pratiwi Christa Simarmata; Dewi Elizadiani Suza; Rosina Tarigan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1615-1621

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by an increase in blood sugar levels that cause vascular complications and circulatory disorders. Hot and cold water soaking in the feet can increase blood flow and blood vessel pumping. Objective: to assess the effect of hot and cold water soaking in the foot blood circulation in patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods: A quasi-experimental was conducted with pre-test and post-test approach with control. Respondents were 35 people per group by consecutive sampling. Data were analysed using Wilcoxon signed ranks test and the Mann Whitney Test. Result: there was a significant effect between the average value of Ankle Brachial Index before 0.823 (SD 0.025) and after treatment 0.95 (SD 0.95), p-value = 0.00. The mean difference was obtained p = 0.00, if the p value <0.05, there was a significant difference in the difference in the mean value. Conclusion: it was found that the leg blood circulation was getting better after the hot cold water soaking. It is recommended for nurses to make hot and cold water immersion into one of the independent nursing interventions in providing nursing care to diabetes mellitus patients.

Pantoprazole Rescue The Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction In Diabetic Rats Through DDAH/ADMA/Enos/NO Pathway

Gaurav Taneja; Satyendra K. Rajput

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 224-238

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the commonly recommended treatment for gastric abnormalities. The structural scaffold of PPIs (Pantoprazole; PPZ) provides an incalculable chance of association with diverse biological receptors which indicate a huge possibility of pleiotropic therapeutic impact which needs to be explored. Recently, several studies report the cardioprotective events of PPIs, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. Four groups having six animals in each were considered for this study. STZ (50 mg/kg/i.p) was given to induced chronic diabetes mellitus (DM) and vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED). PPZ (4 mg/kg/p.o/daily for 8 weeks) was evaluated against DM induced VED by measuring endothelial relaxation, aortic/serum nitrite/nitrate concentration, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), aortic superoxide anion generation, serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) in the cell lysate of each animals group. PPZ significantly overcome the perturbed level of hyperglycemia measured by blood glucose level, increase the availability of NO measured by aortic/serum nitrite/nitrate concentration. Treatment with PPZ showed the determinate lessening of tissue injuries as it averted increase expression of VED measured by ACh-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation, and diminution in oxidative stress, plasma ADMA level, and DDAH concentration in the cell lysate. The vascular protective potential of PPZ has a strong correlation with the DDAH/ADMA/eNOS/NO signaling pathway. Furthermore, the study also explored the antioxidant activity of PPZ which may also facilitate this protective pathway by increasing the bioavailability of NO in the endothelium.

FEATURES OF DIAGNOSTICS OF CARDIOVASCULAR AUTONOMOUS NEUROPATHY OF CHILDREN WITH DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 1

Dilfuza Ashurova; Azizakhon Sadirkhodjaeva; Malika Khaldarbekova; Zukhra , Shermatova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2382-2392

Abstract. The presence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) significantly
worsens the prognosis and course of the underlying disease. So in patients with diabetes
mellitus (DM) and CAN, the mortality rate for 5 years is five times higher compared to
patients without this complication. Due to the fact that CAN is closely associated with
cardiovascular pathology, many authors consider CAN as a significant factor in
cardiovascular risk. Purpose. To establish clinical, functional and metabolic changes in
diabetic autonomic cardiovascular neuropathy in children with type 1 diabetes. Materials and
methods research. The total number of patients studied by us was 114 children with type 1
diabetes mellitus aged 4 to 18 years. We conducted laboratory and instrumental research
methods. Laboratory methods: general clinical research (general analysis of blood and urine,
studies of blood sugar), biochemical methods (total blood protein, bilirubin, cholesterol,
triglycerides, creatinine, urea, electrolytes, glycated hemoglobin), 24-hour heart rate
monitoring with circadian index estimation was used and parameters of time and frequency
analysis of heart rate variability. Conclusion diabetic autonomic cardiovascular neuropathy in
children with type 1 diabetes is characterized by the development of tachyarrhythmic rhythm
disturbances, as well as the formation of rigidity of the heart rhythm and a decrease in the
sensitivity of the sinus node to parasympathetic influences according to a temporary analysis
of daily monitoring of heart rhythm.

Prevalence of thyroid disorders in patients with diabetes mellitus in South Indian Population.

Harikrishnan S; Yuvaraj Maria Francis; Balaji Karunakaran; Kumaresan . M; Gunapriya Ragunath

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 3329-3334

Introduction: Diabetes is a common problem seen in one third of the population. Prior studies reveal that many patients also have associated thyroid dysfunction. However there are not many published studies on these in India. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in diabetics is 2-3 times more than non diabetic patients. Blood glucose is affected by high thyroid levels or low thyroid levels. When thyroid levels are high, there is elevation of blood glucose. This is because the body uses up insulin faster due to acceleration of general metabolism by thyroid. When there is hypothyroidism, the insulin is used up slower, so blood glucose can get reduced. Thyroid hence, play an important role in maintaining regular blood glucose and insulin levels. Anytime it is out of control, it could cause abnormal glucose levels. Uncontrolled Hypothyroidism causes weight gain while uncontrolled hyperthyroidism causes weight loss. These weight changes can also alter the glycemic control in diabetics. Overall diabetes and thyroid dysfunction causes unpredictable changes in glucose levels. So, thyroid abnormality the easily correctable disease between these two - thyroid and diabetes should be screened for and corrected in every diabetic. Before we start screening for thyroid dysfunction in diabetics, we should know the prevalence of the disease in our settings. Aim: This study aims to uncover the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among diabetics in an urban diabetic clinic in south India. Methodology: In this retrospective study, data of 724 patients with diabetes who attended an diabetic clinic in saveetha Medical College and Hospital from September 2018 to May 2019, and whose thyroid stimulating hormone were tested for were included. The inclusion criteria are: Diabetes - both known and newly diagnosed in whom TSH has been done within the last one year. The exclusion criteria are: Age less than 20 years, patients on drugs that can affect thyroid function tests and are pregnant. Results: Thyroid disorders were found in 136 out of the 724 diabetic patients. Most common thyroid abnormality among diabetics was hypothyroidism 123 (16.9%) followed by hyperthyroidism 10 (1.4%) and sub clinical hypothyroidism 3(0.4%). Prevalence of thyroid disorders was found to be more in females. Conclusion: To conclude, every fifth patient with type 2 diabetes will havea thyroid disorder. 9 out of 10 patients with thyroid disorder in diabetes mellitus will suffer from hypothyroidism. Though subclinical hypothyroidism and hypothyroidism are seen in diabetics, it is relatively uncommon. A clinical protocol of screening all diabetics for thyroid function at initial evaluation will help in diagnosing and treating the disease earlier.

Phytochemical analysis of α-amylase- inhibiting secondary metabolites of endophyte Penicillium brevicaule alba Thom

Gulyamova T.G.; Nasmetova S.M.; Ruzieva D.M.; Mukhammedov I.I,; Kadyrova G.Kh.; Karimova F. A.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 829-836

The present work was aimed to identify phytochemicals in methanol extract P. brevicaule alba Thom - CC200, obtained from C. cristata , by qualitative and TLC analysis and evaluation of α-amylase inhibitory activity in vitro. It was determined the presence in the extract of glycosides, terpenoids, and saponins. The partitioning of the extract by TLC showed that inhibition of enzyme activity at 50,3% and 37,6% is associated with two compounds of saponin nature.

New Aspects in the Study of Clinical and Morphological New Aspects in the Study of Blood in Type II Diabetes Mellitus

Tatyana V. Pavlova; Vladimir F. Kulikovskij; Anton N. Kaplin; Irina I. Povalyaeva; Lyudmila O. Zemlianskaia; Lyubov A. Pavlova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 128-133

The aim of the research was to study red blood cells in type II diabetes mellitus (DM),
both an independently occurring disease, and in combination with hypertension, using
innovative research methods (atomic force and scanning electron microscopy with
elemental analysis). In the course of the study, we observed 20 patients aged 40 to 50
years. All of them were divided into groups of 5 people: without somatic and endocrine
pathology and infectious diseases; with moderate type II DM; stage II hypertension;
with a combination of type II DM and hypertension. Each has passed the necessary set
of generally accepted clinical and laboratory examination methods together with related
specialists (therapist, endocrinologist, neurologist, ophthalmologist). Blood was taken
from each patient for subsequent light, atomic force and scanning electron microscopy.
A morphometric analysis of the tissues in the Ntegra-Aura instrument was also
performed. We observed the most pronounced changes in the structure of erythrocytes
in people with a combination of type II DM and hypertension: the number of
degenerative forms increases sharply, and the number of discocytes decreases. In this
regard, such altered red blood cells can’t perform their functions in full. The article
substantiates the possibility and future prospects of using atomic force and scanning
electron microscopy with elemental analysis for independent type II DM, and in
combination with arterial hypertension.

CLINICAL AND X-RAY PECULIARITIES OF THE COURSE OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE IN COMBINATION WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

Jamshed Turdumatov; Gulshod Mardieva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3009-3028

At present, the important role of comorbid diseases, including diabetes
mellitus, in the course of COPD has been determined. Concomitant diabetes
mellitus accelerates the progression of ventilation disorders and worsens the
prognosis, increasing the risk of mortality from COPD. Diabetes mellitus is
associated with COPD from 2 to 16%. Potential mechanisms underlying the
high incidence of the combined course of COPD and type 2 diabetes mellitus
include: chronic systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, and chronic
hyperglycemia.
Purpose. determination of clinical, functional and radiological features
of COPD in diabetes mellitus.
Materials and methods. We examined 75 patients and studied the
features of the course of COPD in combination with diabetes mellitus in
comparison with the results of examining patients with COPD and patients
with diabetes mellitus by X-ray and MSCT.
Results. Patients with COPD in combination with diabetes mellitus are
characterized by more pronounced respiratory failure and chronic cor
pulmonale, frequent exacerbations and more pronounced hypoxemia in
comparison with patients with COPD. Standard radiography did not reveal
pronounced differences between the examined groups of patients with COPD.
COPD is formed as a result of damage to the small bronchi, which determines
the characteristic clinical and radiological symptom complex. In the structure
of COPD, there is a pulmonary component and systemic manifestations that
aggravate the disease. The manifestations of diabetes mellitus are based on
micro- and macroangiopathies that affect pulmonary microcirculation.
Conclusions. Diagnostically significant for COPD during MSCT is a
symptom of expiratory "air trap", combined with expansion and deformation of
the bronchi, up to bronchioectasis. At MSCT in patients with COPD and
diabetes mellitus, pathognomic changes characterizing microangiopathy:
dilated parenchymal vessels, focal-like shadows of vascular origin with a
diameter of 2-5 mm, a clear-cut shape of the vessels, which are considered as a
consequence of specific microangiopathy and fibrotic changes in COPD.

Evaluation of Anti-Hyperglycemic Effect of Passiflora Edulis Sims (Yellow Passion Fruit) Juice on Alloxan Monohydrate Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Male Sprague Dawley Rats

Merlita C. Medallon; Leah Quinto; Allysa Mae P. Nipolo; Eric M. Pujante; Jessa Marie P. Sebolino; Jay Steven G. Toreja

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4107-4113

Nowadays, the incidence of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is growing around the world. In fact, it is one of the most serious diseases among adults in the age of 45 and a life - threatening disease over the age of 50, resulting to be the leading causes of death in which Filipinos are also affected by the disease. One of the most known way to treat DM is using insulin. However, side effect, toxicity, and organ damage may happen due to continuous usage of synthetic anti-hyperglycemic agent. Therefore, finding non-toxic and affordable treatment for Diabetes such as medicinal plants is presented. Present investigation was undertaken to investigate the ability of Passiflora edulis sims (yellow passion fruit) pulp juice as anti-hyperglycemic agent on male Sprague-dawley rats, and to compare and evaluate which concentration used in the study of Passiflora edulis sims pulp juice is significantly better as anti-hyperglycemic agent. Thirty (30) individual rats were used in this experiment, 10 of them are used for toxicity testing and no toxic effect has been observed after 24 hours. The remaining 20 rats were randomly divided into five (5) groups, DM was induced by using Alloxan monohydrate dissolved in 0.5 M buffered citrate at a pH of 4.5 and was injected intraperitoneally. Treatment was done by oral administration of yellow passion fruit pulp juice, 1ml, 1.5ml, 2ml, and 2.5ml respectively. The effectiveness of fruit juice was compared with a control group this include diabetic rats treated with water. Results of the study revealed that 1.5 mL, 2mL and 2.5mL concentration of the fruit juice significantly decrease the blood glucose of the diabetic rats while pre and post blood glucose only shows a significant decrease on group 4 and group 5, the highly evidence of anti-hyperglycemic factor occur. Therefore, the Passiflora edulis sims pulp juice fruit juice can be used as alternative treatment for diabetes mellitus

Effect of BergeniaLigulata on Metabolic Enzymes of Glucose Homeostasis and Its Correlation With Antioxidant Activity in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

Nagarani K; Swathi P; Eswar Kumar K

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 187-202

Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is characterized by loss of glucose homeostasis as a result of impaired secretion and function of insulin. The present study was designed to evaluate the role of flower extractof Bergenialigulataagainst diabetesin Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Albino Wistar rats weighing 120-150g of either sex were selected for the study.After a week of acclimatization, the rats were subjected to overnight fasting. Diabeteswas induced by intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin, freshly dissolved in citrate bufferpH 4.5.In the present study the STZ control animals showed enhanced gluconeogenic enzymes and diminished glycolytic enzymes there by it disturb the glucose homeostasis and diminished insulin production leads increased serum glucose levels. Treatment with flower extract ofBergenialigulata(AFBL) showed significant balancing of glucose homeostasis through reduction in gluconeogenic enzymes and elevation of glycolytic enzymes.The selected flower extract ofBergenialigulata(AFBL) showed in vivo antioxidant activity, antihyperglycemic activity, hepatoprotective activity, nephroprotective activity and finally glucose homeostatic activity might be due to the potent phytoconstituents present in the selected flower extract

The Potential Of Durian Seed Flour As An Alternative Source Of Carbohydrate For Diabetes Mellitus Sufferers

Purnama Ningsih; Irwan Said; Baharuddin Hamzah; I Made Tangkas; Izlah K. Bissin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 728-734

Abstract— Durian seed flour is a source of carbohydrates that has the potential to be used to meet the carbohydrate needs of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DMT-2) sufferers, but before it is used to fulfill carbohydrate needs in diabetes sufferers, an in vivo test is needed to identify the glycemic index (GI) of the flour. This study aims to determine the glycemic index of durian seed flour given orally to Sprague Dawley rats. This research was arranged in 2 steps, namely the manufacture of durian seeds flour and the glycemic index test with 5 repetitions with time variations 0; 30; 60; and 120 minutes at 3 days intervals using a glucometer. Rats were grouped into 3 groups each consisting of 2 rats. Flour was suspended in 0.1% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC) at a dose of 0.5625 g, positive control was 1.125 g of glucose that given in an oral way. Data in the form of test animal blood glucose levels versus time were analyzed into the Area Under Curve (AUC) glucose levels versus AUC. GI calculations were carried out by comparing AUC of durian seed flour to glucose AUC. The results of the research and calculations carried out obtained the GI of durian seed flour of 10.90 with low criteria category. With this GI value, it can be stated that durian seed flour has the potential as a source of carbohydrates for DMT-2 sufferers.

Effect Of Diabetes Mellitus Patient Adherence In Following Prolanis Activities On Hba1c Profile At UPTD Puskesmas Nursing Ngletih Kediri

Fidi Setyawan; Hanik Mariana Dewi; Sri Rahayu D.P; Arif Wijayanto; Nur Wijayanti; Hanie Kusuma Wardani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4624-4639

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease that has become a major health problem in Indonesia. The Chronic Disease Management Program (Prolanis) developed by BPJS Kesehatan in collaboration with First Level Health Facilities (FKTP) seeks to promote and prevent DM disease control. Efforts made include controlling the glycemic index to prevent microvascular and macrovascular complications that may occur with activities including medical consultation, counseling, home visits, club activities, and monitoring of health status.
Aim : The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of DM patient adherence in participating in Prolanis activities on the patient's HBA1C profile.
Method:This study is an analytical study using a retrospective cohort design. The research data is secondary data obtained from the Medical Records of DM patients from January-April 2019. The research subjects were 42 DM patients who were registered as active Prolanis participants who had HBA1C data at the April 2019 examination.
Result: The results of this study showed that the mean HBA1C value in 22 patients who routinely followed prolanis activities (7.2 ± 1.48)% was more controlled than the mean HBA1C in 20 patients who did not routinely participate in prolanic activities (9.27 ± 2.06)% .
Conclusion: From this study it can be concluded that there is a significant difference between DM patients who adhere to the schedule of prolanis activities and patients who do not comply with the schedule of prolanist activities at the UPTD Puskesmas Nursing Ngletih Kediri City with a value of p = 0.001 (p <0.05; CI = 95% )

Features of the Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Schizotypal Disorder

Oleg V. Ermilov; Andrey Yu. Tretyakov; Lyubov V. Romasenko; Nina I. Zhernakova; Elizaveta S. Rudycheva; Inna V. Tikhonova; Irina A. Misan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 122-127

Objective: To describe the features and mechanisms of development of metabolic
syndrome (MS), type 2 diabetes melitus (DM2) and intermediate states of glycemia in
psychosis the occurrence of these disorders, the values of total cholesterol (TC),
fractions of high density lipoproteins (HDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL),
triglycerides (TG), values of atherogenic coefficient (AC), insulinemia, С-peptidemia,
insulin resistance (IR) the level of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in a sample of patients
with schizophrenia and in mentally healthy individuals.
Materials and methods: The frequency of carbohydrate metabolism disorders (CMD) was
studied. Fasting glycemia was determined, and in the presence of its violation, a glucose
tolerance test was performed. MS components were studied in patients with DM2,
plasma concentrations of TC, HDL, VLDL, TG, C-peptide (CP), insulin and HbA1c were
determined in patients with DM2, AC values and IR indices were calculated using
HOMA-IR and CARO criteria.
Results: CMD in schizophrenia are more common than among mentally healthy subjects,
amounting to 13.1% (p=0.02), and the main condition here is a significant number of
individuals with impaired fasting glycemia (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)
among women (CMD p=0.01; IGT p<0.001; IFG p=0.03). A feature of psychiatric
sampling is a decrease in HDL by 16.4% (p=0.03) and an increase in AC by 52%
(p=0.02). Mentally ill men with MS are characterized by a significantly large value of AC
(p=0.019), insulinemia (p=0.02), CP level (p=0.02), HOMA-IR (p=0.01) and CARO
(p=0.04) values than in mentally ill patients with DM2 without MS. In comparison with
the control, regardless of gender, the schizophrenic patients with DM2 have significantly
lower values of insulin (p=0.03), C-peptidemia (p=0.04) and IR, according to the criteria of
HOMA-IR (p=0.01) and CARO (p=0.03).

Early Diagnosis And Prevention Of Dentoalveolar Anomalies And Cariogenic Situation In Children Suffering From Diabetes

Kamalova Feruza Rakhmatillaevna; Eshonkulov Golibjon Torakulovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2468-2472

We examined 60 children from 5 to 17 years old in the regional endocrinological dispensary in Bukhara in the children's department with diabetes mellitus. The program "Healthy Tooth" was developed according to the following parameters: anamnesis of life, the state of the periodontium, the state of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity, the intensity of the spread of caries, the state of occlusion, the state of hygiene of the oral cavity, the state of the tongue. In all children, we took into account the following survey indicators: blood sugar level, age, hygiene index, PMA index and indices kp, KPU + Kp, KPU. At the same time, a comprehensive study of the oral cavity was carried out, which included the identification of patients' complaints, anamnesis, and a visual examination.

New Aspects in the Study of Clinical and Morphological Features of Uterine Blood Flow in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in the Mother

Tatyana V. Pavlova; Anton N. Kaplin; Lyudmila O. Zemlianskaia; NataliaB. Pilkevich; LyubovA. Pavlova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 105-109

The aim of the study was to develop new approaches to the study of modern aspects of
the clinical and morphological features of uterine blood flow in type I diabetes mellitus
(DM) in the mother. Under our supervision, there were 40 pregnant women with type I
DM. Clinical examination methods generally accepted in obstetric practice were used to
assess the condition of the fetus, placenta, and blood flow in the fetal vessels and uterine
arteries. Light microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron
microscopy (SEM) of 2 uterine fragments obtained during cesarean section were
performed. Samples were examined using a FE1 Quanta 200 3D scanning microscope,
analyzed, and morphometric and imaging were performed. Processing AFM images was
formulated using the NOVA software (NT-MDT, Russian Federation). Results obtained
allow us to judge the adverse effect of diabetes on the mother's body during pregnancy
and childbirth. Among the complications of pregnancy, it should be noted: the state of
preeclampsia (8%), fetoplacental insufficiency (88%), the threat of abortion (52%),
polyhydramnios (25%).Morphologically, we revealed plethora of the endometrium. A
change in the shape of the myometrium with the presence of fragmentary destructive
changes in the myometrium, including focal necrosis and damage to the vascular system
of the pregnant uterus. The paper substantiates the possibility of using scanning electron
and atomic force microscopy as express methods for morphofunctional diagnosis of a
woman's condition in pregnancy pathology

ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC LOSSES DUE TO DIABETES MELLITUS IN NATIONAL HEALTH INSURANCE PARTICIPANTS

Ani Pujiningrum; Thinni Nurul Rochmah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 821-830

The result of Indonesia Basic Health Research in 2018 showed an increase in the percentage of people with diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to analyze economic losses due to diabetes mellitus in National Health Insurance (NHI) participants with insurance fee waiver (IFW) and non-insurance fee waiver (IFW). This research was a quantitative study with a cross-sectional design. The sample of this study was 17 patients with IFW and 15 patients with non-IFW. The instrument used in this study was a questionnaire consisting of questions about the variable characteristics of the respondents and the direct and indirect costs that should be paid for treatment. Economic losses due to diabetes mellitus were analyzed through direct and indirect total costs.The economic loss for patients with IFW was IDR 5,572,366. Meanwhile, the economic loss for patients with non-IFW was IDR 2,989,984. So, the biggest economic loss due to diabetes mellitus was found in patients with IFW. This was very high when compared to their average income of around IDR 634,375. This can happen because the NHI participants have not taken full advantage of the use of NHI.

Effect of Diabetes Mellitus Patient Adherence in Following Prolanis Activities on HbA1C Profile at UPTD Puskesmas Nursing Ngletih Kediri

FidiSetyawan .; Hanik Mariana Dewi; Sri Rahayu D.P; ArifWijayanto .; Nur Wijayanti; Hanie Kusuma Wardani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 935-941

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease that has become a major health problem in Indonesia. The Chronic Disease Management Program (Prolanis) developed by BPJS Kesehatan in collaboration with First Level Health Facilities (FKTP) seeks to promote and prevent DM disease control. Efforts made include controlling the glycemic index to prevent microvascular and macrovascular complications that may occur with activities including medical consultation, counseling, home visits, club activities, and monitoring of health status. Aim : The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of DM patient adherence in participating in Prolanis activities on the patient's HBA1C profile. Method:This study is an analytical study using a retrospective cohort design. The research data is secondary data obtained from the Medical Records of DM patients from January-April 2019. The research subjects were 42 DM patients who were registered as active Prolanis participants who had HBA1C data at the April 2019 examination. Result: The results of this study showed that the mean HBA1C value in 22 patients who routinely followed prolanis activities (7.2 ± 1.48)% was more controlled than the mean HBA1C in 20 patients who did not routinely participate in prolanic activities (9.27 ± 2.06)% . Conclusion: From this study it can be concluded that there is a significant difference between DM patients who adhere to the schedule of prolanis activities and patients who do not comply with the schedule of prolanist activities at the UPTD Puskesmas Nursing Ngletih Kediri City with a value of p = 0.001 (p <0.05; CI = 95% )

RETROSPECTIVE STUDY ON BROAD SPECTRUM ANTIBIOTICS USED FOR DIABETIC AND NON DIABETICS PATIENTS

Amina Mehrin Bano; Dr.Hemavathy O.R; Sri Rengalakshmi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 955-962

Orofacial infections of odontogenic origin have long plagued mankind. The discovery of the miracle drug
by fleming in the year 1928 and the routine use of penicillin after the landmark discovery of the powder
form of the antibiotic by florey and chain leading to significant change in the management of odontogenic
infection .The spread of infection is governed by factors such as impaired host defence, the virulence of
microorganism, functional abnormalities of the host and a lack of or delayed treatment. the microbiology
of odontogenic infections in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals has been found to be variable. Though
the effects of diabetes can affect infection severity , length of hospital stay, susceptibility to antibiotics
and outcome of treatment is unassured . Differentiation in antibiotics prescribed is also observed.The aim
of the study was to analyse the prevalence of the use of antibiotics among diabetic and non-diabetic
patients in a south indian dental university clinic . The list of all diabetics and non diabetics patients
treated for pain, dental infections , swelling were retrieved by reviewing 86000 patient records who have
visited the hospital during the study periods from june 2019 to march 2020 from the university
database.Data tabulation was carried out in Excel. The data was imported and transcribed in Statistical
Package for Social sciences version 16(SPSS,IBM corporation). Descriptive analysis was carried out.A
total of 9128 patients were included in the study based on treatment done of which 580 patients(6.3%) had
diabetes mellitus. Only 3.5 % of the male population and 2.8% of the female population has
diabetes.Amoxicillin 93.2% was found to be the most frequently prescribed antibiotics among nondiabetic
patients and diabetics patients 1.6% .A combination of metronidazole and amoxicillin was
prescribed to 0.5% of the whole study population .A combination clavulanic acid and
amoxicillin(augmentin )was prescribed to 4 % of the total diabetic study population and 0.4% of the nondiabetic
study population that is about.The relation between the diabetic status of a patient and the
antibiotic prescribed showed a significant statistical relationship in a Pearson's Chi square test with p value
of 0.001(p<0.005).The prescribing practises in dental offices can be improved by increasing awareness
among dental practitioners about the recommended guidelines for prescribing antibiotics . The most
commonly prescribed antibiotics among diabetic patients was Augmentin (4.08%) and for non diabetics it
was amoxicillin (93.25%). .

Comparative Study Of Some Immunological Aspects Between Type I And Type II Diabetic Mellitus In Iraqi Patients Of Thi-Qar Province.

Hayfaa A. Thijail BSc; Hind M. Mousa PhD

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3537-3546

This study designed to compare the vital role of the inflammatory immune responses and autoimmunity in development both types of diabetic mellitus by measurement of serum IL-17 , and Anti-Gad levels among patients groups and healthy by using ELISA kits . The study included sixty DM patients were divided into two groups : 30 patients with Type I DM ( 33.7% ) , and 30 patients with Type II DM (33.7%) . In addition to 29 healthy individuals were (32.6 %) . The results indicated an elevated mean serum level of IL-17 and Anti-Gad in both patients groups , as compared with the healthy control with significant difference . Also, the findings recorded a highly significant difference in IL-17 and Anti-Gad sera levels between both types of patient groups at (P< 0. 01) . According to the correlation results between IL-17 and Anti-Gad in patients groups , the data was demonstrated that the expression of IL-17 had a significant positive correlation with expression of Anti-Gad (P< 0.05) among Type I patients . Whereas an inverse very weak correlation was observed between IL-17 and Anti-Gad with no significant (P ˃ 0.05) in Type 2 patients . we concluded the an elevated levels of IL-17A in both types of DM may be as a prognostic factor for development them in Iraqi population. We also conclude that elevated Anti-Gad in Type II DM may be an indication of the rapid development of undiagnosed insulin deficiency in latent autoimmune diabetes in adult patients .

PRION PROTEINS AND DIABETES MELLITUS - A REVIEW

S. Vidyashri; Jayalakshmi Somasundaram; MP Brundha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1520-1528

The objective of this article is to provide an overview on the association between Prion proteins and diabetes mellitus which is important so as to understand the aetiology of diabetes mellitus and provide better treatment plans. Prions are misfolded proteins Which have the ability to transmit their misfolded structure to normal variants of the same protein. Prions form abnormal aggregates of protein known as amyloids. Islet amyloid polypeptide, IAPP, is a precursor protein which causes islet amyloid polypeptide amyloidosis, AIAPP, and is said to lead to type two diabetes. Prion aggregates are generally stable and resist proteolysis. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterised by high blood sugar level over a long period of time. It is mainly caused by insulin deficiency or resistance. Prion mediated diseases are generally neurodegenerative disorders such as Kuru, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease etc. There are two isoforms of prions which are PrP and PrPSc. PrPSc is the infective form and is capable of converting PrPC into infective state. In this review, we discuss the association of prion protein with diabetes mellitus, the structure and propagation of Prion proteins and the link between diabetes mellitus and other prion mediated diseases via cross seeding. A review has been done in order to understand and analyse the association between prion protein and diabetes mellitus by retrieving a minimum of 20 articles from various data search engines including pubmed, Google scholar, MESH, core, bioRXiv, Semantic scholar and so on. This review gives a clear understanding of prion proteins, their structure, propagation and disease causing abilities. It is also analyzed that diabetes mellitus could not be just a disease which is caused by insulin deficiency or resistance but could also be the consequence of protein misfolding.