Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus aureus: An Overview of Discovery, Characteristics, Epidemiology, Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Sensitivity

Narin A Rasheed; Nawfal R Hussein

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1160-1183

Staphylococcus aureus is an important infectious pathogen in health sector and communities. S. aureus was first described by the Scottish surgeon Alexander Ogaston in surgical abscess in 1881. It causes various infections ranged between simple to life threating infections. Owing potent toxins and other virulence factors enabled the bacteria to be very virulent. Additionally, acquisition of antimicrobial resistant genes increased the challenge in treating the infections caused by bacteria especially methicillin resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) that are often multidrug resistant strains. The circulation of MRSA between health settings and communities resulted in changing even the genetic map for the strains in both places. Vancomycin was used for years and still acts as the drug of choice for treating MRSA infections but recently the resistance to vancomycin has risen and vancomycin resistant S. aureus were recorded. Consequently, different regimes were used like combination of antibiotics to reduce the resistance rate to antibiotics if they were used as a single drug and practiced the control measures at health settings to reduce the spread of MRSA strains. At last, global health organizations call for research and finding new antibiotics agents and put MRSA on the top list of infectious agents that need more antibiotics.

An Action of Superlow Power EHF Radiation on Some Microbes in Vitro, Human Erythrocytes and the Functional Status of a Person

Felix A. Pyatakovich; Tatyana I. Yakunchenko; Kristina F. Makkonen; Olga V. Mevsha; Olga N. Moryleva; Sergio Stagnaro; Simone Caramel

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 110-114

This paper is devoted to the analysis of advanced scientific research about the role of
superlow intensity EHF effects on biological objects, including people. In this
investigation was utilized Gunn diode with the flow of electromagnetic radiation
superlow intensity of 10 μW and frequency 40-43 GHz. The estimation of the influence
of the millimeter radiation on staphylococcus aureus, E.coli, and the native blood has
been performed. It was shown the death of staphylococcus is associated with the
frequency of modulation signals of the radiation. The EHF irradiation of bacterial
suspension for one minute leads to the short-term disorders of motor function of
E.coli. Exposure by EHF of the super weak intensity causes inhibition of red blood cell
function, which manifests itself in a decrease in their ability to aggregate. Our
experimental data also prove that intake of water activated by means of EHF radiation
modifies the functional status of patients.

Isolation, Purification and Identification of Staphylococcal Enter-otoxin A from Pregnant Women have Urinary Tract Infections in AL-Kut City

Ayat Ali Mahood; Muthana Ibrahim Maleek; Ahmad Darweesh Jabar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4311-4318

This study aimed to isolate, purified and identified staphylococcal enterotoxin A from Staphy-lococcus aureus. 200 clinical urine samples were collected from pregnant women with urinary tract infection aged from ( 20-40 years).Then, these isolated were identified as Staphylococcus aureus by biochemical and molecular methods. The percentage of positive culture of Staphy-lococcus aureus was 47%. One strain was selected to produce of Staphylococcal enterotoxin A and this enterotoxin was purified by chromatography technique such as ion exchange and gel filtration. All purified fractions were collected and measured at 280 nm and then presence of enterotoxin A was detected by ELISA kit. Finally ,50 mg\ml of SEA was extracted from 15 liters of brain heart infusion broth.

Study of phytochemical constituents and Antibacterial activity of Methanol Extract of Physalis minima Linn.

B. Durga; A. Julius; S. Pavithradevi; A.Rahima Sumaya Fathima

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1733-1740

From prehistoric era, the plants are used as a healing for many alarming disease due to the presence of therapeutic value. Even in contemporary invention, many herbal plants are intent in research field to concise about the efficacy of plant in curing disease with fewer side effects in long term exposure. Physalis minima Linn is generally used in the indigenous system of medicine for various diseases like diuretic, fevers, etc. In the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate the phytochemical substances and bioactive compound of the aqueous methanol extract of unripe fruit of Physalis minima Linn. The crude extract was separated by soxhlet using methanol as solvent followed by the phytochemical screening to identify the presence of secondary metabolites. Volatile components present in the methanol extract were separated and identified using GC/MS. The Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry chromatogram result showed the presence of total of 18 bioactive compounds in crude extract of physalis minima Linn which are exhibiting different biological functions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammation, anticancer, antidiuretics etc. Antibacterial activity of Physalis minima Linn extracts were also studied using disc diffusion method. The activities of methanol extracts were tested and had showed good inhibition zone against Staphylococcus aureus.

Comparison Of The Antibacterial Efficacy Of Calcium Hydroxide When Mixed With Zamzam Water, Normal Saline And 2% Chlorhexidine - An In Vitro Study

Dr. Mubashir Baig Mirza; Dr. Faisal Suliman Alhedyan; Ayidh Muflih Al Qahtani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 1184-1193

Aim: To investigate the antimicrobial properties of calcium hydroxide when mixed with three vehicles namely Zamzam water, Normal saline and 2% Chlorhexidine.
Materials & Method: 6 plates of nutrient broth and S. aureus culture were prepared. 2 (5*3 mm) wells were prepared in one plate and is used as control. 3 wells each were prepared in the remaining 5 plates and filled with freshly prepared mix of calcium hydroxide with the three vehicles (5 wells were filled with each mix). The same process was repeated using 6 plates containing nutrient broth and B. subtilis culture. The plates were then incubated for 24 hours and the Zone of inhibition (ZOI) was measured. The pH of each mixture was also measured by using a pH meter. The data was analyzed by ANNOVA test and compared by using Tukey HSD test.
Result: The mean value of ZOI for Ca(OH2) and Zamzam was statistically significant when tested against both the bacteria. The pH of 12.26, 11.90 and 12.10 was achieved for Ca(OH2) and Zamzam, Ca(OH2) and Normal saline and 2% Chlorhexidine and Ca(OH2).
Conclusion: Calcium hydroxide powder mixed with Zamzam water exhibited the highest pH of 12.26 and showed statistical significant antimicrobial difference when compared to other medicaments. However further in depth scientific investigations regarding the properties and safety of Zamzam water and World health organization (WHO) approval would be required before considering its clinical use.


S. R. Kulkarni; Nitin H. Patil; Mayur Nagevekar; Ravendra M. Yadave; Umesh V. Chogule

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 4142-4148

The present prospective study has been carried out in the Department of General Surgery, KIMS Karad, out of 200 cases that had undergone other surgical procedures. The rate of infection of the surgical site and the frequency of various pathogens caused surgical site infection in general surgery units with their antibiotic resistance patterns. Aim of the study is to prevent or reduce the incidence of surgical site infection in clean, hygienic and contaminated cases.Surgical site infection (SSI) is both the most frequently studied healthcare-associated infection and the most common healthcare-associated infection. Incidence of General Surgical Site Infection is 5.5%. Older age group is commonly involved. Risk factors like anemia, diabetes mellitus, hypoproteinemia, and hypertension are associated with increased Surgical Site Infection rate. Contaminated cases had more SSI rate (23.33%) as compared to clean- contaminated cases (4.82%). Most of the bacterial isolates were multidrug resistant.