Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Dyslipidemia


Gayathry A, Lasitha NK, Rachana Raveendran, Kanchana SB, Manjusha K, Aswathi Rajan, Dinesh Roy D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 3301-3309

Coronary artery disease (CAD), the leading cause of mortality globally, is one of the major cardiovascular diseases, which results in the buildup of plaque leading to narrowing of coronary arteries. Genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors have an important role in the development of the disease. Moreover, dyslipidemia is a major focus among the risk factors involved in the pathogenesis of CAD. Early diagnosis and management of the disease can be achieved by analyzing the level of biomarkers like NT-proBNP. The study was conducted among 110 test subjects who were dyslipidemic with CAD and 110 control subjects without any chronic illness. The study revealed that test subjects have an increased concentration of NT-proBNP than the control subjects. Moreover, NT-proBNP can also be used as a biomarker for the early prediction of CAD patients with dyslipidemia


Dr Hariom Gupta, Dr Umesh Pratap Singh, Dr Sunil Kumar Tripathi, Dr Vijay kumar Shah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1179-1186

Purpose: The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence of risk factors in younger patients (age <45 years) presenting with ami.
Methods: In this observational, cross-sectional study, a total of 150 patients were studied between april 2020 and june 2021 for the risk factors of ami. Patients with characteristic electrocardiographic changes suggestive of coronary artery disease, within 15-44 years of age were included and data regarding baseline clinical characteristics were reported.
Results: Maximum patients (82%) were in the age group of 35-44 years where males (73.3%) outnumbered females (26.7%).Among all the risk factors, dyslipidemia (77.3%) was the most prevalent, and significantly higher in smokers, obese (body mass index ≥25) and diabetic patients. Major complication was arrhythmia (45.3%), and anterior wall myocardial infarction was the most prevalent pattern of myocardial infarction (61.3%). Majority of patients had two risk factors and maximum number of patients i.e, 141 (94%) were discharged from hospital after treatment while 9 (6%) died.
Conclusion: The present study revealed that dyslipidemia was the major modifiable risk factor of ami in the younger population followed by sedentary lifestyle, obesity, tobacco chewing, smoking, diabetes mellitus, systemic hypertension, and family history where majority of patients had two risk factors


Mohsin Mohammed Bava, Roshan M , Nithasha N H

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 2024-2030

Background: Obesity can alter lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. There is an epidemic rise in obesity in the country. Dyslipidemia (DLP), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) has been recognized as a common complication of obesity. Present study was aimed to study clinico-social profile of young obese individuals at a tertiary hospital.
Material and Methods: Present study was single-center, descriptive, observational study, conducted in young individuals (18-40 years age group), with BMI ≥25kg/m2. Results: Among 150 young obese individuals, common age group was between 36 -40 years of age (53.3 %) and the mean age was 34.43 ± 3.76 years. Majority were male (62 %) as compared to female (38 %). Majority cases were in the BMI group of 25-30 kg/m2 (74%) as compared to > 30 kg/m2 (26%). High risk factors such as alcohol consumption (38 %), smoking (43.3 %) & family history of obesity (25.3 %) were also noted. The most common associated comorbidity was dyslipidemia found in 12.7% of cases followed by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in 8.7% and then impaired fasting glucose in 8% of cases. 69.3% of cases had no history of comorbidities It was found that impaired fasting glucose was seen in 53.3% of cases where as only 11.3% were having type 2 diabetes mellitus.  In this study, it was found that dyslipidemia was seen among 82% of the cases. High TC, LDL and TC/HDL-C ratio was found in 3.3%, 22% and 62.7% of subjects, respectively. Percentage of hypertriglyceridemia was 36.7% among the cases. Low HDL was found in 33.3% of subjects.
Conclusion: Young obese individuals are prone for altered fasting blood sugar (impaired fasting glucose &/and type 2 diabetes mellitus) & dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and high TC/HDL-C).


Bangalia, Satyendr Sonkariya, Chethan C.S., Laxman Singh Charan, Anil Kumar Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1706-1712

Background: Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of clinical findings due to kidney damage. This includes protein in urine, low blood albumin levels, high blood lipids, and significant edema. The main cause of hyperlipidemia in patients with NS is probably increased hepatic lipogenesis, a non-specific reaction to falling oncotic pressure secondary to hypoalbuminemia. Hyperlipidemia is usually observed during the active phase of the disease and disappears with resolution of proteinuria. However, it may persist in some cases, leading to increased risk of atherosclerosis in later life and development of progressive renal injury. The current study was carried out to evaluate dyslipidemia in children with nephrotic syndrome.
Methods: This prospective cohort study was carried out at outpatient and inpatient units of Department of Pediatrics, JLN Medical College, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India during January 2020 to December 2020. A total of 60 consecutive children aged between one year and 18 years with newly diagnosed nephrotic syndrome or presenting with relapse of the disease. All patients were routinely monitored with daily weight, BP, abdominal girth, intake/output chart and urine albumin. Patients previously diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome with relapse were also admitted. Serum lipid profile was done by standard methods at three points of time: during disease activity, after attainment of remission and two weeks after completion of steroid therapy in steroid responsive nephrotic syndrome.
Results: Lipid parameters including mean total cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL and VLDL were elevated at admission and these levels reduced significantly at remission and at completion of steroid therapy (All p values<0.001). There was significant elevation of mean total cholesterol level in case of relapse as compared to the first episode of nephrotic syndrome (p=0.048), however, LDL, VLDL and HDL were not significantly different. There was significant elevation of total cholesterol level at admission in subsequent relapses as compared to first episode of nephrotic syndrome (p=0.01).
Conclusion: In children with nephrotic syndrome, lipid parameters including mean total cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL and VLDL were elevated at admission and these levels reduced significantly at remission and at completion of steroid therapy. Total cholesterol level was significantly elevated in children with relapse as compared to those with first episode of nephrotic syndrome.

Correlation Between Hemoglobin A1c and Serum Lipid Profile in Afghani Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Hemoglobin A1c Prognosticates Dyslipidemia

Mohammed Asif Shaik, Mohammed Abdul Rafi, Ayesha Abdul Raoof, Abdullah Ansari, Dr. Khuteja Samreen

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2399-2405

Background:Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have an increased prevalence of dyslipidemia, which contributes to their high risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This study is an attempt to determine the correlation between hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and serum lipid profile and to evaluate the importance of HbA1c as an indicator of dyslipidemia with T2DM.
Materials and Methods: This is a prospective and observational study was accomplished at Tertiary care teaching Hospital over a period of 6 months. Patients of either gender with an established diagnosis of T2DM were selected according to the American Diabetes Association criteria (ADA). These criteria set the following as values that are indicative of T2DM: HbA1C ≥6.5%, FPG ≥126 mg/dl, 2-h plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dl during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), or random plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dl.
Results: Blood glucose level was 149.35 ± 13.23 mg/dl and mean HbA1c was 7.96±1.46. Mean total cholesterol was 179.53±16.36, mean total triglyceride was 183.74±17.64, mean LDL was 105.85±8.50, Mean HDL was 36.94±4.28. HbA1c positively and significantly correlated with total cholesterol (r=0.091), LDL (r=0.013), HbA1c negatively and significantly correlated with HDL (r= - 0.126), and did not show any show correlation with VLDL (r=0.024) and total triglycerides (r=0.103).
Conclusion: Our study accomplished that HbA1c has a direct, significant correlation with total cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL, and LDL among the lipid profile. Significant positive correlation of HbA1c with lipid profiles from our study results implies that HbA1c can also be used as a predictor of dyslipidemia in addition to as a glycemic control parameter for prevention of complication.

A Study on Serum Myeloperoxidase, Apolipoprotein B and Glycated Hemoglobin Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Ratna Rajesh Gogulamudi, Laxmi Narayana Sripuram, Sreevani Namani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 864-870

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia
due to absolute or relative deficiency of insulin. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) occurs due to a
progressive decline in the ability of the pancreas to secrete enough insulin as well as
insulin resistance in insulin target tissues. The pathophysiology of T2D is characterized
by excessive accumulation of ectopic fat in the liver, pancreas, and skeletal muscles,
eventually manifesting as insulin resistance in these tissues and pancreatic beta cell
dysfunction that ultimately leads to hyperglycemia.Metabolic abnormalities such as
dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, or insulin resistanceand obesity play key roles in the
induction and progression of type 2 diabetesmellitus (T2DM). Objectives: To estimate
the levels of serum myeloperoxidase, apolipoprotein B and glycated hemoglobin in type
2 diabetic patients and also in healthy controls, to observe the relationship between
serum MPO with apo B and glycated hemoglobin and also between glycated
haemoglobin with apo B in type 2 diabetic patients and healthy controls.
Materials and Methods: Case control study was done taking 30 cases of type 2 diabetes
mellitus and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls. In all the subjects, concentrations
of HbA1c, serum apo B and serum MPO were estimated. HbA1c was measured by
turbidimetric method and serum Apo B by immune turbidimetric method using semi
auto analyser CHEM 5 Plus. Serum MPO was measured by ELISA method using
ELISA reader.

Renal Dysfunction and Low HDL Cholesterol in Indian Elderly

A. K. Behera, P. K.Rathor, C.Marndi, S. R.Nahak .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 3222-3232

Objective: The elderly has a significant morbidity and mortality rate from chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In CKD patients, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), a conventional CVD risk factor, are prevalent. In the community-dwelling population, nothing is known regarding the link between low HDL-C and renal impairment.
Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional study with 4,753 people participated, which was a retrospective study. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD equation) equation was used to compute the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Multiple logistic regression models and restricted cubic splines were used to investigate the links between renal impairment and low HDL-C.
Results: 620 (13.34 percent) of the 4,649 people who fit the criterion had low HDL-C levels of less than 40 mg/dl. Lower eGFR of 60 to 90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (OR, 2.03; 95 percent CI, 1.21–3.43) and marginal eGFR of 60 to 90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (OR, 1.26; 95 percent CI, 1.01–1.58) were significantly associated with low HDL-C in the fully adjusted model, compared to normal eGFR of 90 ml/min/1.73 m2. Furthermore, secondary studies employing the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation yielded consistent results. A substantial dose-response connection between eGFR and low HDL-C was found using fully adjusted cubic spline models (P for non-linearity, 0.356).
Conclusion: Renal dysfunction was independently and strongly linked with low HDL-C in this general senior population, and the incidence of low HDL-C increased with decreasing eGFR, suggesting that even minor changes in renal function may be associated with changed lipid levels.


Vijaitha S M, MDSabiullah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 11604-11610

Background:To assess the statistically significant difference in the serum lipid profile levels in the psoriasis cases and healthy controls and to evaluate atherogenicity in psoriatic patients which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.Psoriasis is a common and recurrent proliferative inflammatory skin disease that has been influenced by abnormal plasma lipid metabolism, genetic, environmental, viral, immunological factors and with high frequency of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Biochemically Psoriasis leads to increased synthesis and degradation of nucleoproteins, it is also associated with changes in blood biochemistry. This study was done to establish the correlation of lipid profile in the psoriasis patients and also to evaluate the risk of atherogenicity in psoriatic patients which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Blood samples were analysed for the following parameters in lipid profile, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, Triglycerides. A significant relation was found with dyslipidemia and increased risk of atherogenicity in psoriasis disease and severity of diseases in which the risk factors and secondary causes of hyperlipidemia were excluded.
Materials and Methods: Present study was done at Department of Biochemistry, Maheswara Medical College, Hyderabad and analysed fasting lipid profile in 160 patients diagnosed with mild to severe psoriasis and 160 age and gender matched healthy subjects as the control group in the period of 20 months.
Results: Subjects presented considerable risky elevation in lipid profile, serum total cholesterol (p<0.001), triglyceride (p 0.002), LDL-cholesterol (p<0.001), VLDL-cholesterol (p<0.001) and free fatty acids (<0.001) were found to be significantly higher than in control group. Significant decrease in statistical analysis was observed in HDL (p<0.001) levels of the two groups. Significant positive correlation in total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL and FFA was found between mild, moderate and severe psoriasis (PASI score) as compared with controls.
Conclusion: Present data suggest that psoriasis patients must be considered as a group at high risk for cardiovascular, since psoriasis per se seems to be associated with risk changes in the lipid profile. We conclude that psoriatic patients should be evaluated and followed up for the risk of hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases.

A Comparative Study of Serum Lipids Levels and lipoprotein A in Women with Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH) and Normotensive pregnant women


European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3665-3667

Introduction:Hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy is the one of the most common medical problem of pregnancy. Worldwide, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy causes complication in about 10 -16% of pregnancies. High blood pressure in pregnant women is related with incidence of large placental infarct and decreased placental growth resulting in intra uterine fetal growth restriction and intrauterine death. Hypertension in pregnancy is diagnosed when blood pressure is 140/90 mm of hg or greater with proteinuria and edema after 20 week of gestation. Plasma   lipid and lipoprotein (a) undergo both qualitative and quantitative changes during pregnancy. During the course of normal pregnancy, plasma triglycerides and cholesterol concentration rises by 200-400% and 25-50% respectively. An abnormal lipid profile is known to be strongly associated with atherosclerotic changes and has direct effect on endothelial dysfunction. In preeclampsia women, thromboxane rise more than in normotensive pregnant women. Increased lipid synthesis causes increase in PGI2:TXA2 ratio and plays a role in pathogenesis of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), hence the hyperlipidemia may be an important marker of toxemia of pregnancy.
Aim and Objectives:To asses and compare the serum levels of lipid and lipoprotein (a) in pregnant women with PIH and normotensive pregnant women.
Materials  and Methods: A  study  conducted  on  total of 100 pregnant patients  (50  cases  and  50  controls)  selected  according  to  inclusion  and  exclusion  criteria.  3ml  of venous  blood  was  drawn  to  estimate  total lipid profileand Serum Lipoprotein (a)  levels  in  each  subject.The data was analyzed results were expressed as Mean and standard deviation of various parameters in different group. P value < 0.05 is considered as significant. ROC curve analysis was done to assess maximum sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficiency
Results:In our study the mean ±SD values of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL,VLDL, Serum  Lipoprotein (a) are statistically significant higher in PIH  cases whereas HDL levels are low in cases when compared to controls.
Conclusion:A high lipid profile levels is observed to be associate with preeclampsia thus, serum lipid concentration and serum Lipoprotein (a) levels may provide a useful marker for screening patients at risk for developing PIH.


Sevara Mukhammadieva; Elnora Djuraeva; Nargiza Abduazizova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2439-2449

patients under 30. The control group consisted of 110 healthy middle-aged
individuals. In the surveyed population, those with 1 to 5 years of age were the largest group
(38.3%), followed by those with 5 to 10 years of age (34%). In 66.3% of the patients of RA MT
was used as a base preparation. The average dose (median) of MT over the study period was
10 mg per week. 80% of patients took prednisolone in an average dose of 10 mg/day. The
content of lipids in venous blood was determined by photocolometry on Vitros SYSTEM
Chemistry DT 60 biochemical analyzer (Austria). Results: RA patients who took MT showed a
significant increase in the level of triglycerides (TG). Also, it is characterised by an increase
in TG levels and a decrease in the concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
(HDL) and an increase in the atherogenicity factor. A more pronounced decrease in HDL
levels. Significantly high indicators of the atherogenicity coefficient, which to a lesser extent
depended on the duration of MT use. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and
triglyceridemia are also proved to be serious risk factors for atherosclerosis and
cardiovascular heart diseases (CHD). Also according to the results of the research, special
attention is paid to the use of hypolipidemic drugs, which is promising in improving the
prognosis and reducing cardiovascular injuries in RA patients. In the group of patients who
received additional lipidex SR, there was a decrease in the level of OHS by 17.1%, an
important shift was observed on the part of TG, this indicator decreased by 29.7% and
practically did not differ from the control indicators. HDL cholesterol in the SR lipidex group
increased significantly by 37.7%. These fibrates have a stimulating effect on all components of

Characteristics Of The Manifestation Of Hypertension In Patients With Dyslipidemia

Ochilova Dilorom Abdukarimovna; Komilova Baxmal Odilovna; Sobirov Shohruh Husenovich; Rakhmonkulova Nargiza Gafurovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 5313-5318

Arterial hypertension (AH) and various metabolic disorders are some of the most important problems of modern medical science and healthcare. This article describes the distribution of dyslipidemia among patients, one of the most important risk factors for hypertension, and its age and gender characteristics. The results of studies on diurnal changes in blood pressure in patients with arterial hypertension with dyslipidemia, important aspects of correction are also presented. The article provides important practical tips on the treatment of hypertension and blood pressure control for dyslipidemia.

Features of the Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Schizotypal Disorder

Oleg V. Ermilov; Andrey Yu. Tretyakov; Lyubov V. Romasenko; Nina I. Zhernakova; Elizaveta S. Rudycheva; Inna V. Tikhonova; Irina A. Misan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 122-127

Objective: To describe the features and mechanisms of development of metabolic
syndrome (MS), type 2 diabetes melitus (DM2) and intermediate states of glycemia in
psychosis the occurrence of these disorders, the values of total cholesterol (TC),
fractions of high density lipoproteins (HDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL),
triglycerides (TG), values of atherogenic coefficient (AC), insulinemia, С-peptidemia,
insulin resistance (IR) the level of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in a sample of patients
with schizophrenia and in mentally healthy individuals.
Materials and methods: The frequency of carbohydrate metabolism disorders (CMD) was
studied. Fasting glycemia was determined, and in the presence of its violation, a glucose
tolerance test was performed. MS components were studied in patients with DM2,
plasma concentrations of TC, HDL, VLDL, TG, C-peptide (CP), insulin and HbA1c were
determined in patients with DM2, AC values and IR indices were calculated using
HOMA-IR and CARO criteria.
Results: CMD in schizophrenia are more common than among mentally healthy subjects,
amounting to 13.1% (p=0.02), and the main condition here is a significant number of
individuals with impaired fasting glycemia (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)
among women (CMD p=0.01; IGT p<0.001; IFG p=0.03). A feature of psychiatric
sampling is a decrease in HDL by 16.4% (p=0.03) and an increase in AC by 52%
(p=0.02). Mentally ill men with MS are characterized by a significantly large value of AC
(p=0.019), insulinemia (p=0.02), CP level (p=0.02), HOMA-IR (p=0.01) and CARO
(p=0.04) values than in mentally ill patients with DM2 without MS. In comparison with
the control, regardless of gender, the schizophrenic patients with DM2 have significantly
lower values of insulin (p=0.03), C-peptidemia (p=0.04) and IR, according to the criteria of
HOMA-IR (p=0.01) and CARO (p=0.03).

The Effect Of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapyon Lipid Profileof Hiv Patients

Vera Bahar; Andi Makbul Aman; Sudirman Katu; Syakib Bakri; Haerani Rasyid; Husaini Umar; Risna Halim; Arifin Seweng

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 953-960

Background:The widespread use of highly active retroviral therapy (HAART) has indicated a dramatic reduction in impairment due to immunodeficiency. Several studies have shown that an adverse event of HAART on dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. This study aimed to assess changes in lipid profiles after HAART.
Methods:A prospective cohort study with a consecutive sampling method consists of 59 HIV-infected patientsreceiving HAART at Dr. Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital, Makassar, Indonesia, from March-September 2020. Lipid profiles were measured at the initial time and after three months of HAART. The drug regimen was divided into two groups: Regimen 
group 1 (tenofovir, lamivudine, efavirenz), and another regimen group (consist of 4 regimen group combination: zidovudine, lamivudine, efavirenz; tenofovir, emtricitabine, lopinavir/ritonavir; tenofovir, lamivudine, nevirapine, and tenofovir, lamivudine, rilpivirine). ANOVA paired t-test and chi-square test were used for statistical analysis(it is significant if p is<0.05).
Results:The mean age of the subjects was 32.1 ± 6.6 years old. About 76.3% of subjects were male. Regimen 1 was used by 88.1% of the subjects and another regimen only 11.9% of the subjects. There were 27 subjects (45.8%) were underweight. The proportion of subjects with lipid abnormalities after 3 months of HAART significantly higher in LDL-c and TG level (P= 0.002 and 0.021). Regimen group1 showed increased levels of total cholesterol (TC), LDL-c, and TG (P = 0.037, 0.041, and 0.001) after HAART.
Conclusion:Highly active retroviral therapy is associated with lipid profile changes in HIV patients after 3 months of therapy.