Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : insulin resistance


A study of serum uric acid levels in metabolic syndrome

Dr. Vanja Swarna Latha, Dr. Jonnadula Mohana Lakshmi, Dr. Maraju Sireesha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 3708-3714

Background and Objectives: The aim of this study is the association between uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome in individuals undergoing general health screening. Serum uric acid levels have been reported to be associated with a variety of cardiovascular conditions. Previous epidemiological studies have suggested that hyperuricemia may be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, on the other hand, many studies argue that the observed association between uric acid and atherosclerosis is attributable to an indirect association of hyperuricemia with cardiovascular risk factor or clustering of these metabolic and hemodynamic risk factors, designated “metabolic syndrome”.
Materials and Methods: The study comprised of metabolic syndrome cases visiting the general medicine outpatient at Government General Hospital, Guntur. Age and sex matched healthy volunteers served as controls. Total 100 out of which 50 cases and 50 controls. Physical Parameters like Waist Circumference (WC), Blood Pressure, Systolic (SBP) & Diastolic (DBP) and Biochemical parameters like Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) and Lipid profile Total Triglycerides (TTG), Total Cholesterol (TCH), HDL Cholesterol (HDL-C). Metabolic syndrome is diagnosed using the diagnostic criteria provided by the International Diabetes Federation.
Results: The total numbers of study participants were 100. Out of them 50 cases of central obesity were selected with increased waist circumference and 50 age and sex matched controls were selected with normal waist circumference. Out of 50 obese individuals metabolic syndrome was detected in 23 (46%) of subjects, in 14 (60.86%) of men and in 9 (39.1%) of women and hyperuricemia was detected in 21 (42%) of individuals. The overall serum uric acid (SUA) analysis in the 50 obese group, 21 (Twenty one) are with increased SUA levels. The mean± standard deviation values of all physical (waist circumference, blood pressure) and biochemical parameters (FPG, lipid profile, SUA) of obese group when compared to controls were statistically highly significant.
Discussion: In the present study risk analysis was done among the obese group (waist circumference >90cms in men and >80cms in women) and control group who were non obese. The difference between all the variables (physical and biochemical) of both groups based on the standard error of difference was statistically significant and also the p value (<0.001) that was obtained from Student t test was statistically significant.
Conclusion: in the present study, an elevated serum uric acid concentration was found to be correlated with hypertension, insulin resistance and the risk factors of metabolic syndrome.

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FASTING INSULIN AND HOMA-IR IN RURAL AND URBAN T2D PATIENTS

Yogesh Kumar Rai, Pavan Gautam, Anil Kumar, Roma Goyal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 285-290

Introduction: Insulin resistance is a feature of a number of clinical disorders, including T2D/glucose intolerance, obesity, dyslipidaemia and hypertension clustering in the so-called metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle manifests itself primarily as a reduction in insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis due to reduced glucose transport. 
Material and Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 subjects of type 2 diabetes having an age group of 40-70 years from urban and rural area of Meerut, U.P., India for determination of HOMA-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).
Result: We found   urban subjects had significantly higher fasting Glucose, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR values than rural subjects (p < 0.001).
Conclusion: Environmental and lifestyle changes resulting from industrialization and migration to urban environment from rural settings may be responsible to a large extent, for this epidemic of insulin resistance in Indians.

Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome have different levels of abdominal fat distribution, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk profiles

Mousumi Acharya, Subasis Mishra, subhra Samantroy, Anamika Mishra .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 3199-3203

Aim: The goal of this study was to see if there were any links between abdominal fat distribution and insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Methods: 350 women were included in a cross-sectional study that comprised a complete clinical examination, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk scores. Fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol were all tested biochemically. Insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk score were the primary outcomes of interest.
Results: The mean age of the subjects was 25.77 years. Oligoovulation was present in 99% of the women. Eighty-two (23.43%, 95% CI: 19.21%, 28.08%) women were obese and 100 (28.57%, 95% CI: 24.02%, 33.47%) women had android obesity. Insulin resistance waspresent in 136 (38.86%, 95% CI: 33.85%, 44.05%) women and 107 (30.57%, 95% CI: 25.91%, 35.55%) women had a cardiovascular risk >1. Women with a waist-hip ratio >0.85 were more likely to have insulin resistance (OR 2.70, 95% CI: 1.68, 4.35, p < 0.001) and at increased risk for cardiovascular events (OR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.97, p = 0.02). Obese women were more likely to have insulin resistance (OR 2.53, 95% CI: 1.53, 4.19, p < 0.001) and at increased risk for cardiovascular events (OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.30, 3.63, p = 0.003).
Conclusion: The long-term health risks of PCOS must be recognised, as they can be mitigated to some extent by early detection and therapies, such as modifying the individual's lifestyle

Correlation of vitamin D and Parathyroid hormone with insulin resistance in PCOS women

Govind Kahar, Akanksha Shrivastava,Rupali Sharma, Sonal Prasad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 422-427

Aim: To investigate the relation of vitamin D concentration and parathyroid hormone with
insulin resistance in PCOS women.
Methods: In the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar
Medical College & Hospital, Rohini, Delhi, a one-year observational study was conducted.
The levels of 25, hydroxyvitamin D and PTH, as well as the levels of fasting sugar and
insulin in the blood, were tested.
Results: There was a 91.0 percent prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (<20 ng/ml) in the
study, whereas 67.9 percent of participants had an elevated parathyroid hormone level.
According to the study, vitamin D insufficiency (r=-0.64, p=0.01) had a significant negative
connection with the HOMA-IR. Increased PTH levels were shown to have a positive
correlation with HOMA-IR.
Conclusion: Women with PCOS who have high parathyroid hormone levels or vitamin D
insufficiency have a higher incidence of glucose intolerance.
If vitamin D insufficiency and insulin resistance are strongly linked, it may be possible to
treat insulin resistance by raising vitamin D levels.

Correlation of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone with insulin resistance in PCOS women.

Dr. Govind Kahar, Dr. Akanksha Srivastava,Dr. Rupali Sharma, Sonal Prasad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 731-735

Aim: To investigate the relation of vitamin D concentration and parathyroid hormone with
insulin resistance in PCOS women.
Methods: In the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar
medical college & hospital Rohini Delhi, a one-year observational study was conducted. The
levels of 25, hydroxyvitamin D and PTH, as well as the levels of fasting sugar and insulin in
the blood, were tested.
Results: There was a 91.0 percent prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (

PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS AMONG PATIENTS VISITING DIFFERENT OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENTS(OPDs) OF A PRIVATE DENTAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL, CHENNAI, INDIA - A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

Vaishnavi Devi. B, Pratibha Ramani, Delphine Priscilla Antony. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3300-3316

Diabetes mellitus is a group of physiological dysfunctions characterised by increased blood
glucose level resulting directly from insulin resistance or impaired insulin secretion leading to
micro and macrovascular complications. The oral complications of diabetes mellitus includes
increased incidence of dental caries, dry mouth, burning mouth syndrome and periodontitis.
Assessment of blood glucose levels is essential prior to any specialised procedure to avert any
further oral and systemic complications. Screening of diabetes mellitus condition has become
a necessity in developing countries and study of this nature will have enormous public health
impact. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients visiting
different outpatient departments of private dental college hospital, Chennai. All the cases
referred from the month of June 2019 to March 2020 for random blood sugar tests were
chosen for the study. Data was collected from the dental hospital record system. Result data
was tabulated in excel and imported to SPSS for correlation and association. P<0.05 was
considered to be the level of statistical significance in this study. Within the limits of the
present study, diabetes mellitus prevalence in random blood sugar tested patients is 33.3 %
with a higher male incidence and more prevalent among the age group of 41 to 60 years.
Knowledge about the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the patients visiting dental hospital will
be helpful to the clinician to prevent any further complications before any specialised
procedure.

Comparative study of obesity between men and women: Review

Zainab khidhair hussain; Israa Hasan Ali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 367-378

Obesity is disorder in a foremost nutritional health it’s developed with countries developing. Also is known as increasingin fat accumulation that lead toproblem in health, besidesmay coin one of the reasons lead toloss of life,the obesity not effect on adults just but effect onoffspringand juveniles. In some ofinhabitants the incidence of obesity is superior in female than in male; on the other hand, the variation degree of the between the genderdifferby country.Obesity is generally measured by body mass index and waist circumference, Obesity are classified according to body mass index into:Pre obesity sort 1 : (25 - 29.9) kg/m2, Obesity sort 2 : (30 - 34.9 kg/m2) and extreme obesity sort 3: (40 kg/m2) or greater. Obesity is described by a pathologic condition with augmented overall of cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol while reduced of HDL levels.There are many hormones causes pathophysiology of fatness such as adipokines, gutcorrelated hormones and ghrelin, numerous studies have revealed that the association among fatness and the metabolic sickness such as Insulin resistance, activity of lipoprotein lipase in muscle reduction and free fatty acids increasing. Conclusion: Obesity and overweight different between men am women according to quality of life in different population and countries

BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE

Ms.Sophy, Dr. Anand Thirupathi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 9599-9606

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease. It encompasses a spectrum of conditions associated with lipid deposition in hepatocytes. It ranges from nonalcoholic steatohepatitis to advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. The disease is mostly silent and is often discovered through incidentally elevated liver enzyme levels. This study was to analyze the distribution of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with reference to age, gender, and socioeconomic status, to look for clinical features A total of 3762 residents were included in the present study including 2328 males and 1434 females with a mean age of 46.37 ± 14.28 years (range 20–92 years).   Measurements were taken for assessment of BMI and blood samples were collected for estimation of fasting blood glucose, Triglycerides, Cholesterol, Alanine transaminase, Aspartate transaminase, Total bilirubin, HDL and LDL.  All the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients studied are either overweight or obese and 92% of them are glucose intolerant or diabetics. The fasting blood glucose, serum triglyceride, serum cholesterol, serum uric acid, ALT and ALT/AST ratio values are significantly increased in NAFLD patients compared to controls. Uric acid and ALT/AST ratio are showed best overall discriminatory capacity among all biochemical parameters for NAFLD. NAFLD can be seen in both male and female patients associated with Insulin resistance syndrome and oxidative stress. The ALT/AST ratio is the better biochemical marker for diagnosis of NAFLD.  More large-scale prospective studies can validate our observations, help physicians in early identification of patients who may benefit from therapeutic interventions, and even help them formulate more effective treatment algorithms.  

Features of the Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Schizotypal Disorder

Oleg V. Ermilov; Andrey Yu. Tretyakov; Lyubov V. Romasenko; Nina I. Zhernakova; Elizaveta S. Rudycheva; Inna V. Tikhonova; Irina A. Misan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 122-127

Objective: To describe the features and mechanisms of development of metabolic
syndrome (MS), type 2 diabetes melitus (DM2) and intermediate states of glycemia in
psychosis the occurrence of these disorders, the values of total cholesterol (TC),
fractions of high density lipoproteins (HDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL),
triglycerides (TG), values of atherogenic coefficient (AC), insulinemia, С-peptidemia,
insulin resistance (IR) the level of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in a sample of patients
with schizophrenia and in mentally healthy individuals.
Materials and methods: The frequency of carbohydrate metabolism disorders (CMD) was
studied. Fasting glycemia was determined, and in the presence of its violation, a glucose
tolerance test was performed. MS components were studied in patients with DM2,
plasma concentrations of TC, HDL, VLDL, TG, C-peptide (CP), insulin and HbA1c were
determined in patients with DM2, AC values and IR indices were calculated using
HOMA-IR and CARO criteria.
Results: CMD in schizophrenia are more common than among mentally healthy subjects,
amounting to 13.1% (p=0.02), and the main condition here is a significant number of
individuals with impaired fasting glycemia (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)
among women (CMD p=0.01; IGT p<0.001; IFG p=0.03). A feature of psychiatric
sampling is a decrease in HDL by 16.4% (p=0.03) and an increase in AC by 52%
(p=0.02). Mentally ill men with MS are characterized by a significantly large value of AC
(p=0.019), insulinemia (p=0.02), CP level (p=0.02), HOMA-IR (p=0.01) and CARO
(p=0.04) values than in mentally ill patients with DM2 without MS. In comparison with
the control, regardless of gender, the schizophrenic patients with DM2 have significantly
lower values of insulin (p=0.03), C-peptidemia (p=0.04) and IR, according to the criteria of
HOMA-IR (p=0.01) and CARO (p=0.03).