Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : bladder cancer

Malat1 RNA Genetic Factor and T1 Bladder Cancer

Vladimir F. Kulikovsky; Viktor K. Gostishchev; Alexander F. Chernousov; Pavel G. Osipov; Andrey L. Yarosh; Uriy A. Hoschenko; Olesya I. Lokteva; Andrey A. Beresh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 141-145

Bladder cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the urinary tract. This disease
has a pronounced tendency to relapse and progress, is characterized by a severe course
and a high degree of disability. Non-invasive bladder cancer - superficial tumors of the
mucous membrane of the bladder with possible germination in the submucosal layer,
but without muscle invasion (pTa and pT1). Invasive bladder cancer - with germination in
the muscle layer (≥рТ2). Currently, there is an extensive literature on genetic data with
RMP T2-T4, but there is not enough information about the early form of RMP - T1. It
was discovered that almost 90% of the human genome is actively transcribed, while
only 2% are protein-coding genes, and the majority of the transcripts are non-coding
RNAs. Molecules of non-coding RNA, depending on their size, are divided by length. A
lot of data has been published regarding the effect of short variants of these molecules
on the development of oncopathology by inhibiting mRNA expression. At the same
time, we did not find large studies devoted to the study of the influence of long noncoding
RNAs. Also now, the MALAT1 dnaRNA is attracting the attention of scientists.
Concurrently, researchers are particularly interested in studying the relationship of single
nucleotide polymorphisms of the MALAT1 gene with the appearance of
oncopathologies of different localization, as well as the study of its association with
different characteristics and stages of the tumor process. In this study, we collected
overview data regarding the possible association of rs 3200401 polymorphism of the
MALAT1 gene in patients with a single focus and multifocal bladder cancer stage T1.

Cytogenetic and immunological alterations of recurrent bladder cancer

Shukhrat Ziyadullaev; Obid Elmamatov; Nodir Raximov; Farkhod Raufov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1877-1883

Abstract: In this review, we discussed genetic and immunological changes of bladder
cancer along with relapse of this disease; however, it should be noted that in most cases,
multiple genetic and immunological changes occur simultaneously or mutually dependent
on each other. Many genetic mutations disrupt the function of genes involved in
regulation, and conversely, chromosomal aberrations lead to changes in transcription.
Pathogenesis and transition of normal urothelium of bladder into cancer are multifactorial
processes. Chronic inflammation causes the initiation and progression of the main
pathophysiology of invasive and metastatic cancer. A dichotomy is observed in the role of
immune cells in bladder cancer. Although the immune response protects the bladder by
suppressing tumor growth, certain immune cells including neutrophils, macrophages, and
T-lymphocytes contribute the development and progression of the tumor.