Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : orthodontics


BIOETHICS AND ORTHODONTICS

Vishal Kumar Sharma; Sukhpal Kaur; Anil Prashar; Gurpreet Kaur .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2232-2237

Ethics as applied to medico-dental practice and associated research is called bioethics. From the Journal's inception, contributing authors have explored recurrent themes pertaining to bioethics. This early interest is a tribute to the keen foresight and enduring pride in professionalism that has persisted throughout the evolution of orthodontics.

Applications Of Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning In Orthodontics

Monika Chhabra; Rajdeep Kaur; Anil Prashar; Gurpreet Kaur .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2223-2231

Over the past two decades, artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) have undergone considerable development. There have been various applications in medicine and dentistry. Their application in orthodontics has progressed slowly, despite promising results. The available literature pertaining to the orthodontic applications of AI and ML has not been adequately synthesized and reviewed. This review article provides orthodontists with an overview of AI and ML, along with their applications. It describes state-of-the-art applications in the areas of orthodontic diagnosis, treatment planning, growth evaluations, and in the prediction of treatment outcomes. AI and ML are powerful tools that can be utilized to overcome some of the clinical problems that orthodontists face daily. With the availability of more data, better AI and ML systems should be expected to be developed that will help orthodontists practice more efficiently and improve the quality of care.

AUTOTRANSPLANTATION OF TOOTH

Tanushka Dutta, Dr. Nivedita Sahoo, Tarini Kumar Barik, Stuti Das, Tannita Paul

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 5685-5693

Teeth have been autotransplanted for many years, although with different degrees of success. However with recent advances and several documentations and cases, it has become a viable and successful line of treatment especially in cases of edentulism, cases of trauma resulting in the loss of teeth, pathologies and so on. It is a little-used method that, if used by a multidisciplinary team, might be the best course of action for patients. Autotransplantation has proven to be a useful therapeutic alternative, particularly for adolescents. It offers a biological and affordable alternative to traditional tooth replacement. This article aims to throw light on the history, indications, surgical methods and follow up of these cases and provides a comprehensive review of autotransplantation.

Predictability of crowding resolution in clear aligner treatment- An original research

Dr. V. Arun Deepak; Dr. Preetham Ravuri; Dr. Ajay K. Kubavat; Dr. Afreen Kauser; Dr. Ankit Kumar Shahi; Dr. Pradeep Kandikatla; Devirupa Mukherji .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 8730-8734

Aim: To assess the predictability of crowding resolution and the efficacy of different strategies to gain space during clear aligners treatment.
Methodology: 3D casts of a total of 40 subjects were evaluated. Thus, 80 arches were collected and uploaded on the Orthoanalyzer software for arch measurements. The data were gained on the starting arch form (T0), on the virtual arch developed with digital planning (vT1), and on the arch form achieved at the end of the aligner sequences (T1). The following parameters were scored: Little’s Irregularity Index, transversal arch diameters, (intercuspid, interpremolar, and intermolar width), incisor position/arch length, and enamel interproximal reduction (IPR).
Results: For all the measurements, statistically significant differences were found at different stages. The predictability of crowding resolution was very high, ranging from 87% in the upper arch and 81% in the lower one. Among the different strategies to gain space, variations in sagittal incisor position were predictable, with a value of 70% both in the upper and lower arch. Conversely, changes in arch diameters were less reliable varying between 49 and 67% in the lower arch and 59–83% in the upper one. Moreover, IPR was the least accurate procedure, wavering at 49% in the upper arch and 42% in the lower arch.
Conclusion: The predictability of crowding resolution during treatment with aligners was high. However, the virtual arch forms obtained at the end of digital planning (vT1) did not correspond with the arch forms at the end of the aligner sequences (T1). The IPR was the least predictable strategy to gain space, being, perhaps, an operator-dependent procedure.

Frequencies of Root Canal Treatment and Deep Caries in Clear Aligner compared To Conventional Orthodontic Treatment: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Abdulrahman Khalid A Alanazi, Ali Mesfer Nasser Alqahtani, Ali Mohammed Ali Asiri, Dareen Mohammed Alamri, Abdulrhman Ali T Alshuwayi, Ibrahim Abdullah Ibrahim Alkhurayef, Daad Hosam AlYousof, Lamia Jassim Yassin Aleid, Iman T El Mansy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 8218-8223

The impact of orthodontic forces on human pulpal tissues has been the subject of interest with an unpredictable result. These changes range from an inconsequential alteration in the pulp vasculature to a deplete in the respiration rate of the pulpal tissue. Moreover, the nature, direction and expanse of orthodontic appliances forces exerted during tooth movement, the maturity of root apices and patient’s age may all influence a change on human pulpal tissues.
Aim
Purpose of the study was to determine which orthodontic appliance has higher frequencies of      root canal treatment and deep caries that affect pulp vitality during the
Materials and Methods
A retrospective study using the patient electronic files (pre-operative and post-operative radiographs including patient treatment records).
Results
It can be observed from the findings that there was no statistically significant difference between Invisalign and conventional orthodontic treatment as far as caries incidence was concerned.
Conclusion
The overall prevalence of caries among orthodontic patients was 24% but there was no significant difference between Invisalign and conventional orthodontic treatments.

An Empirical Approaches towards Orthodontics clinical Practice & Management

Dr. Salman Hasan Khan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2486-2499

The conventional instruction of a dental specialist need set more terrific stress around
Creating Exceptionally skillful diagnostician alternately clinicians. Also need regularly left
an observable void in the region for act management. Concerning illustration dentistry
enters the 21st century, it countenances a regularly evolving populace & more ideas.
Orthodontic observes need aid minor businesses, not just around orthodontic providers, be
that as with at other human services suppliers too. Rivalry inside the coliseum goes from
general dentists performing orthodontics, excessively numerous orthodontists Furthermore
excessively set patients. Also, not many obstructions with entrance under the orthodontic
field exist, concerning illustration at graduates of certify dental schools cam wood act
orthodontics. The indifferent methodology to developing a orthodontic act will no more
can. You quit offering on that one normal situation is that a lot of people orthodontists
aren’t certain regarding how should approach and succeed in the really thing they might
requirement. This article will support those post-graduates and the working on
orthodontists previously, overseeing their clinical act and any issues which they face
previously, normal act

QUANTITATIVE LIGHT-INDUCED FLUORESCENCE (QLF) IN ORTHODONTICS – A REVIEW

Ravi S; Ferin Fathima; Pradeep S; I.Girish kumar; Bosy Thankam Mathew

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 303-312

Oral hygiene maintenance is usually more strenuous in patients undergoing orthodontic therapy as food lodgement occurs in between bands and brackets . Within a month of treatment this can lead to loss of mineral content of enamel. Preventive measures along with reinforcement and clinical evaluation is necessary. Mineral loss can occur before a white spot becomes visible on the enamel surface. Loss of minerals usually diagnosed by the clinicianwith visual evaluation alone cannot identify the mineral loss. This article attempts to identify and evaluate QLF as a diagnostic apparatus to detect white spot lesions and as a oral hygiene reinforcement reinforcement tool. A QLF apparatus consists of a DSLR camera along with filters and lighting to produce images

Case report – An esthetic approach to treat class II subdivision malocclusion using clear aligners

Dr.Muralidharan Dhanasekaran; Dr.Thirunavukkarasu. R; Dr.Tamizhmani J; Dr.Prasanth C; Dr.Bhuvaneswari Mani; Dr.Rakshethaa S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3126-3136

Evolving recent advances in esthetic orthodontic treatment like clear aligners increased a need for esthetic treatment compared to conventional fixed appliances. The clear aligner is a clear, removable and made up of semi-elastic polyurethane material where it uses computer aided modeling technique for the purpose of fabrication and to move the teeth for establishing optimal occlusion. The objective of this case report was to explain an advanced orthodontic treatment method for correction of Angle’s class II subdivision malocclusion with proclined upper and lower incisors, increased overjet, midline spacing in upper & lower anteriors and upper midline deviation towards the left side by 3 mm relating to the facial midline using clear aligners. At the end of aligner treatment, class II malocclusion, spacing and proclination within short period of time was corrected compared to that of fixed appliance. The patient was satisfied about functional and esthetic outcome after 1 year follow up

Preference Of Orthodontic Treatment Versus Orthognathic Surgery In Class Iii Malocclusion Cases: A Research Survey

Dr. Afreen Kauser; Dr. Rahul VC Tiwari; Dr. Ankita Khandelwal; Dr. Heena Tiwari; Dr. Sourabh Ramesh Joshi; Dr. Fawaz Abdul Hamid Baig; Dr. Anil Managutti

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1271-1276

Aim: The purpose of our research was to evaluate the preference of treatment strategy
amongst the dental professionals about class III malocclusion correction.
Methodology: A questionnaire survey for over a period of 1 year amongst 260 dental
professionals working for over 5 years. They were asked about their preference of
treatment strategies for carrying out correction of class III malocclusion cases. Their
experience of relapses, patient satisfaction as well as difficulty in handling such cases was
also recorded. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out for assessing the data
recorded with the help of SPSS 25.0.
Results: Dental professionals were of divided opinion regarding the treatment strategy for
class III malocclusion. However, most of them were of the view that orthodontic treatment
had more relapses as compared to orthognathic surgery combined with orthodontic
therapy, which was statistically significant as well (p=0.035).
Conclusion: Most of the survey participants were of opinion that combined treatment with
surgery first approach; will improve the facial profile of the patients drastically.

Preference of Orthodontic Treatment versus Orthognathic Surgery in class III Malocclusion Cases: A Questionnaire Survey

Dr. Sunil Kumar Gulia; Dr. Harinder Kaur Virk; Dr. Fida Qadri; Dr. Jyoti Mallanagouda Biradar; Dr. Sharnjot Kaur; Dr. Heeralal Chokotiya; Dr. Rahul VC Tiwari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3042-3048

Aim: The purpose of our research was to evaluate the preference of treatment strategy
amongst the orthodontists about class III malocclusion correction.
Methodology: A questionnaire survey for over a period of 1 year amongst 12 orthodontists
working for over 2 years. They were asked about their preference of treatment strategies for
carrying out correction of class III malocclusion cases. Their experience of relapses, patient
satisfaction as well as difficulty in handling such cases was also recorded. Descriptive
statistical analysis was carried out for assessing the data recorded with the help of SPSS 25.0.
Results: Orthodontists were of divided opinion regarding the treatment strategy for class III
malocclusion. However, most of them were of the view that orthodontic treatment had more
relapses as compared to orthognathic surgery combined with orthodontic therapy, which was
statistically significant as well (p=0.035).
Conclusion: Most of the survey participants were of opinion that combined treatment with
surgery first approach; will improve the facial profile of the patients drastically.

CBCT Evaluation Of Bicortical Thickness Of The Mid Palate For Micro-Osteo Perforation In Patients Undergoing Treatment With Miniscrew Assisted Rapid Palatal Expansion.

Akshay Mohan; S.Harish Babu; Arvind. S; Ashwin Mathew George

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 198-209

Objective: To evaluate the anatomical variations in bicortical thickness of the mid palatine region in order to calibrate the maximum depth of micro osteoperforation permissible at various sites along the midpalate.
Design: This was a retrospective cone-beam computed tomography study
Setting: The study was conducted in Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Methods: CBCT images of 60 subjects between the age of 14-28 years were taken up for evaluation from the records of the dental hospital. The sixty scans were from 37 males and 23 females. The CBCT images of subjects were evaluated by two investigators to assess the bicortical thickness of bone in the midpalatal region using fixed reference points and planes. Mean and standard deviation of bicortical thickness at various fixed landmarks were calculated. One-way ANOVA was done to check for variation of bicortical thickness among various sites in males and females. Intra operator reliability was checked by the paired T- test and Kappa statistics were used to evaluate inter-operator reliability between the observations by two observers (A.M, H.B).
Results: A mean value of 8.93+/-1.67mm, 6.37+/-1.56mm, 4.42+/-1.40mm, 3.11+/-1.21mm, 2.47+/-0.95mm, 2.07+/-0.93mm was obtained for reference points A, B, C, D, E and F respectively in males. It was observed that a mean value of 7.93+/-1.56mm, 5.48+/-1.39mm, 3.66+/-1.01mm, 2.81+/-1.06mm, 2.35+/-1.08mm, 2.09+/-1.18 mm was obtained for points A, B, C, D, Eand Frespectively in females. Statistically significant difference was observed between the six points (ANOVA test; p value- 0.00). The Intra operator reliability was assessed using a paired T-test and was estimated to be 0.93 and the inter-operator reliability by Kappa statistics was 0.321.
Conclusion: The bicortical thickness of the mid palate varies showing more thickness anteriorly and progressively getting thinner posteriorly. The anterior segment showed more variations in the thickness compared to the posteriors. Micro osteoperforation of palate can be done upto a depth of 8.93 mm in males and 7.93mm in females and a minimum depth of 3.11 mm in males and 3.66mm in females is possible in the anterior half of the palate. 

OPEN BITE: ETIOLOGY, DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT

S.Vaibava Keerthana; Dr. Thulasiram; Dr.M.S. Kannan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 1753-1756

Anterior open bite is one of the most difficult malocclusions to treat with its varied characterizations. Appropriate etiology should be identified for effective management of open bite. Anterior Open Bite can irrespectively occur in all kinds of malocclusion. Aesthetics, speech, mastication and tooth wear are some of the common concerns for the patients. Thorough apprehension of the anomaly is important in determining the appropriate corrective measures. This review will throw more light on the etiology of open bite, diagnosis and treatment enabling the clinicians for better understanding of the malocclusion.

Optimization Of Diagnosis And Prevention Of Development Of Caries For Orthodonic Treatment

Fozilov Uktam Abdurazakovich; Rizayeva Sevara Mirgulamovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 3714-3719

A wide range of scientific research is being carried out in the world to predict and detect early manifestations of caries in children during orthodontic treatment, as well as to optimize the effectiveness of diagnostic and treatment-and-prophylactic measures, existing diagnostic methods are already insufficient, there is an urgent need for additional research methods. From these positions, it seems promising to study diagnostic and therapeutic measures aimed at improving the quality indicators of orthodontic care for children. The development of the closest possible approach to the diagnosis and treatment of caries during orthodontic treatment in the early stages will help to obtain a stable aesthetic outcome in the treatment of orthodontic patients, and to avoid relapses. In modem orthodontic dentistry acute problem of prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases, especially in children and adolescents who have not yet completed the process of mineralization of hard tissues: soon after teething create a situation of increased risk of tooth decay. The purpose of this paper is to analyze complex information about methods of prevention of dental caries in patients with removable and non-removable orthodontic appliances

Dermal Fillers in Orthodontics

Dr.Diana Ashok; Dr. Gnanashanmugam; Kannan Sabapathy M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 1626-1629

Most of the signs of ageing can be related to volume loss. Dermal fillers are substances which can be injected beneath the skin, that helps restore the lost volume. They are gel like in consistency.1 Patients seeking orthodontic therapy often also present with adjuvant soft tissue deformities. The soft tissue deformity caused by an underlying skeletal or dental deformity will be self-corrected by orthognathic and/or orthodontic treatment. The inherent soft tissue deformities like decreased lip length, increased or decreased lip thickness, inadequate vermillion show, can be addressed by injecting dermal fillers, Botulinum Toxin A and cosmetic surgical soft tissue procedures.

The Applications and the Current Status of Silver Nanoparticles in the Field of Orthodontics

Aravind Kumar Subramanian

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 238-241

Nanotechnology over past decades, has emerged as a mainstay in various fields and has
been employed in various biomedical applications. It is currently being extensively used in
the manufacture of drugs, as a diagnostic aid, in implants, as a prosthetic material and in
tissue engineering. With the recent introduction of advanced Nano robotic models in local
anesthetic procedures, the applications and importance of nanotechnology in the field of
healthcare have gained renewed impetus. This review primarily throws light on the
current applications of silver nanoparticles in the field of Dentistry, emphasizing on
orthodontics in particular, with regard to their antimicrobial properties, anti-cariogenic
effects, Nano silver coating applications of orthodontic brackets, micro implants,
biocompatibility analysis and fixed orthodontic appliances.

ORTHODONTICS AND TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDERS

.Dr.K.C. Subhiksha; Dr. Gnanashanmugam; Dr. Kannan Sabapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 1732-1736

Temporomandibular disorders are considered as the main source of pain in the head and neck region which is of non- dental in origin. Its etiology is multifactorial and its pathogenesis has not been completely understood. The interest in the relationship between occlusal factors, orthodontic treatment and TMD has increased over the years. Hence the aim of this article is to review ten association of TMD and orthodontics from the available literature.

AN OVERVIEW OF THE METHODS OF PREDICTION PLANNING FOR ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY USING CEPHALOMETRICS

Dr. Niha Naveed; Dr. Kannan Sabapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 1675-1685

Prediction planning for orthognathic surgery allows the orthodontist to anticipate changes in hard and soft tissue that may arise as a result of the surgery. This can be useful to accordingly plan the orthognathic surgery and also as a means for informed patient’s consent and to communicate with the concerned maxillofacial surgeon. Cephalometric prediction in orthognathic surgery enables direct evaluation of both dental and skeletal movements, and can be performed manually or by computers, using several software programmes currently available. They can also be incorporated with video images. The aim of this article is to present and discuss the different methods of cephalometric prediction of the orthognathic surgical outcome.

ASSESSMENT OF TYPE OF RETRACTION MECHANICS COMMONLY CHOSEN BY ORTHODONTIC RESIDENTS

Swapna Sreenivasagan; Aravind S Kumar; Remmiya Mary Varghese; Sri Rengalakshmi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1068-1074

This study was designed to understand and evaluate the choice between friction and frictionless mechanics in extraction space closure. The orthodontics case sheets were evaluated to identify extraction cases. After examining 428 case sample tabulation of choice between friction and frictionless mechanics were examined. More female patients underwent orthodontic treatment. More cases were treated by friction mechanics rather than by frictionless mechanics. Only 55 cases of the whole were treated by loops for retraction and space closure. More orthodontists preferred retraction using friction mechanics which can be attributed to factors like being treated by faster mechanics, less cost and lesser demanding skill of clinician. The chair side time required is reduced