Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : physical activity



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 358-366

AIMS and OBJECTIVE: In light of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, this study made an effort to fill a knowledge gap about the influence of screen time (ST) on adolescents' lifestyle choices in India. During the COVID-19 pandemic in Karaikal, the study's goals were to 1) assess the frequency and duration of screen use, as well as screen addiction behaviours in 5-18year old children and 2) To know the effect of screen time on physical health.
MATERIALS and METHODS: The sample in this crosssectional study were 1000 children. A pre-structured  questionnaire is given to children to know their screen time during covid pandemic with parents/guardian consent and guidance. Parents were asked to fill the pre-structured questionnaire .
RESULTS: A total of 1000 children were enrolled in the study. High screen time i.e., >4hrs/day seen more in 16 – 18 years followed by 11-15 years then by 5-10years.Screen time had negative impact on physical health (P < 0.0001). High screen time in 16-18 years(51.13%) are more prone to overweight/obesity followed  by 11-15 years(45.53%) and then 5-10 years(35.63%) according to the study.
CONCLUSION: This study has paved the way for need of larger study and development of guidelines on impact of screen time on children in developing nations where screen time guidelines is yet to be set more so in era of COVID 19 pandemic

Assessment of Factors Influencing the Utilization of laboratory services on Public Primary Health Care Services in Makkah Al-Mokarramah City, Saudi Arabia in 2022

Jamil A Serdar, Ahmad Nabeel Khawandanah, Riyadh Naif Saleh Faydah,Sultan Musaad Alsharif, Khaled Ibraheem Alqurashe, Hamid Musaad Zaid Alsharif, Zaid Musaad Zaid Alsharif, Bassam Mohammed Saleh Bandugh, Abdulrahman Khalid Y Alzamzami, Rahaf Mustafa I Albensari, Hussain Mousa Alzahrani, Mutaz Mohammad Alandonisi, Walid Ahmad Mohammad Alkhairi, Naif Nagi Alsubhi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 3183-3198

     In resource-constrained settings, primary health centers (PHCs) are critical for universal health coverage. Laboratory service is one of its important components. While PHC and its performance are focused, its laboratory service has been neglected in developing countries.
A routine checkup is a general physical evaluation and is not performed for a specific injury, illness or condition. A routine checkup in laboratory service is one of its important components are beneficial for detecting diseases in early stages when treatments are most effective. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), free-of-charge healthcare services including the analysis to be carried out in laboratories are offered to citizens.  However, studies are consistently finding that Saudi people are not taking advantage of the free routine checkups. 


Sakshi Singh; Mrs. Deepa Reddy; Dr. Rita Lakhani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1246-1257

Background& Aim of the study: Indian data regarding current trends in childhood obesity are emerging. Lifestyle changes and worldwide nutrition transition are important factors for the obesity epidemic. Current eating habits include the consumption of fast foods, sugary drinks, baked food, soft drinks, etc. These eating habits with decreased physical activity, lack of sleep, and lack of social leisure activities will lead to childhood obesity. The present study was aimed to determine the selected contributing factors associated with childhood overweight/obesity among school children aged between 13 to 16 years, in Navi Mumbai.Material and Methods: A case-control study was conducted among 300 school children in that 74 cases (overweight/obese) and 74 control (non -obese children) aged from 13 to 16 years were selected by using purposive sampling technique. For the present study, two different schools were selected in Navi Mumbai such as NMMC School and Swami Vivekanand School. The conceptual framework of the present study was based on web of causation theory. D. Y. Patil school of Nursing ethical committee approval was taken for this study. Observational tool (weighing machine & measuring tape) was used to measure the weight and height of the school children and interview tool of risk assessment tool was used to analyse the selected contributing factors such as food habits, physical activities, sleeping patterns, medical history & social leisure activities.  The tool was modified based on validity and reliability. The collected data was tabulated, analyzed and interpreted by SPSS version. Frequency percentage distribution, odds ratio and chi-square test was used in this study. Results: Result revealed that out of 300 school children, 22% were overweight,3% school children were obese, 10% wereunderweight,and 65% were healthy. It was observed that nutritional factors like Bake food (OR=10.8, CI: 95%), Fast Food (OR=6, CI: 95%), Sugary drinks (OR=10.5, CI: 95%), soft drinks (OR=5, CI: 95%) were more likelihood of causing obesity & were significant factors. Physical factors like muscle & bone strengthening exercises (OR=0.092, CI: 95%), and aerobic activity (OR=0.11, CI: 95%) were less likelihood of causing overweight. In leisure factors, Students played outdoor games (OR=0.2, CI: 95%), and performed their hobbies (OR=0.15, CI: 95%) were less likelihood of causing obesity. Conclusion:Since school children obesity is rising at an alarming rate, the selected contributing factors determinants of obesity need to be addressed among school children. Eating fast food, soft drinks, baked food, and untimely meal were associated as risk factors for overweight/ obesity. While very less physical activity-exercise, lack of sleep & social leisure activities was also associated with overweight/ obesity. In order to prevent overweight and obesity, it is necessary to create awareness among schoolchildren about healthy eating practices and desirable lifestyles.

Nurse-Led Intervention on Reproductive health among young women in India

Princey Shaji, Dr. Maharaj Singh, RN, BSN, MSN, PhD, Dr. Bharti Sahu, MS, FICOG

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 5664-574

Historically, developed nations with high incomes have had the majority of the world's obese people. In low-income nations, the prevalence of overweight or obesity has recently increased dramatically. Over 30 million people in India are either overweight or obese. Women are more likely to have it than men. This study examines the results for obese women's reproductive health among women. For the investigation of the prevalence of overweight or obesity and its correlation with female reproductive health outcomes, the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), 2005–2006, was used. Overweight/obesity prevalence among women has significantly increased over time. Compared to women with a normal BMI, obese and overweight women had worse outcomes for their reproductive health.
The study determined the effectiveness of the Nurse – Led intervention approach to improving the reproductive health in young women from selected rural communities in Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh
A quasi-experimental, pre-interventional, and post-interventional control group design study was conducted in selected communities of Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India. Using a non-probability purposive sample method, young obese women were selected for the study.300 young obese women were chosen, 150 were placed in a research group, and the remaining 150 were placed in a control group. After receiving exercise instruction from an investigator for 30 minutes, three times per week for 24 weeks, participants were urged to carry out the exercises on their own for the following 12 weeks. The researcher developed a meal menu plan with the assistance of a dietitian as a component of the lifestyle change programme. A low-calorie diet plan (often 1200–1500 kcal/d) is advised for young obese women. To make sure that lifestyle adjustments were made on a regular basis, a practice diary was maintained. The subjects were called once every seven days. Young obese women in the control group received five days of lifestyle change package training after the trial, but they did not participate in the program.
After 12, and 24 weeks of the nurse-led intervention, there was a very statistically significant difference (P=0.001) between the study group and the control group. At weeks 12 and 24, the study group's average gain score was high. In comparison to the control group, the study group's total mean gain score was 30 as opposed to 28. The overall mean gain score difference between the study group and the control group throughout all of the nurse-led intervention life was 2. The study group had significant improvements in reproductive health after putting a 24-week lifestyle change programme into practise. Following the implementation of the lifestyle modification package, the women reported no negative side effects


Süreyya Yonca SEZER, Baha Engin ÇELİKEL

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 6630-6642

Covid-19 has largely maintained its effect in our country as well as in the world. This has adversely affected the lives of people by staying in quarantine or curfew. It was aimed to determine the Nutritional Levels and Physical Activity Habits of Physical Education and Sports Teachers during the Covid-19 Process with this study. The model of our study was applied to determine the nutritional habits and physical activity levels of physical education and sports teachers in the Eastern Anatolia region during the COVID-19 process. The population of our research consists of physical education and sports teachers among the teachers in the Eastern Anatolia region. The sample of our study consisted of 278 randomly selected people from among physical education teachers. In our study, in order to determine the healthy lifestyles of physical education and sports teachers, a questionnaire aimed at "Examination of Nutritional Habits and Nutritional Knowledge Levels of Healthcare Professionals" through Yücel (2015) and a short form of "International Physical Activity Questionnaire" were developed by Erdoğan(2021) and adapted to the pandemic process bydeveloping "Nutritional Knowledge Level, Nutritional Habits and Physical Activity Levels in the Pandemic Process" and a questionnaire with 26 questions was applied to determine the nutritional knowledge levels, nutritional habits and physical activity levels of teachers. The data obtained in our study were transferred to the SPSS 22 package program and analyzed and the significance level was accepted as p<0.05. It was determined that 37.1% of physical education teachers had changes in their eating habits, they ate 2 meals with 56.8% of their daily main meals, Lunch with 56.1% of the meals they skipped during the day, Meal skipping reasons were caused by changes in their sleep pattern with 30.9%, 36% of them did not change the type of food they consumed at the snack, the most common type of food/beverage they consumed between meals was fruit/dry fruit with 40.6%, and 47.8% of them did not change their daily fluid consumption and as daily water consumption, 33.5% of physical education teachers consumed 1.5 liters of water. When the physical activity levels were examined, it was found that 45% of the physical education teachers did not do regular physical activity, 42.8% exercised once a week, and in physical activity, there was no change, 59% of them did their physical activities in the gym, it was also determined that  36.7% of them think their physical activities are beneficial, 37.4% were partially affected by the stay at home project, and 53.2% had increased body weight.
As a result, it is thought that there are changes in nutritional knowledge levels and physical activity levels, that it negatively affects human health during the pandemic period, and that adequate/balanced nutrition and physical activity during the COVID-19 process will positively affect people's health.

Menopause related quality of life among females of rural field practice area of a tertiary care centre in Jaipur

Dr. Niti Gahlot, Dr. Uttam Kumar, Dr. Archana Paliwal, Dr. Abhilasha Maharrshi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 572-579

Background: The various types of post-menopausal symptoms progressively worsen the well-being of
women and affect, consequently, their quality of life (QOL) on a daily basis.
1. To determine the prevalence of poor quality of life among post-menopausal women of rural area.
2. To assess the factors responsible for the poor quality of life among post-menopausal women of rural
Methods: A community based cross sectional observational study was carried out among 100
postmenopausal females aged between 40-60 yrs of age. The standardized Menopause-Specific Quality
of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were
Results: Among the study participants, the most common symptoms in the physical domain were
“decrease in physical strength” (88%), “decrease in stamina” (81%) and “feeling tired and worn out”
(81%). Urinary incontinence was seen in 26% of women. In the psychosocial domain, “the feeling of
having the ability to accomplish less than previously” was the predominant one (78%). Among the
symptoms of sexual domain, “decrease in sexual desire” was the most common complaint (67%). Among
vasomotor symptoms, hot flashes were present in only 35% of participants. Those having low physical
activity were exposed to more postmenopausal symptoms as compared to those having moderate and
severe physical activity.
Conclusion: Menopause is associated with decrease in QOL. Awareness regarding menopausal
symptoms will lead to improvement in QOL by early recognition.

Assessing Physical activity and Perceived barriers among physicians in Primary Health Care in Makkah city.Cross sectional 2021

Ayman Afif Jaha, Shaker Musleh Alhuthali, Saud Hassan Ali Al-Sakhry

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 3092-3108

Regular physical activity can play an important role in both the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, stroke, some cancers, osteoporosis and depression, as well as improving the lipid profile.' A met analysis of the relation between physical activity and coronary heart disease reported that the relative risk of coronary heart disease death in the least active compared with the most active was 1 9-fold.

Effectiveness of Smartphone Apps and Team Supports by Social Media Approaches to Promote Physical Activity Levels among Indonesian Nursing Students: Feasibility Study

Suardi Suardi, Ernawati Ernawati, Ferdy Lainsamputy, Sumarmi Sumarmi, Fransiskus Xaverius Widiantoro

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 4484-4494

Little known effectiveness of smartphone app exercise user in Indonesian nursing-students. It is necessary to explore the influence of interactive technologies on self-rated health or overall well-being. This study was evaluated an interactive smartphone-health app for nursing-students and the impact of a program building with psychosocial base on the increase of exercise efficacy to promote levels of physical activity (PA).
A pretest-posttest non-equivalent control design applied in 70 Indonesian nursing-students. A randomized assignment with a time-cluster technique used to avoid information contamination between groups. The web-based group received a social cognitive theory- based behavioral skill-building intervention by a web-based game with team competition for 10-week of a program. Outcome included level of PA, health outcomes, and self- efficacy. Multivariate ANCOVA and Chi-square test were adopted to test pre- and post- outcome effects.

“Relationship between Physical Activity and Mental Health among Chronic Psychiatric Patients“

Mrs Liji Jiju Chacko

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 9133-9143

The present study was aimed to study relationship between physical activity and
General mental health among chronic psychiatric patients. A sample of 200 chronic
psychiatric patients (100 male patients and 100 female patients) was selected by non
probability purposive sampling technique method. The sample taken were chronic
psychiatric patients who attended psychiatric OPD and day care centre from, selected
hospitals Pune. The patients who were diagnosed as mentally ill for more than 2 years
were selected for the study. Their age was between 20 to 60 years. They responded to
two tools International Physical Activity Questionnaire Scale by Craig, Marshall,
Sjostrom, Bauman, Booth, Ainsworth &amp;amp; Oja (2003) and General
Health Questionnaire by Goldberg &amp;amp; Williams (1970). The statistical tool
Pearson’s product moment correlation method was used to find the correlation
between physical activity and general mental health among chronic psychiatric
patients. Another statistics independent‘t’-test was used to study the gender difference
in physical activity and general mental health among chronic psychiatric patients. The
results showed that there is negative correlation (‘r’=-0.606) found between physical
activity and general mental health among chronic psychiatric male and female patients
at 0.01 level of significance. There is gender difference (‘t’=1.99) found in physical
activity among chronic psychiatric patients. There is gender difference (‘t’=3.27) found
in general mental health among chronic psychiatric patients. Although the differences
is minimal. There is a moderate level of physical activities found in females and the
general mental health of females is found higher than the males and also the negative
correlation explains that the amount of physical activity is not related to the mental
health of the psychiatric patients, as the chronic psychiatric patients physical activities
are more of household, work related and transportation based and not recreational
physical activity. Hence health personnel’s have to plan the home based care with
recreational activities to improve mental health of the patients at home.

Comparing Sitting Time Between Male And Female Undergraduate Students During Weekdays And Weekends

Yohana Unyang Juren; Kim Geok Soh; Kim Lam Soh; Swee Leong Ong; Siswantoyo, M. K; Jaka S unardi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 79-87

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the total daily sitting time for male and female undergraduate students and to compare their daily sitting time between weekdays and weekends. A sample of 375 participants responded to the Sedentary Behaviour Questionnaires (SBQ) survey. T-test was used to analyse the differences in sitting time between genders, while multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was performed to investigate the gender differences in the sitting time between weekdays and weekends. The results showed that female undergraduate have a longer daily sitting time (M=9.64 hours/day, SD=30.302) as compared to the male undergraduate (M=9.46 hours/day, SD=31.296). However, there was no significant difference reported between sitting time for both genders (t=1.379, p= 0.169, p>0.05). Higher total sitting time on weekdays and weekends were also reported by female undergraduate students as compared the male undergraduate students. Similarly, no significant findings were also reported between genders during weekdays and weekends. The reported F-value was F(2,375)=1.7, P=0.05: Wikls’ Lambda=.99; partial eta squared=0.007. Prolong durations of daily sitting time (more then 6 hours daily) is associated with higher rate of chronic diseases and premature death especially among working adults. Hence, undergraduates who are future workforce replacements need to be encouraged to be active and not sit too long during their study years. Good habits such as completing their tasks while standing and to break the prolonged sitting patterns with slight movements should be inculated in their daily routines. This can help them to reduce the risk of being sedentary by sitting too much and too long in a day.

Need of Comprehensive Physiotherapy in Multiple Sclerosis: A Narrative Review

Archana Choudhary; Dr. Amandeep Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 4754-4761

Multiple Sclerosis is a chronic progressive and debilitating disease of adults which attacks myelin sheath in brain and spinal cord, leading to problems with coordination, balance, spasticity, muscle control, disability, gait disturbances and other basic bodily functions. The course of disease is highly unpredictable which greatly vary among MS patients. In majority MS attacks young adults which significantly affect the quality of life at an early stage of life. As far there is no known cure has been established for MS and patients are profoundly depends on DMDs to improve their physical as well as mental symptoms although the treatments are very expensive. Patients with MS usually do not involve in physical activity due to afraid of worsening of pre-existing symptoms or might get a relapse. Physicians now believe that exercises can play a crucial role in preventing deconditioning and to improve physical and mental symptoms as well as may have possible neuroprotective role in MS. This article reviews the effects of Physical therapy interventions on pathophysiology and on specific impairments in MS patients, and emphasizes a productive role of physical rehabilitation in PwMs.
A comprehensive literature search was done by formulating the research questions such as effects/role /benefits of exercises in MS (PubMed, SweMed, NCBI, Cochrane, Elsevier, Wiley online Library, Hindawi)

Effects Of Physical Activity On Patients With Chronic Nephropathy

Botir T. Daminov; Durdona S. Saipova; Dano A. Egamberdieva; Iroda A. Ruzmetova; Narina R. Raimkulova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 3454-3466

The research describes the concept of healthiness of the physical activity for patients with chronic kidney disease, moreover because the effect of 12-week physical training on physical activity in patients with chronic disease of stage 3-4 who are on a low-protein diet.
At the identical time, patients with variety of chronic diseases aside from CKD also suffer from poor physical performance and muscle atrophy, but more evidence has been accumulated of the positive effect of exercise in such patients [3].
Increased physical activity is related to improved ability to perform everyday activities, professional tasks. Therefore, regular exercise is usually recommended for such patients within the DOPPS study, patients who performed regular physical activity had the next quality of life related to health, good fitness and sleep quality indicators, with fewer patients with limited physical activity and lack of appetite [4].


Sneha Kannan; Venkatesh K; Ganesh Lakshmanan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 591-599

The aim of this study is to get awareness about the benefits of physical activity and its effect on dental students. Recently, it has been recognized that lack of physical activity , especially regular stretching of arms and legs, may affect the course and pathogenesis of a number of systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, bacterial pneumonia, diabetes mellitus and low birth weight. The purpose of this study is to get awareness about the importance of physical activities and their benefits during the busy schedule of dental students. Dentistry is a field of challenges, especially the health of a budding dentist must be on top priority . A well maintained body is equal to a peaceful mind and it can be attained only through exercise. A cross sectional questionnaire survey was conducted. A total of 104 people of Saveetha Dental College were made to answer all the questions. The result will be analyzed using statistical analysis.
In this study, it was found that 90% are aware of the effect of physical activity to control systemic disease and only 14% are not aware of the statement. It has been proven that physically active individuals gain less weight over time and maintain good health. Thus infrastructure improvements such as sports activity in colleges among faculties, combined with regular exercise provide additional physical activity that would help to reduce obesity and non-communicable diseases in the future.