Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : pandemic

Real-Time Measurement Of Psychological Impact Due To E- Learning; Among The Undergraduate Dental Students During Covid-19

H.M. Owais Nasim; Azeem Ul Yaqin Syed; Laraib Qamar; Saba Saleem; Zainab Javaid; Ayesha Khalid; Muhammad Sohail Zafar; Nausheen Aga

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1242-1251

Objectives: To assess the psychological factors in undergraduate dental students towards elearning
in clinical skills education compared to traditional teaching methods and their
relationship with performance during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: In this study, survey conducted among 494undergraduate dental students of all four
sessions from different dental universities within the Pakistan. Total 494 undergraduate
dental students responded to a 28-question online survey to identify e- learning is more
convenient and practical than traditional learning and to measure it 5- point Likert Scale used.
To measure level of psychological impact, Hamilton Anxiety Scale used due to e-learning
among undergraduate dental students.
Results: The majority of undergraduate dental student’s responded e-learning is not
convenient and practical than traditional learning system. The majority of undergraduate
dental students reported very severe level of psychological impact due to e-learning and closing
of institutions during COVID-19 pandemic. Results are statistically significant and analyzed
on IBM SPSS version 23. There are 82% students responded having problem with e-learning
system and among them 58 % have very severe anxiety and 24% have severe anxiety. So the
results shows increased percentage of anxiety due e-learning.
Conclusion: Dental students expressed a higher level of comfort and effective learning in a
recognizable, conventional classroom circumstance. Teaching with traditional system
improves student’s critical thinking skills and formulates opinions or arguments by engaging in
live discussions. This study reveals that students face challenges in using the e-learning
resources because of incompetency in the IT skills, lack of motivation and access to proper
internet. The most important issue identified by this study is maintaining an effective
interaction with dental students in e-learning system of teaching to fill the gap between the
teacher and students. There should be further flexibility workload and learning time tostudents to reduce the level of anxiety among the dental students.

INDIA‘s Warfare with COVID - The Invisible Enemy

Nerella Sameera; V.S.R.Pavan Kumar. Neeli

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 9-16

Approximately one year back (December, 2019) CORONA virus born and vibrates the world rigorously, affects many people lives, taught many lessons, habitats new manners, new lifestyles, etc. The whole world suddenly turns into the dark side. This research paper discusses the scenario of covid outbreak in the world specifically in India with emphasis on the measures taken by the Indian government in fighting with the covid, the economic impact of covid in India, the helping hands during covid crisis, and the positive side of the covid.

Journalism And Covid 19: A Study Of How Indian Journalists Are Managing Their Work Amid The Pandemic

Dr. Pavitar Parkash Singh; Sabeeha Shaheen

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 2888-2891

The novel Corona Virus that casted a spell in China turned around and engulfed the whole globe. With nothing available to combat such a preposterous and deadly virus, India too surrendered to the virus. The Corona Virus outbreak has unleashed a terror which world could have hardly imagined of. It has engulfed every sector and every field into its helm. Journalism too hit a bad rock because of the virus. Media mostly thrives on the ground zero reports and stories but due to the virus it has paralyzed the activities thus crippled the ground level work. The present study will enlighten us how journalists of India are managing their work amid the Covid 19 outbreak.


Dr.Sri Ram V; Dr.Thulasiraman D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5731-5736

The 2019 coronavirus pandemic disease (COVID-19), the emergent, re-emerging and abandoned infectous diseases and bioterrorism, which pose a danger to the protection of health, indicate the need and relevance of pandemic research. Without international collaboration the prevention of pandemics is unlikely because of their transboundary nature; and in the pandemic planning and reaction, the intergovernmental organisations1. The WHO is the only source of legally binding international pandemic response laws, which are growing and providing the states with technical assistance and uniform guidance. The basis for successful pandemic prevention and surveillance is strong national health systems, and improving them is important especially in low-income countries. The international pandemic response mechanisms are currently being developed and a complex process is underway. The challenge for this structure is to guarantee the presence and operation of supranational legal authority. During the Ebola outbreak and the COVID-19 pandemic, the WHO's jurisdiction and capabilities for international replies have been debated. The disasters have also shown that the WHO needs tools to avoid and respond effectively to pandemics. At the same time, there has been a rise in the position of new pandemic management players such as the World Bank Community, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Medicines without Frontiers and other organisations. The assistance to the poorest countries to build health care programmes and to ensure that their people have access to basic healthcare facilities are a key concern in international attempts to avoid and monitor pandemics2.

Entanglements Of Teaching Literature During The Pandemic

Raisun Mathew; Dr. Digvijay Pandya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6137-6140

The onset of COVID-19 pandemic has overturned the normative and processual structures of life and has also affected the education sector worldwide. Irrespective of disciplines, the traditional forms of teaching and learning processes have shifted to its online/virtual platforms. This research paper would discuss the entanglements of the teaching process concerning the disciplines of literature during the liminal period of the pandemic. Through descriptive and comparative methods, this qualitative research would analyse whether the online/virtual platforms are effective in assisting the teaching-learning process in general. Teaching in the classroom with the physical presence and online/virtual teaching possibilities were compared. The findings of the research show that in teaching literature, the traditional model of physical presence in teaching is more effective compared to that of the online/virtual teaching-learning process. The insights of the research would help scholars to conduct different perspectives based on the theme of the paper.


Dr..Gomathi M; Dr.Jaikumar S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5619-5626

The causative agent of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has omnipresent worldwide spread, infecting more than two million people and causing over 150,000 deaths worldwide, resulting in devastating global health emergencies. Extreme acute respiratory syndrome 2 (sarkozydia) Early in its global expansion, the COVI-19 pandemic was further fuelled by insufficient access to laboratory research. Real-time RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel was the first test obtained from the US Food and Drug Administration on February 4, 2020, by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2019–Novel Coronavirus (2019–nCoV)1–3. This test was therefore introduced by a significant number of public health and clinical labs in the USA. Many manufacturers of commercial instruments then obtained EUAs for molecular SARS-CoV-2 identification. However, producers also assign reagents. Many of the clinical laboratories have therefore used several platforms to satisfy research criteria.

The Test Of Humanity During The Covid-19 Situation In Indonesia

Elfindah Princes; Teddy Indira Budiwan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 435-445

The history has shown that during dangerous situation, people seek for their own safety. However, the example shown from the Covid-19 quick anticipation in Wuhan, China has shown the exact opposite. The researcher tries to identify human behaviors during the pandemic situation of Covid-19 in Indonesia. The researcher argues that compared to other countries, Indonesian people have different characteristics and responses. They are more self-centered and judgmental. Using the qualitative approach, the researcher classifies the people into 4 groups during a pandemic situation with two main groups as the research priority. First, the egocentric group as the group dominating the food and medical supplies. The panic buying in Indonesia causes this group of people to pile up stocks at home and cause the retail price to rocket. The second group is the profit-seeking group who takes advantage of this situation and sells the important food and medical supply in high price. The four groups represent the chaotic society culture in Indonesia and are the main reasons for questions if the humanity still exists. This research gives an understanding to the government to face the next pandemic if it happens someday. There are two limitations. First, at the time this research is made, the Covid-19 pandemic is still ongoing. There is a high possibility that a new group might appear near or at the end of the pandemic. Second, this paper does not separate the people into groups of different income levels, age groups and gender. Future research should address these limitations.


Dr.Govardhanan K .; Dr. Karthigai Priya M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5671-5677

A pandemic triggered by a respiratory diseases capable of spreading mankind has often had devastating effects in the present global context where there are large gaps in wellbeing and healthcare between countries and public health services that are also depleted of funding. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the World Health Organization (WHO) has been a significant driver of responses and now leads despite its worldwide oversight. With the burden of disease the and the resulting crisis worsening, it is important that the reaction of the WHO is contextualised within its roles, in the sense of its mandates and its degree of manoeuvrability, and in the context of the information and evidence provided in connection with a coronaviral pandemic. Now is the time to stand squarely in the hands of the WHO as the UN's expert organisation and leading scientific body on global health to improve the COVID-19 efforts to deal with it1,2. Time spent criticising former acts threaten us to lose sight on tackling the appalling effects of the virus on ill health and mortality.


Dr.Ashok Kumar A; Dr. Vellapandi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5652-5656

The 2019 pandemic of Corona Virus disease (COVID-19), caused by extreme acute coronaviral syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2), exploded in 2020 and produced severe global socio-economic and public health challenges. A subset of patients were also diagnosed with diarrhoea as well as usual characteristics such as fever, toxin and dyspnea. However, there has been inadequate attention to the clinical characteristics and prognoses of COVID-19-associated diarrhoea1–3. The analysis discusses the occurrence, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, improvements in faecal viruses, forecasts and influences influential to diarrhoea associated with COVID-19. In patients with COVID-19, the occurrence of diarrhoea was registered between 2% and 49.5%. SARS-CoV-2 of ACE-2 expressing the small intestine epithelial cells, which causes local intestinal damages, was reported as the key cause of diarrhoea. This cell invasion may be a main factor in pharyngeal swab positive for the long duration of SARS-CoV-2 found in faeces. The related diarrhoea in these patients disrupts the bowel flora equilibrium and leads to a greater severity of diseases and a better forecast. Patients with positive fecal-nucleic acid testing and intestinal microflower diseases should be careful with COVID-19 induced diarrhoea, and design more appropriate prevention and care options for these patients.


Tuychiev Alisher Zhuraevich; Rizaev Nurbek Kadirovich; Abdusalomova Nodira Bahodirovna; Tashkenbaeva Zarina Ulugbekovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1701-1726

Abstract:This article provides information on the impact of the pandemic on intellectual
property and its consequences, the activities of companies providing intellectual property
services in the context of the pandemic, the intellectual ecosystem.Also, this article is devoted
to the consideration of issues related to the creation of the intellectual property ecosystem
throughout the world, research and experimental developments, R&D expenses, as well as
accounting and assessment of inovation products. In the context of global globalization,
intellectual property objects are crucial in assessing the property of enterprises. However, the
methodology of analysis of intangible assets has not been comprehensivelypresented in
scientific works, therefore, this article developed a methodology for the analysis of intangible
assets, in particular the analysis of intellectual property.


Dr. Suresh R; Dr. Archana S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5332-5340

Latest proof shows that in humans, SARS-CoV-2 proliferates and fades symptomatic or asymptomatic infected individuals, the etioloidal agent that induces COVID-19. Subsequently, SARS-CoV-2 can be discharged and even opened through wastewater and sanitation systems on site. SARS-CoV-2 can be spread by the inhalation of polluted aerosols and goutlets in waste water plumbing systems in particular in heavily inhabited suburban areas in the case of faeces, waste water or wastewater systems on-site. Potential faecal-oral transfer has also been proposed along the human gut-wastewater diet spectrum. The detection in the human gastrointestinal tract, faeces, and untreated wastewater of SARS-CoV-2 RNA suggests probable COVID-19 faecal-oral transmission 1–4. A second line of recent evidence is extracted from a series of experiments focused on an overview of shelled disease, indicating SARS - COV-2 is prone to facal oral transmission and has a rigid shell and low shell disorder. The transmission path between faecal and oral has also gained substantial interest lately as an alternate transmission pathway but there is still no epidemiological data to support this theory. There could be a fast propagation of the pandemic via several COVID-19 transmission pathways.


Dr.Parimala K .; Dr.Nagalakshmi J .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5602-5610

In Wuhan City (Hubei, China) in December 2019, an outbreak of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) occurred and spread quickly around the globe. The World Health Office (WHO) has announced a pandemic in the novel epidemic of the coronavirus on 11 March 2020. The Chinese Government has recommended that schools across Germany be closed to avoid the spread of the COVID-19 virus. Lockdown is one of the most commonly used methods in India to manage COVID-19 distribution. Children are deprived from social contact and association in lock-down conditions and are thus vulnerable to mental disorders. This current review therefore aimed at identifying the effect of COVID and lockdown on children1–3.


Dr. Pon Meenakshi. P; Dr. Pirakatheeswari. P; Mr. Rajagopalan. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 5674-5685

Ayurveda has enough potential and possibilities to be employed both for prevention and treatment of COVID-19. This will provide an important opportunity for learning and generating credible evidence. It is pertinent to reiterate that participation of Ayurveda in addressing the COVID-19 challenge in India should not remain limited and seen as the extension of healthcare services and support to bio-medical system. Indeed, with adequate monitoring and data keeping during the implementation, important lessons and research directions are likely to emerge on the management of increasingly frequent and virulent communicable diseases. Implementation of proposed action is likely to provide evidence-based insights strengthening the scope of Ayurveda beyond preventive health care and care for non-communicable diseases. This Paper dealt with how Brand recognition of Ayurvedic food products during pandemic period.


JV‟nsDr.Mahavir Prasad Sharma; Dr. Navid N Shah; JV‟ns Dr. Shaha Shabanam Rafik

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1296-1302

Homoeopathy has to play major role in future of World’s health as the whole world
is worst hit by pandemic of CORONA VIRUS.Homeopathic prophylactic medicines are based
on the ability to prevent infective diseases & boost one’s immunity when chosen according to
the principle of similarity.This historicreview was the ground for evaluating the response to
treatment including homeopathy in the former epidemics and also try to emphasize on future
role Homoeopathy.


Dr. Sankaralingam P; Dr. Vijaya Suriya R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5678-5686

In the scenery for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), the early data has indicated a decline in presentation and an improvement in pre-hospital latency for acute patients with stroke or AMI,3,4 the condition in Michigan, but it is not clear how acute stroke and AMI (COVID-18) should be administered and how these are treated. In reported cases and deaths, COVID-19 has had a disproportionate effect on Black Americans. Blacks make up about 14 percent of the population in Michigan but 19 percent of cases of COVID–19 and 36% of the deaths by October 22, 2020.5 The rise in the incidence of pre-hospital delay among Black Americans which further worsen established racial disorders6 compared with their white counterparts. We wanted to use a quick appraisal methodology in order to advise existing and prospective public health camps, both locally and globally, because of the pressing repercussions for clinical and public health.

The Emergence Of Mindfulness Acceptance Commitment For Psychological Enhancement During Covid-19 Pandemic

Nur Haziyanti Moahamad Khalid; Muhammad Idris Bullare @ Bahari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 6081-6090

This paper aims to shed light on the conceptual framework of the emergence of Mindfulness Acceptance Commitment (MAC) training module for psychological enhancement during COVID-19 pandemic. This module known as MAC-COVID-19 is intended for providing knowledge of MAC to community in order to deal with stress symptoms caused by COVID-19 pandemic; provide systematic guidelines using MAC skills training; help community to maintain healthy mindset in response to the COVID-19 pandemic risk factors; and help community to achieve resiliency. The training contained in this module is based on self-help intervention. It is in line with the social distancing practiced by the community during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is hoped that this training module will benefit the community, helping them to deal with the psychological distress caused by the pandemic.

An Overview Of Punjab, Haryana And Himachal Pradesh Government’s Interventions In Education Sector During Covid 19 Pandemic

Marisha Narula; Dr. Rohita Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6366-6371

impact of pandemic COVID-19 is being felt in every sector around the world. The rules of engagements are now changed as countries are imposing blanket lockdowns nationwide. India is no exception. Thus schools and colleges are now forced to keep their shutters down as well. The already crumbling education system is now further forced to disintegrate. The technological divide among the urban and the rural, the rich and the poor is now more apparent as schools have adopted online teaching methods via various online platforms. The access to a smartphone varies across the nation and so does the basic literacy of how to operate them. Lack of internet penetration in India is another dilemma since only 50% of the households have an active internet connection. This has forced the current government to reinvent strategies to provide education via mass channels. DIKSHA platform is one such example. It's an online platform primarily for school education. It offers teachers, parents and students engaging learning material relevant to the prescribed school curriculum but requires an active internet connection. To bridge this gap, the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting introduced SWAYAM PRABHA which has 32
DTH TV channels transmitting educational contents on 24/7 basis across the country. These platforms are absolutely free to use. But platforms like these are just a pedestal. Since education is a concurrent subject, states also bear the responsibility of ratifying their educational strategies. Many states are walking down the path of the central government by establishing their own platforms. The government of Nagaland was recently lauded for their education initiative. TV
and Radio education was offered through Doordarshan Kendra Kohima and All India RadiKohima while in the second phase the programme expanded to digital content distribution through a dedicated Youtube Channel. This paper highlights some measures taken byGovernments of Punjab, Haryana and Himachal pradesh in the field of online education. Also challenges faced by these governments are highlighted.

Compare the Vital Concepts of Mother of All Pandemic Spanish Flu and COVID-19: A Promising Review

Gomathi Swaminathan; Srikanth Jupudi; Sathish R; Roshan NS; Gowramma B; Kalirajan Rajagopal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1466-1483

In every century, few invisible infectious diseases create an alarm to the entire world and which leads to extermination of the population. In 1918 and 2019, the world has tackled truculent diseases such as mother of all pandemic Spanish flu and COVID 19. The mortality rate of Spanish flu was greater than in the first world war. After 100 years’ same history was repeated in 2019 through COVID 19.  Suddenly a huge number of pneumonia cases were reported in the end of 2019 in Wuhan, China. These two outbreaks make medical, social and financial burden to the entire world. This kind of sudden pandemic breaks mental health and creates panic, anxiety and depression. Pharmaceutical preventive measures are not supported during both pandemics which was rectified by non-pharmaceutical preventive steps like lockdown, quarantine, wearing facemask and gloves, washing hands and applying sanitizer, follow the social distancing, closing cinema hall and schools, avoiding mass gathering in 1918and 2019-2020. The main objective of this review is to compare and summarize the concepts of both pandemics and how the people of the world need to come together and fight against common enemies, to warrant that we have the best scientific resources necessary to bring this outbreak to an end.

Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in Follicular and Endocervical Fluid of IVF Candidates with Positive PCR Tests

Mina Ataei .; Ali Sadeghitabar; Atousa Karimi; Marjan Ghaemi; Sara Amirajam; Soheila Ansaripour

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3752-3758

Introduction & Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic is a unique global challenge with a wide range of severity
extending from an asymptomatic form to a serious intense respiratory syndrome. We have restarted the ART
treatments in cases that need emergent IVF treatment according to the international and local guidelines. This
study aimed to evaluate the presence of viruses in follicular and endocervical fluid in patients with a positive
PCR tests provided on the day of the oocyte trigger. Method: All participants and their partners, who were a
candidate to start ART from April 2020 to October 2020, completed a triage questionnaire two weeks before
starting the ART cycle. A PCR test was performed for all participants before starting the cycle. According to
Avicenna center protocol, a diagnostic test (real-time PCR) by Dacron swap and Pishtazteb kit. The
nasopharynx test for COVID-19 was conducted for all ART patients 48 hours before the day of the oocyte
trigger. PCR test was positive in 32 women. In the operating theater, sterile swabs were used to provide
cervicovaginal specimens to determine COVID 19 virus in cervicovaginal fluid. Also, the first aspirated
follicular fluid was referred to the lab to assess the presence of COVID 19. Result: In this study, virus particles
were not detected in the follicular and endocervical fluid of the women with positive PCR tests. Case
presentation: We describe 32 patients who were candidates for IVF, with approved positive COVID-19 PCR
tests to evaluate whether the virus is present in the follicular and endocervical fluid or not? Discussion: We are
still at the beginning of the road and need reliable data on the safety of the ART at the time of pandemic. The
risk of infection during all process of ART including oocyte retrieval needs attention. The fluids from mature
follicles are a potential site to be infected and the human cumulus cells could not be a deterrent factor to
entrance of the virus in the oocyte. This process may lead to gametes infection. Indeed in real life evaluating
the risk of sexual transmission of COVID-19 is very important. Conclusion: We did not detect virus RNA in
the follicular and endocervical fluid of the patients with positive PCR test. Although, more studies with a
greater sample size are mandatory in this field.

A Review On Impact Of Social Distancing During The Covid-19 Pandemic

Dr.Subha V.J; Dr. Dayanithi B S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5536-5541

The first outbreak in Wuhan, Hubei, China identified of the COVID-19 is certainly an unexpected tragedy. About nine million confirmed cases have been recorded worldwide due to the highly contagious nature of the coronavirus 1. The findings of accelerated trials since COVID-19 have demonstrated that individuals are vulnerable to pandemic-related psychiatric disorders, including depressive thoughts, anxiety and depression symptoms and post-traumatic symptoms. Moreover, almost all countries around the world have pursued a social isolation strategy in order to reduce the epidemic transmission. This measure, however, compromises our social activities and connections. Therefore it cannot be overlooked its impact on human psychological wellbeing. Since our research is little understanding of the fundamental mechanism of its effects, COVID-19 aims to examine the behavioural disorders associated with this indicator and the role it plays.

Global Economy and Consumerism: An Analysis

Dr.Javeed Ahmad Bhat; Naseer Ahmad Bhat

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5895-5898

Global economy because of COVID-19 has tanked to historical lows. It is not the first time in the world history that global community is bracing for a pandemic. COVID-19 started in Wuhan, the global epicentre of both—the virus as well as the economic bustle and flurry. After the few days of proliferation of the virus, busy streets of Wuhan were back to deserted scenes. China is currently the production house of the world. The dangers to the health sector of the countries is definitely under tremendous pressure but more worryingly, it is threatening world economy into recession. US Federal Reserve has gone for an emergency rate-cut of half percentage point. This is the biggest since 2008 financial crises. But the step seems more a knee-jerk reaction out of compulsion rather than a mature policy decision.

Pandemic V/S Politics: Political Aspect Of COVID-19 In India

Sandeep Kumar; Dr. Vinod CV; Dr. PavitarParkash Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6455-6460

Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) that was declared as Pandemic by WHO, does not only affect the medical and health aspect of people but it put a deep effect on the politics either it may be national of international. The breakout of Corona virus has exposed the various abilities and inabilities of Governments to handle with it. It exposed the social relations of people, medical infrastructure and facilities to handle with it, stability of economy, and even the political handouts played by politicians to remain in the power or to get the power. The studies show that most of the political leaders emerged either from the world wars or any pandemic. A US-based survey showed that there is great increase in the popularity of NarendraModi after the breakout of Corona. Net approval rating of NarendraModi reaches 68 points up that was 62 at the beginning of the year 2020. As just before the breakout of Corona virus in India PM NarendraModi was facing serious challenges like Anti government Protest (due to CAB and NPR), Hindu-Muslim Riots exploded in New Delhi, Economy was slumping and shedding millions of jobs etc.So with all these challenges many of these problems (especially economical) have gotten worse in India. But still according to the recent opinion polls Modi’s High approval rate have soared even higher, touching 80 to 90 percent. Oftenly two most populist leaders US President Trump and Russian President Vladimir V. Putin are compared but according to the opinion poll NarendraModi seems to be thriving in this crisis.

Impact on Routine Immunization Services During the Lockdown Period in India: Implications and Future Recommendations

Nishantadeb Ghatak; Roy Rillera Marzo; Sheikh Mohd Saleem; Neha Sharma; Amarjeet Singh; Sudip Bhattacharya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 35-40

World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the ongoing COVID-19 as a global pandemic on March 11, 2020.For this advancement, countries all over the world has begun to implement lockdown as one of the strategies to tackle the spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus. Like other countries, the lockdown in India also poses serious problems to the health industry and to many other sectors. One of the severely affected and ignored programs, the Universal Immunization Programme (UIP)which approximately addresses 27 million new-borns seeking immunization per year, is also suspended. In this scenario, outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases could be catastrophic for communities and health systems which are battling the impacts of COVID-19. At present, there exists no definite medicine and vaccine for COVID-19. The immunity of an individual plays a crucial role in the prevention of disease as well as severity. The interruption of vaccination program can give rise to a resurgence of measles cases. This resurgence can lead to profound immunosuppressants which can cause an increased incidence of COVID-19 with a rise in the number of severe cases which eventually leads to increased mortality rate. Moreover, the suppression of immune function can lead to increased incidence of other infections which may have a huge burden to the healthcare system where services have already been compromised due to low resources. Lessons should be learned from Europe and Africa. Initiatives should be taken to restore the routine immunization program immediately with all precautionary measures as per WHO guidelines.

A Review Study On Relationship Among Covid-19 And Inflammation

Mr.Ponnazhagan .; Dr.Amarendiran .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5440-5444

In reality, numerous research works have begun to report the metabolic function of COVID-19 shifts. Characteristically characterised are I decline in low-density (LDL-c) and high-density (HDL-c) cholesterol lipoproteins, (later proportionate with the gravity of the symptoms), and (ii) a mild rise in the populating T-assistance cell populations (CD3+T, CD4+T) and (iii) CD8+T lymphopenia. Further, in seriously ill patients the overall counts of White Blood Cells (WBC) is considerably higher, with a macrophage activation syndrome that was supported by the existence of the bronchoalveolar monocyte recruitment chemokines.

Mental Health Issues and Consideration in Post Covid-19 era

M.Yousuf Adam; Dr.Muhammad Amin Wani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6330-6336

Background: Corona virus disease (Covid-19) entered at the end of last year in China, and slowly occupied rest of world. In India, Government declared complete Lockdown in second half of March, soon after three or four months later country slowly lifted Lockdown. But, covid-19 pandemic is still there. Along with biological complication due to covid-19, we suffered with lots of mental health issues due to psychological and economical aspects.
Objective: Aim of this study is to assess mental health status irrespective of gender, age group, location, stress, chronic disease and covid-19 infection. Also, to investigate mean difference between various demographic variables in order to examine most vulnerable people towards mental health illness.
Material and method: Due to covid-19 and social distancing, the researchers were carried this study using demographic variables and the mental health inventory (MHI-38) in internet and social media platform from September 13 to September 23, 2020. The data collected were more than hundred, but the researchers took only hundred respondents to analyse data statistically and the results were interpreted.
Conclusion: The result revealed that mean difference of mental health in relation to gender, age group, and stress were statistically significant and their corresponding p-value were 0.0447, 0.0048 and 0.0001 respectively. Mental health status increases with increase income, and there were no statistical significant in respective to covid-19 testing, location, or chronic disease. The researchers have concluded this study with mental health consideration from latest reviewed paper and mentioned possible strategies to control mental health problem.

Awareness And Practice Of Infection Control Protocol Amidst Covid-19 Pandemic In Private Dental Clinics In North India: An Original Research

Dr. Yash Pal Singh; Dr. Brajesh Gupta; Dr. Heena Tiwari; Dr. Akshay M. Dhewale; Dr. Monika Saini; Dr. Shraddha Joshi; Dr. Rahul VC Tiwari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6521-6526

Aim: The purpose of our research was to assess the knowledge and awareness regarding infection control practice against coronavirus infection in various dental clinics in North India.
Methodology: A descriptive survey was conducted amongst 200 dentists. A questionnaire consisting of 11 questions was distributed, based upon knowledge of COVID-19, transmission as well as prevention strategies that can be implemented in dental clinics for stopping the chain of outbreak of this pandemic. The data was analysed with the help of descriptive statistics.
Results: 71% of study participants felt the need for using N-95 masks routinely during patient treatment. An astounding number of participants (92%), believed that there have been significant changes in infection control after COVID-19 pandemic. 65% of participants believed that HVE suction devices as well as HEPA filters need to be used to control aerosol spread so as to prevent COVID-19 infection.
Conclusion: Dentists in North India showed satisfactory knowledge and positive attitude towards COVID-19. Improving dentists’ level of knowledge could be achieved through increasing their accessibility to materials provided by dental health care authorities, which specifies the best and safest approaches for dealing with patients during and after the outbreak.

A Review of Coronavirus Transmission

Dr. Maheswari K; Dr. Anand V

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5326-5331

Earlier in December 2019, a novel extreme coronaviral syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Region, China. The World Health Organisation announced the epidemic as an international disaster in public health on 30 January 2020. As of 14 February 2020, there were 49,053 laboratory-confirmed fatalities and 1,381 deaths worldwide. Many governments have become at risk of contracting illness after implementing a series of prevention steps. We performed a literature review of resources accessible to the public to synthesise pathogen and emerging disease awareness. This literature review analyses the causative cause, pathogenesis and immune reactions, epidemiology, detection, care and managing methods for the epidemic, regulating and preventing.

Geographical Aspects Of The Study Of Global Pandemies

Komilova Nilufar Karshiboyevna; ,Turdimambetov Izimbet Rakhmetovich; Ravshanov Aliqul Xudoyberdiyevich; Mahmudova Manzura Juraevna; Payzieva Madina Ulug'bek qizi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 524-529

Mankind has struggled with many diseases throughout its history. Infectious diseases are especially prevalent among the population. According to its scope, such infectious diseases are called pandemics, epidemics. Among the population of Central Asia, a number of diseases, such as plague, plague, malaria, tuberculosis, and ringworm, have caused partial or mass extinction. The characteristics of the geographical distribution of these diseases largely depended on the natural and social geographical conditions of the regions, the lifestyle and traditions of the population.The effects of the Spanish flu pandemic, which has killed nearly 100 million people in the last hundred years among a wide range of diseases, have had a profound effect on the nosogeographic situation, especially in Europe and later in the Americas. Analyzes show that the deterioration of the environment, man's unlimited domination of nature, the deterioration of the ecological situation, as well as the spread of related diseases on earth pose new challenges to medical geography, which studies the causes and patterns. The rapid development of science and technology, the steady increase in human impact on nature and consequently, a number of negative changes in the natural environment have a significant impact on human health. The acceleration of the process of urbanization which in turn causes problems such: as air, water and soil pollution.

Assessment Of Risk Factors For Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) In Health Workers

Kirmanj I Baker; Sabah M Zanagana; Nazar A Hasani; Suhaila S Tahir; Burhan O Rasheed; Amal A Rasheed; Mena A Darweesh; Abdulkarim M Ismail

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 254-266

Background: COVID-19 is a pandemic caused by novel Corona virus; it has infected millions of people and caused mortality of more than half million people around globe.
Objective: The study aimed to assess risk factors of infection with COVID-19 among health care workers (HCW) from different aspects.
Methods: A cross sectional study was applied based upon a WHO assessment protocol to explore the real facts and situation leading to Health Care Workers infections.
Results: The current study has shown that health care workers were often affected by the disease exploring that males and young age employees had predominantly higher percentage of infection.
Regarding the occupation, it was clear that doctors were the most often symptomatic (45%) of the total studied samples; 46% contracted the infection through contact with patients at work. Finally the study illustrated that only 46% tried their best to protect themselves from infection and 4 out of 44 cases denied the existence of the pandemic.
Conclusion: It was concluded that males were predominantly infected, patients with longer exposure had higher rate of infection and those properly using PPE had less chance to acquire the disease.

Indonesian Government Dilematics In Covid-19 Pandemic Handling

Andi Azikin; Karno .; Pratiwi Nurhascaryani; Fitriani .; Suhaeti .; Yoyok Cahyono

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 125-133

The purpose of this paper is to describe the extent to which Indonesia's ability to deal with the Covid-19 pandemic outbreak in Indonesia The Corona virus outbreak or commonly known as Covid-19 is getting more and more violent. The virus thought to have originated in the Chinese city of Wuhan has claimed many lives. Not only in the bamboo curtain country, countries on the continent of Europe, Asia, America and Africa are also affected by this virus, including Indonesia. World Health Organization (WHO) has designated COVID-19 as a pandemic. This pandemic has spread in 212 countries. Quoting from Worldometers, there were 3,911,454 people in the world infected with the corona virus, the death toll from the SARS-CoV-2 virus reached 270,339 people. While those who recovered were recorded as many as 1,340,231 as of Friday. The Covid 19 pandemic has also weakened global economic growth, due to economic downturns. People in countries that have implemented lockdowns or social distancing have paralyzed the country's economy, many industries have closed and even laid off their employees. The impact is that the decreasing income of the lower middle class, especially workers and daily businesses, which are large in number, will quickly trigger a social contraction. Before the Corona outbreak alone, Indonesia had a potential crisis, due to Indonesia's dependence on imported goods to meet domestic consumption. This research is qualitative in nature by looking at the facts and existing data both from direct observation and from various electronic media. In the conditions of the Covid 19 pandemic, the Indonesian government established a Large-Scale Social Restriction (PSBB) policy with a social - physical distincting approach. , not by lockdown. This policy was taken by the government with economic considerations and the state's ability to worry about being unable to provide for the basic needs of the community during the Karatina region as mandated by Law no. 6 of 2018 concerning health quarantine. Meanwhile, the PSBB policy is considered not optimal in handling this pandemic outbreak because it is considered unable to cut the spread of the Covid 19 virus.


Dr. Ardhanaari M; Dr.Anita Harry

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5664-5670

After the 2019 pandemic Coronavirus (COVID-19), caused by Extreme Acute RESS 2 coronavirus syndrome was identified (SARS-CoV-2), our ways of managing ourselves socially and on a regular basis have changed unprecedentedly. The sudden isolation from education, social life and recreational sports has had great impacts on children and teenagers. In certain cases, domestic abuse has also increased. Due to heightened anxiety, changes in their diet and school dynamics, fear or even lack of a component of the issue1,2, stress has a direct effect on their mental health. Our purpose is to address the need to supervise and treat persons in various areas and to alert public health and government agents. We hope that effective and prompt action will minimise harm to your mental health as a result of the side effects of this pandemic.

Role Of Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) Workers In Assam: An Analysis In The Context Of Coronavirus Disease Of 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic

Mouchumi Kalita; Gitika Borah; Minakshi Koch

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 5275-5279

The whole world is fighting against the pandemic situation created by the outbreak of COVID-19. Health workers, all over the world, are rendering service by putting their lives at stake. Health workers of Assam are also working relentlessly. This study attempts to analyse the role of the Accredited Social Health Activist or the ASHA workers of Assam in the fight against this pandemic situation. They have been serving the community to save it from this pandemic. They have faced a number of challenges while delivering their service. An attempt has been made in the current study to understand those challenges and to understand their side of the story.

Systamatic Investigation Of Mental Stress During Covid-19

Dr.Malini .; Dr.Amarendiran .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5542-5550

The way the health authorities convey information on the hazards, care, opportunities to take vaccines or the need for preventive measures to people in a pandemic can contribute to anxiety levels that decide if the current pandemic is effective or not. The current study is a systematic review analysis of the articles published on Metal stress during the COVID-19. The articles have been downloaded from the Scopus and WoS. PRISMA guideline have been used for the purpose of article selection.

Coronavirus Disease (COVID)-19 in Tamil Nadu: Psychological impact and the associated factors concerned with the pandemic among the general population

Dr.V.Anu MDS; Dr.C.Krithika MDS; Dr.V.R. Nithya; Dr. K.Indrapriyadharshini MDS; Dr. Abarajithan Ponsharmila BDS; Dr. R. Vijayalakshmi MDS

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 1106-1118

Background: Fear of the pandemic and the impact of lockdown makes the people emotionally vulnerable during this crisis. This study was aimed to investigate the psychological impact and the associated factors concerned with the pandemic among general population in Tamil Nadu, India. Methodology: A structured questionnaire was used to assess the demographic details, physical status, history of contact with COVID-19, awareness, concerns and practice of prevention about COVID-19 and need for additional health information. Psychological Impact was assessed using Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Result: 985 individuals participated in the study and their mean IES-R score was 22.79. Age was found to be negatively associated (B=-0.062; CI = - 3.10-0.003) with mean IES-R scores, females (mean IES-R score= 23.84) were associated significantly (B = 2.412; CI = 0.520-4.305) with higher scores when compared with males. Participants who rated their current health status as ‘very poor’ were negatively associated (B =-5.277; CI = -6.786 – - 3.767) with other participants. 50.1% were aware about the transmission of COVID-19. Dissatisfaction about health information available among the participant showed higher IES-R scores (mean IES-R score = 30.8). Linear regression analysis showed a significant relationship (B = 2.766; CI = 1.903- 3.630) between mean IES-R score and participants opinion about their likelihood of surviving if infected with COVID-19. 57.1% are worried about their family member getting COVID-19. Conclusion: Considering COVID-19 pandemic, health care policymakers should plan and implement strategies for psychological support, both for COVID positive patients as well as the general public.


Dr.Elayakumar S.T; Dr. Anbumalar M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5752-5757

Although a viral infection begins in COVID-19, some patients have overly exuberant inflammation, leading to acute pulmonary injury and a condition of adult respiratory distress (ARDS). As IL-6 is a key role in the inflammatory response, in this single centre observatory study in all Covid-19 patients with a proven SARS-CoV-2 fast-pacing infection in order to escape ALI and ARDS we have assessed the effectiveness and protection of tocilizumab (TCZ). In this single centre The rate of mortality in 104 patients treated for COVID-19 was lower (5 · 8%). The percentage of patients treated with COVID-19 was 11% lower than in untreated patients who had our level of treatment alone and a marginally lower rate of mortality (6 percent ). The acute phase reagents, Ferritin, and liver protein releases were quickly diminished by TCZ. Slowly, D-Dimer declined. Relevant safety issues were not found. An early prescribing of IL6-R antagonists can be safe and successful for avoidance, ICU admission and more complications in COVID-19 patients with imminent hyperinflammatory reaction1.


Dr.Arun Kumar; Dr.Monisha S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5365-5374

The therapy of COVID-19 has attracted great interest in Chloroquine. The latest focus on these chloroquine applications has contributed to a survey on the effect and possibility of hormonobiphase dose reaction on extremely biologically different models. The examination showed that chloroquin usually induced hormetal effects that impacted many types of cells, including tumour cell lines (e.g. human breasts, colons, colones) and non-tumor cell lines, improved viral reproduction, motility of semen, varied behavioural endpoints, and decreased the risk of convulsions. These diverse and nuanced findings indicate that hormetic dose reactions with different biological models and endpoints are common in chloroquine treatments. These findings impact the nature of the study, including dosage number and distance, and suggest a variety of clinical challenges and opportunities focused on the expected outcome.

A Review Study On Contamination Rate Of Covid-19

Dr.Sanjayan R.D; Dr.Monisha .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5481-5486

Outbreaks have arisen in civilization such as extreme acute coronvirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) in 2003, Eastern Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, Ebola virus in 2014, and today SARS-CoV-2. Although health care professionals are searching for a vaccine to mitigate the disease outbreak, environmental engineers need to consider the effect of the virus organisation in sewages, provided that viruses are documented for multiple days to survive in human faeces and wastewater conditions. Here, on the basis of a study of recent research on SARS-CoV-2 as well as past pandemic incidents, the debate will be conducted on questions about the on-courage virus in faeces and sewages of humans1,2. In order to deter unprecedented coronaviral spread 2019 (COVID-19) especially in developed countries, faeces and sewage-derived routes of transmission may be of significant significance as a result of the recorded environmental stability of coronaviruses. However, there have, up to now, been small numbers of experiments that have been identified with the SARS-CoV-2, also in human faeces. In prospective experiments, for example, an improvement in the number of samples, a study of the usefulness of procedures for viral viability analysis, a review of the medical records of patients and so forth are warranted and are still still in the probability of this dissemination.


Abinaya. S; Dr.Durairaj Sekar; Dr.Ganesh Lakshmanan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1291-1301

Coronaviruses are named for the crown-like spikes on their surface and belong to the family Coronaviridae within the order Nidovirales. Coronaviruses broadly infect vertebrates including humans, birds, bats, snakes, mice, and other wild animals. The COVID-19 virus spreads primarily through droplets of Saliva or discharges from the hose when an infected person coughs or sneezes. At this time, there is no specific vaccine way or treatment for COVID 19. A self-administered questionnaire was prepared to comprise about 13 questions based on the topic of the survey and circulated to about 100 people through an online google form. The questions were studied carefully and corresponding answers were marked by the participants. The data were collected and statistically analyzed. From the results, the majority of the study population gave positive responses that COVID-19 is really a life-threatening pandemic.100% of the population were aware of the pandemic, it’s outbreaks in several countries and its devastating effects. This study gives an insight into popular perception of COVID-19 as a life-threatening pandemic and awareness on its spread and ways to control it

Attitude Of Family Members Of Health Care Workers During Covid- 19 - A Questionnaire Survey

Harita Ravikumar; V. Vishnu Priya; K. R. Don; R. Gayathri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2665-2680

Objective: Coronavirus is a retrovirus first found in Wuhan, China. The airborne spread of the coronavirus has created a pandemic all across the globe and various had implemented social distancing and quarantine periods to limit the spread. Doctors nurses and other social helpers who deliver services to the sick and ailing people either directly or indirectly fall under the category of healthcare workers. Healthcare workers are more vulnerable to coronavirus disease. Medical workers are unwillingly quarantined in the hospitals where they do not have another choice and conventional protection such as masks and gloves are not completely effective. This pandemic had a major impact as there was decline in the financial and social conditions. The aim of the analysis was to assess the attitude of family members of healthcare workers during COVID-19.
Materials and method: The present study population consisted of family members of healthcare workers in the South Indian population through an online Setting. The study design was a questionnaire based cross sectional study, conducted in 2020 and approval was obtained from the scientific review board. Self administered questionnaire was prepared pertaining to the topic and circulated through an online google forms link.
Statistical analysis: The results obtained from the survey were analysed using SPSS version 22. The statistical analysis was descriptive statistics to summarise the demographic data and chi square analysis to summarise the survey data.
Result: The survey found that the majority had healthcare workers as their family members and they had a positive attitude towards their work and felt proud. The family members were sometimes forced to follow hygiene measures and were regularly tested for 
the presence of coronavirus. At the same time the healthcare workers were also under physical and mental stress which in turn affected their family members.
Conclusion: Family members' attitudes have an influence on healthcare workers who work everyday in this pandemic situation. Awareness in relation to maintenance of hygiene among family members healthcare workers needed to be enhanced


S. Shreenidhi; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 486-491

Multivitamins are directly intaken supplements that are believed to increase human health. Multivitamins thrive in providing a stable health and easier way. The urge to meet the growing population, the need to provide them with the at most health benefits has brought in the development of multivitamin supplements. The consumable products are a combination of minerals and vitamins that are packed under one capsule to bring about the health needs satisfaction. These multivitamins are consumed at variable high levels without understanding its underlying mechanism it has on health thereby the importance in the role of health is a must for which a thorough search was done in the database like Google scholar, research gate, PMC using keywords “multivitamin”,”role of multivitamin “, “general public knowledge”, pandemic situation. Articles with similar data were collected and added to the current study. It is important to know the role, consumption forms, attitude of the general public towards multivitamins especially during cases of pandemic to aslo create awareness on the side-effects caused by the intake of multivitamins under self prescribed methods

Perception Of Dental Students Towards Online Classes.

Aditi Chopra; Jayalakshmi Somasundaram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2461-2474

The pandemic of coronavirus has quickly impacted the entire world, and the government has responded with a lock down. The lock down involves shutting of schools and colleges and a shift from traditional classrooms to online classes and e-learning. This has a lot of benefits such as flexible timings, convenience, no commute et cetera. However, these are contradicted by no practical classes, no personal attention from staff and a strayed student teacher relationship. A questionnaire survey consisting of 12 questions was prepared and circulated through an online survey portal among 100 dental students in India. The questions were prepared to analyse the perception of dental students towards online classes. Online classes have changed the education system for the time being. Students are involved in e-learning through online education portals and online platforms, which helps them to efficiently utilise their time. Despite the advantages that online classrooms have, results show that dental students prefer traditional classrooms over them.

Awareness On Impact Of Quarantine Lockdown On Environment During Covid-19

S. Ganesh; Vishnu Priya.V; A.Jothi Priya; R. Gayathri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2739-2755

The outbreak of COVID-19 has spread rapidly across the world. To control the rapid dispersion of the virus, many countries have imposed national lockdown policies to practise social distancing. This has led to reduced human activities and hence primary air pollutant emissions, which caused improvement of air quality as a side-product.A well structured questionnaire containing 16 questions was circulated among College students. The questionnaire has covered basic demographic data such as age, gender and about the awareness of change in the environment during lockdown. Results show that human activities were lowered significantly during the period. This reduction in human activities has played a significant role in the improvement of the environment. Although the lockdown has contributed to a positive impact on air quality, it is important to take into account the negative impacts on social aspects, considering the deaths caused by COVID-19 and also the dramatic economic effects. From this study we may conclude that there is awareness among college students and this helps in improving the environment during normal days.


Vindhiya varshini; VN.P. Muralidharan; Jayalakshmi , Somasundaram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1769-1775

Viruses are Submicroscopic infectious agents that replicate and grow only inside the living cells of an organism. These viruses are important especially when they are capable of infecting humans. Such diseases are called zoonoses. Viral zoonoses include Lassa fever, Ebola fever,SARS,Avian flu etc.The aim of this study is to present a short review of recent literature available on animals as reservoirs for human viruses. A detailed study is done by reviewing several articles on animals as reservoirs for human viruses. Thorough search of articles was carried on the databases Pubmed and Google scholar.Viruses continue to be a major threat in both endemic and pandemic forms.Early diagnosis and treatment plan to be implemented, as it continues to be a major health threat and becomes worse day-by-day. Hence Knowledge and awareness needs to be initiated and implemented.

Indonesian Student's Perception of Online Learning Activities in the Time of Pandemic

Ira Mirawati; Jimi Narotama Mahameruaji; Putri Trulline

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3645-3652

Dirumahaja or stay at home movement is thought the most effective policy to break the chain of Covid-19 transmission. People cannot do nearly allactivities, including formal education, together anymore . However, in fact, the ongoing onlinelearning has itw own advantages and disadvantages. This research aims to describe student’s experience with online learning. This study used online survey as data collection technique. Three hundred and fifteen students participated in filling the questionnaire.The result showed that 43.33% of students learnthrough LMS, 19.44% through video conferencing, and 37,22% through WhatsAppgroups and emails.As many as 39.21% of them felt uncomfortable, 37.25% normal, and 23.52% comfortable with it. Their discomfort is generally caused by tiring learning activities,i.e doing lots of tasks in spite of incomprehensive materials.

Extroverts And Quarantine A Survey

Obuli Ganesh Kishore. S; V.Vishnu Priya; A. Jothi Priya; R. Gayathri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2772-2788

Based on how people mingle with the society they can be classified as introverts,extroverts and ambiverts.Extroverts are people who are basically more active socially and gain attention.Introverts are people who don’t get mingled so much and they stay in a very small circle,they just live to show that they exist.Ambiverts are people who are not extroverts or introverts,they adapt and be how they have to be in places.This study is to to know about the mindset of extrovert individuals at this time of lockdown and quarantine. A self structured questionnaire containing 19 questions was circulated through online google forms link.The survey population contained 100 people.The responses obtained were statistically analysed in SPSS software and the results were depicted in the form of pie charts and graphs.The overall result shows that it is getting tougher day by day for the extroverts to stay home during this lockdown in quarantine as they usually weren’t this ideal.Hence this study can be used to plan for tasks that could keep these extroverts engaged and make it easy for them to abide by the laws in times of national emergencies and pandemics.


Keerthana. B; Dr.R.Gayatri Devi; Dr.Ganesh Lakshmanan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 822-831

COVID 19 being the deadliest disease all over the world regarded as the pandemic, the hope of every people is to get an effective medication that can counter it. There is a strong belief that chloroquine may help in controlling the virus. It is taken as an oral preparation. Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine is a drug class 4- aminoquinoline. Chloroquine is contraindicated in people with heart disease or diabetes. It has a narrow therapeutic index and can cause toxicity easily.A derivative of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine was synthesised first in 1946. Chloroquine is primarily used to prevent and treat malaria in areas where malaria remains sensitive to its effects. A self-administered questionnaire was prepared consisting of 10 questions and was distributed to a random population through Google docs and we got almost 100 responses. About 63% of the participants are aware of COVID-19 and chloroquine. SPSS software was used to analyse the data for descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis for association with gender. About 50% of the participants' perception is that chloroquine will protect them from COVID-19, and are aware that hydroxychloroquine and other forms of chloroquine are undergoing a clinical trial of COVID-19. If it succeeds it will have a big impact on the current crisis.

Health Effects OfCovid- 19 Across The Globe -A Review

SachinAditya B; JothiPriya. A; V. Vishnu Priya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3150-3155

Numerous viral infections have arisen and affected global healthcare facilities. Millions of people were at severe risk of acquiring several evolving viral infections through several factors, Covid- 19 being one of the most popular ones requiring more efforts to control its spread. During the epidemic period of coronavirus diseases, appropriate oral health management and disease prevention of children is very important for children’s oral and general health. In order to prevent the occurrence of cross-infection and epidemic spreading of Covid- 19 during dental practice, the recommendation to parents include making them hand hygiene at home and include proper oral care habits. Covid-19is a global human disaster presented with an emphasis on disturbing mental health aspects of the ongoing pandemic. According to the cross-sectional study, two weeks after the occurrence of Covid-19 in chin almost 40% of the affected youth were proven to have psychological problems, it is suggested that this is likely the zoonotic origin of Covid-19. Person to person transmission of Covid-19 infection led to the isolation of patients that were subsequently administered a variety of treatments, Extensive measures to reduce person to person transmission of Covid- 19 have been implemented to control the current outbreak.


Subaraman M; Dr.Ganesh Lakshmanan; Dr. Gayathri R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 549-560

The COVID-19 epidemic in China is a world health threat. So far now it is the largest outbreak of atypical pneumonia since the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003. Within weeks of the onset of COVID-19 the total number of cases and deaths exceeded those of SARS .SARS is similar to COVID-19, and SARS is a beta-coronavirus that can be spread to humans through intermediate hosts such as bats, though the actual route of transmission of COVID-19 is still debatable. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 outbreak a public health emergency of international concern on 30 January 2020. It has been debated among the political leaders claiming that there is error from the part of WHO in giving a wrong impression at the golden hour where the pandemic could have been averted. A survey conducted with a self prepared questionnaire comprising 15 questions with a sample of 100 people of Tamil Nadu state. The questionnaire was prepared with questions comprising of covid 19 and who January WHO report, these questions help to determine perception on COVID-19 and WHO January report and that help to depict their knowledge and awareness on this topic and what is their critical perception of the role of WHO in handling the COVID pandemic. WHO plays a role in the process of updating the methods to prevent and cure the pandemic outbreak COVID-19. WHO is found to test the positive and negative responses shown by the possible methods present against COVID-19 and displays the most trusted method among the available methods.In the previous study, more than half of the participants are found to show high concern about swine influenza pandemic. In the present study, around 71% of the participants are aware of the COVID-19 pandemic and the controversial role played by WHO in spreading the COVID-19 pandemic. This study concludes that during this pandemic outbreak most of the participants are aware of the role of WHO in the process of controlling and updating information related to the global pandemic condition. It is evident from this study that people are sceptical about the role played by WHO in managing COVID-19


Aditi Chopra; Jayalakshmi Somasundaram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1506-1519

The pandemic of coronavirus has quickly impacted the entire world, and the government has responded with a lock down. The lock down involves shutting of schools and colleges and a shift from traditional classrooms to online classes and e-learning. This has a lot of benefits such as flexible timings, convenience, no commute et cetera. However, these are contradicted by no practical classes, no personal attention from staff and a strayed student teacher relationship. A questionnaire survey consisting of 12 questions was prepared and circulated through an online survey portal among 100 dental students in India. The questions were prepared to analyse the perception of dental students towards online classes. Online classes have changed the education system for the time being. Students are involved in e-learning through online education portals and online platforms, which helps them to efficiently utilise their time. Despite the advantages that online classrooms have, results show that dental students prefer traditional classrooms over them.


Trisha Sasikumar; Dr. Durairaj Sekar; Dr.Ganesh Lakshmanan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1360-1369

CoronaVirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus-2 [SARS-CoV-2]. It has caused a lot of deaths worldwide and is growing uncontrollably. Many factors like public co-operation and handling of the government efficiently are responsible for control. AS new norms were formulated and observed, in this current COVID-19 pandemic, This study aims to find the perception of people on the takeaway message from this pandemic to any other upcoming similar scenario. A self administered questionnaire was prepared comprising about 9 questions based on the topic of the survey and circulated to about 100 people through an online google sheets link. The questions were studied carefully and corresponding answers were marked by the participants. The data was collected and statistically analysed. The overall result was positive wherein the public was co-operative about the lockdown and found ways to keep themselves occupied and they believe that the government of India was performing efficiently and that it is well-equipped and can handle any future pandemics. This study helps us understand the public perspective on the current, serious issue going on in the world.


Sheetal Kumari; Dr. L. Keerthi. Sasanka; Dr. Dinesh Premavathy; Dr. Visalakshi Ramanadhan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1673-1682

Influenza is an infectious disease caused by Influenza virus. Symptoms may include- fever, cough, headache, sore throat muscle and body pain and fatigue. These symptoms begin two days after exposure to the virus and most last less than a week. Old age people and children are at great risk due to this virus. Complications of influenza may include viral Pneumonia , secondary bacterial pneumonia sinus infections and worsening of previous health problems such as asthma or heart failure. Influenza spreads around the world in yearly outbreaks, resulting in about three to five million cases of severe illness and about 290,000 to 650,000 deaths. Three of the four types of influenza viruses affect humans : Type A, Type B, and Type
C. Type D has not been known to infect humans, but is believed to have the potential to do so. In this present study, data was collected and was verified using a standard software. Statistical analysis was done with the help of SPSS software and representation was done using pie charts and graphs. Data was entered and verified using a standard computer software. Type of analysis used was chi square. It was concluded that a maximum number of awareness was shared about the influenza, its causes, symptoms and risk factors associated with it.


E. Dhivya sri,; A. Jothi Priya; Hannah R; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2210-2221

To investigate the awareness about pandemic disease between both rural and Urban populations.Self - administered questions were prepared. The questions were distributed in Google forms and hundreds of participants participated. The statistical data was analysed.Present study showed that a substantial number of participants have adequate awareness regarding an infectious respiratory illness (45% close), risk of pandemic (42.3%), available vaccines (52.3%), majority of participants (82%) would pandemics cause sudden, widespread morbidity and mortality as well as social political and economic disruption.Although there is an appropriate knowledge and awareness regarding various aspects of pandemic disease both Urban and rural population still, active interventions are required in all areas of pandemic not only to improve their knowledge and awareness regarding pandemic between both rural and Urban population adults also.


Jayadharani. C; Dr. Durairaj Sekar; Dr. Ganesh Lakshmanan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 616-625

Pandemic is a global affection which has effects on health, social and political levels,As many countries are trying to tackle the current COVID pandemic, this study aims at analysing the popular perception on the capabilities of India in managing a pandemic among the local population. A questionnaire was distributed through an online google forms link to about 100 South Indian population, The study population were asked to fill out the online form after reading each question thoroughly. The results were collected and Data was analysed using SPSS software version 20. From the results, the majority of the study population answered positive responses regarding India’s capability of managing pandemic and also awareness of Pandemic among people of India.. 100% of the population were aware of the pandemic and its outbreaks. This study gives an insight on the popular perception toward India’s capability of managing pandemic, and creating an awareness on its spread.