Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Lean


A study of Metabolic Profiles in Lean, Overweight, and Obese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Vijaitha SM, Dr. Aparna Varma Bhongir, Sapna Vyakarnam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 5, Pages 153-159

Background: The most common kind of diabetes in the world is type 2 diabetes mellitus. Most instances in western nations include obesity. The situation can be different in several regions of India. A significant frequency of lean type 2 diabetes mellitus has been noted in studies with a body mass index under 19 kg/m2. To connect biochemical markers with anthropometric measurements and to assess the metabolic state of lean vs. overweight/obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.Materials and Methods: Body mass index (BMI) was used to classify 100 T2DM patients into lean and overweight/obese groups; 50 healthy controls with similar ages and sexes were chosen. BMI, waist circumference (WC), and waist:hip ratio (W:H) anthropometric measurements were taken. Fasting blood samples were analysed for high-density lipoprotein (HDL), nonesterified free fatty acids, serum total cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, and triglycerides (NEFA). The Friedewald algorithm was used to compute low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and TG:HDL was evaluated to assess insulin resistance (IR).Results: Compared to lean T2DM and controls, overweight/obese individuals had substantially greater anthropometric parameters of total (BMI 33.22 ±5.9 , 20.35±2.22 vs 21.49±3.88 ) and visceral adiposity (WC 93.42 ±6.4, 76.45±4.14 vs 75.2 ±4.1 and W:H 0.98 ±0.14 , 0.8 ±0.22 vs 0.78±0.32 ). In comparison to controls, T2DM patients had significantly higher levels of total cholesterol, TG, LDL, and NEFA while having lower levels of HDL. However, the values in the overweight/obese group were substantially higher than those in the lean group. Triglycerides: HDL levels were substantially higher in obese individuals compared to lean patients (4.42 ± 1.6 vs 7.88 ± 3.22 ), indicating that obese diabetics had much worse insulin sensitivity than non-obese diabetics. BMI, WC, W:H, TG, LDL, NEFA, and TG:HDL showed positive correlations whereas HDL in the obese group showed negative correlations. Lean people with normal BMI, WC had abnormal lipids, and IR.
Conclusion: T2DM in obese and lean people has dyslipidemia and IR. Poor metabolic profile is not connected with lean T2DM patients' total and visceral obesity.

Configure-to-Order (CTO) Production through Lean Initiatives: Manufacturing Delivery in COVID-19 Pandemic Milieu

Khoo Teng Leong; Oo Yu Hock

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 494-505

Manufacturing is a critical demand-supply chain of production to meet consumption needs in fulfilment of contractual obligation under planned delivery schedule or on-demand as needed. This is particularly the case with certain manufacturing concerns that continue to advocate a normative practice of market-response or business-purchase reactions as and when it arises. The maintenance of capital-intensive production and high-cost related products are examples of a typical and common business process in operations management that is reactive rather than proactive. However, as a Business Process Improvement (BPI) strategy that works beyond the practice of normative manufacturing is this proposed model of configure-to-order (CTO) production through lean initiatives. It is a proactive change-driven flexible-adaptive manufacturing enabler that produces ever-shorter delivery times, with economies of scale, operational efficiency, systemic-aligned management and overall productive organizational effectiveness. A case in point is the agility of medical equipment and related products manufacturing business during an unexpected surge of not only critical demand but urgent-fast delivery for its products to combat the death-threatening crisis of Covid-19 pandemic onslaught. In essence, the adoption of ‘lean’ initiatives that incorporates a combined approach of ‘lean’ and ‘agile’ elements - capsulated in the acronym of ‘leagility’ – is a hybrid strategy that facilitates CTO production to deliver the output on time, the result-expected secured and outcome-anticipated fulfilled.