Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : diabetes


Frequency of Diabetic Nephropathy in Diabetic Children and Adolescents at Children Hospital of Zagazig University

Shimaa Saad Mohammed Emam, Rabab Mohammed El -Behiedy,Aml Saeed Elshal, Mayy Abd-AlFatah Mohammed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2850-2861

Background:Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is defined as kidney disease attributed
to diabetes. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common micro vascular complication
of diabetes .DN develops in 15-20% of subjects with T1DM and in similar or higher
percentage of T2DM patients, causing increased morbidity and premature
mortality. American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends screening for
nephropathy 5 years after diagnosis for type 1 diabetes and at diagnosis for type 2
diabetes.Aim: To estimate the occurrence of diabetic nephropathy in children and
adolescent diagnosed with diabetes Method: A case control study was carried on
one hundred and fifty of children went to pediatrics clinics of zagazig university
hospital. They were classified in to 75 diabetic children who were type 1DM for
more than 4 years and their age less than 18 years old and 75 non diabetic children
of the same gender and age. Both groups under go full history, clinical and
laboratory investigations during the period from December 2018 to November 2019.
Result: frequency of persistent microalbuminuria and hypertension among diabetic
patients were 293 per 1000 and 160 per 1000patient respectively.Conclusion: Type1
diabetic children and adolescent are liable for the occurrence of early diabetic
nephropathy so intensive diabetes therapy is needed, regular screening for MA and
measurement and interpretation of BP and GFR

Assessment Of Cases Of Type I Diabetes And Oral Health Status In Children- A Clinical Study

Garima Dayal; Vipin Aggarwal; Charu Aggarwal; Mandira Gulati; Ejya Mathur; Abhishek Mathur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1059-1063

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic systemic metabolic disease characterized by abnormally high blood glucose levels. The present study was conducted to assess cases of type I diabetes mellitus and oral health status in children. Materials & Methods: 82 children age ranged 8-16 years of both genders were selected. Diagnosis of dental caries decayed, missing, and filled surfaces/decayed and filled surfaces was done. Blood samples were collected and HbA1c values measured. Results: There were 14 controlled diabetics and 68 uncontrolled diabetics. The mean dfs score in diabetics was 0.612 and in uncontrolled diabetics was 0.431, mean plaque score was 0.71 and 0.89 in controlled and uncontrolled diabetics and mean gingival score was 0.056 and 0.215 in controlled and uncontrolled diabetics. The difference was non- significant (P> 0.05). Conclusion: No difference in dfs score, plaque score and gingival score in controlled and uncontrolled diabetics was observed.

An observational study on prescribing pattern and effect of medication adherence on clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes

Sourabh Kosey; Saurabh Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 6576-6588

Objective: Medication adherence is impacted by regimen complexity of the Diabetes mellitus. This observational study aimed to investigate the prescribing pattern and effect of medication adherence on clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: This was an observational study was approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee (196/IEC/2011) and it was undertaken in Guru Gobind Singh Medical College, Faridkot, Shanti Devi Thapar Hospital, Moga, Garg Hospital, Zira, Metro Hospital, Bagghapurana, and Fortis Hospital, Ludhiana, India. A total number of 1150 patients were screened out of which 1022 in baseline group were allocated. On follow-up 970 patients completed the study. A total of patients with diabetic aged between 21 and 65 years, either sex, with co-morbidities, on oral hypoglycemic agents (either metformin or glibenclamide or its combination), having disease 10 years with HbA1c level >7% were included in the study. Adherence rate was calculated for each study medication at each follow-up visit; participants were classified as ≥80% or <80% adherence. Result: The most prevalent co-morbities were HTn, CVD, GID, hyperthyroidism, Retinopathy neuropathy and nephropathy. Monotherapies (369 cases) have been prescribed more in comparison to the combination therapies (311 cases). Clinical outcomes observed after pharmacist’s intervention was highest in the case of PPBG (210±8.8 mg/dl) from the base line (342.9±8.3 mg/dl) in 6 months. Other parameters TC, TG, LDL, HDL, VLDL, Creatinine, Uric acid, and BUN have also shown significant improvement after pharmacists’ intervention. Medication regimen, Height (Ht.), Weight (Wt.), Body mass index (BMI), Blood Pressure (BP), Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c), and lipid profile showed more than 80% adherence when studied in total of 970 patients. Conclusions: Adherence was higher with the medication regimen. Greater adherence to the simpler regimen amplified the treatment effect on HbA1c, BP, lipid profile, and eye, yet statistically significant greater benefits were noted even when adjusted for adherence. Trial registration number: NCT01966978

The Oxidative Effect Of Nlrp3 And Cyp2e1 In Development Of Renal Failure Associated With Hypertension And Diabetes Mellitus Diseases

Alyaa Abdulhadi Salih; Kareem Hamadx Kareem Hamad Ghali2

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 636-644

Renal Failure (RF) is devastating pathology with several causative factors, resulting in dialysis or kidney transplantation needed by end-stage renal disease (ESRD. The progression of RF is closely related to systemic oxidative stress, which causes various complications such as hypertension and diabetic mellitus . The current study was focusing on the oxidative effects of NLRP3 and CYP2E1 gene expression in the pathological development of renal failure disease with hypertension and diabetic mellitus as complications associated diseases. This study involved 100 patients diagnosed clinically and seriologicaly with renal failure 52 males and 48 females, their age from 17 to 80 years . Also the study comprise (18 males and 12 females) healthy volunteers as control group. RNA extracted from blood samples and converted to cDNA which subjected to real-time PCR for detection gene expression . The results detected that Hypertension and diabetic mellitus are the important risk factors that causes and advances renal failure disease . NLRP3 and CYP2E1 have significantly overexpression (1.60 folds and 5.37 folds ) respectively in RF patients compared with healthy group ( p <0.05). However, the expression of NLRP3 and CYP2E1 increase in diabetic mellitus (2.16 and 1.58 ) respectively than hypertension in RF patients with and control group (p<0.05). Diabetic mellitus generate free radical consequently causes ROS, hence elevated expression in oxidative NLRP3 and CYP2E1 genes in diabetic RF patients .

Determination of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in type II DM patients

Amit Varshney; Vidya Sagar Ram; Kanhaiya Prasad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3788-3792

Background: The diabetic neuropathy, including the cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy
(CAN), is a common complication of type 1 and 2 diabetes that leads to high mortality and
morbidity. The present study was conducted to determine CAN in type II DM patients.
Materials & Methods: 168 type II DM patients of both genders were recruited. Resting
heart rate, blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140
mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mmHg, fasting lipid profile (low-density
lipoprotein/LDL, high-density lipoprotein/HDL, triglycerides/TG) and cardiac autonomic
function was evaluated with the CAN system analyzer as early, definite and advanced
CAN.
Results: CAN was seen in 66 patients. The mean age (years) was 45.2 and 44.5, duration of
diabetes (years) was 6.1 and 12.3, SBP (mm Hg) was 130.4 and 134.5, DBP (mm Hg) was
86.2 and 87.6, resting heart rate (beats/min) was 76.3 and 87.4, LDL (mg/dl) was 102.4 and
98.6, HDL (mg/dl) was 40.5 and 38.1 and TG (mg/dl) was 165.2 and 184.6 in CAN- and
CAN+ patients. The difference was non- significant (P> 0.05). Severity of CAN found to be
early in 20%, definitive in 45% and advanced in 35%. The difference was significant (P<
0.05).
Conclusion: Type II diabetes patients had high prevalence of cardiac autonomic
neuropathy.

Evaluation Of Effect Of Diabetes AndSmoking On Prognosis Of Dental Implants- AClinicalStudy

Dr.SumitSShetgar,Dr.SanketIngale,Dr.VinayakShukla,Dr.ShripalOswal,Dr. VikramTodkar5,Dr. Rutuja Todkar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 9179-9183

Background:Theriskfactorsforimplantareduetosurgicalprocedureandpatientcharacteristics.
The present study was conducted to assess effect of diabetes and smokingonprognosis of
dentalimplants.
Materials & Methods: 120 patients who received dental implants in last 2 years
weredivided into 4 groups of 30 each. Group I were smokers and non- diabetic, group II
werediabetic and non- smokers, group III were smokers and diabetics and group IV
werecontrols.Success rate of dental implants wereassessed.
Results: There were 18 males and 12 females in group I, 14 males and 16 females in
groupII, 13 males and 17 females in group III and 15 males and 15 females in group IV.
Therewere 24 successful implants in group I, 23 in group II, 23 in group III and 28 in
group IV.Thedifferencewas significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion:Successratewashighestamonghealthyascomparedtodiabeticsandsmokers

Study on Trichomonas vaginalis infection in women with type-2 diabetes mellitus and vaginal discharge in Thi-Qar Government

Huda Kaduim Kareem; Mushreq Mezaal Hamad; Mohammed A. Hasan; Methaq A. Abd alsammed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 4471-4478

There is a wide variation in the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in Iraqi women. There are no data on prevalence in Iraq women with diabetes, a known risk factor for increased genital infection. We wished to ascertain the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in diabetic women with vaginal discharge in Thi-Qar, Iraq. A cross-sectional study was performed at one specialized polyclinic between November 2019 and December 2020. One hundred and ten pregnant and non-pregnant diabetic women aged 17-52 years who complain of vaginal discharge were interviewed and high vaginal swabs were taken and tested with wet mount and culture to detect Trichomonas vaginalis, candida and bacteria. Random blood glucose levels and VDRL tests were also done for all patients. Twenty seven out of 110 vaginal swabs (24.5%) were positive for Trichomonas vaginalis. The age of the patient, color and smell of the vaginal discharge significantly concurred with the Trichomonas vaginalis infection status. Highest rate of infection (50%) observed in diabetic women over 40 years of age. Non-pregnant diabetic women had a slightly higher prevalence (27.7%) than pregnant diabetic women (22.2 %). Eighteen of all vaginal discharge (16.4%) were positive for Candida albicans. Bacterial vaginosis was mostly due to Staphylococcus spp (100%). Additionally, 4 patients (3.6%) had a positive VDRL test.
Conclusion: Nearly quarter of women with type 2 diabetes mellitus presenting with vaginal discharge in Thi-Qar had Trichomonas vaginalis infection. This is markedly higher than previously reported rates in the general female population of the city.

Role of Serum Albumin as a Prognostic marker of mortality and duration of hospital stay among Diabetic Ketoacidosis Patients.

Vinay Verma; Shilpa Gaidhane; Anuj Varma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2580-2584

Abstract: Background: Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is an critical and menacing problem
of Type 1 as well as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). DKA is associated with high amount
of risk of mortality and morbidity (hospital stay). The prognostic factors of DKA are
important factors affecting the outcome of the patients (as treated or death). S. Albumin is
one of the prognostic factor less studied up till now.
Objectives: To determine Clinical profile of DKA patients: aetiologies, precipitating
factors, biochemical parameters and other complications of T2DM patients and to corelate
serum albumin level with mortality, duration of stay among DKA patients.
Methodology: This cross sectional study will be conducted among 100 diabetic patients
with and without ketoacidosis from May 2019 to May 2021. Biochemical parameters:
glycated Haemoglobin, urine ketones and serum albumin will be gathered to determine the
prognosis. Controls will be adult diabetic patients without ketoacidosis. Data from Cases
and controls will be statistically analysed and then compared accordingly.
Expected Results: It is expected that decreased Sr. albumin will be associated with poor
prognosis in DKA patients. Sr. Albumin might be an indirect prognostic marker of diabetes
control due anabolic effect of Insulin, which affects both ketosis possibility and glucose
levels.

Stem Cell Therapy: A Breakthrough in Diabetes Mellitus

Aathira Viswam; Roshni P R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 1253-1265

Diabetes mellitus regardless of the type, its associated complications and the tendency to inherit the condition due to genetic reasons have affected world wide and is increasing at a rapid pace. Although there are effective ways to manage this condition, none of them stops the progressive decline of the beta cell functioning. The existing treatment modalities only delays the complications. Pancreatic islet transplantation have been promising with patients being insulin independent for initial few years post transplant, but over the period of time they restart their daily insulin injections. Even though stem cell therapy for diabetes is currently being investigated, its recent progress has been assuring one. Stem cell therapy does not face risk like graft rejection requiring immunosuppression or complications associated with the procedure and post transplant unlike the pancreatic islet transplantation, since they can withdrawn from the diabetic patient and injected back, thus eliminating issues like lack of donors. This review shows the potential of hematopoeitic stem cell and mesenchymal stem cell therapy as a good alternative approach in treating diabetes.

Evaluation Of Hba1c As A Valid Tool For Risk Assessment In Ischemic Stroke And TIA

Prof. Dr. Pravati Tripathy, Debjani Nayak, Pratibha Khosla; Sahil Kumar; Anshul Bhateja; Ravneet Kaur; Sukhminder Singh; Gurinder Kaur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 4773-4777

Background: Stroke is the second leading cause of death in the world in the last two decades. The present study was conducted to evaluate HbA1C as a valid tool for risk assessment in ischemic stroke and TIA.
Materials & Methods: 50 patients who were diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke or TIA, were included. Diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke was made on CT/MRI scan. Estimation of HbA1C was done by photometric test using ion exchange resin. Estimation of blood glucose level was done by glucose oxidase method.
Results: Group I was non- diabetic having 10, group II was pre- diabetic having 8 and group III was diabetic having 22 patients. There were 30 (60%) males and 20 (40%) females. In group A there were 6 males and 4 females, group B had 10 males and 8 females while in group C there were 14 males and 8 females. The sex distribution amongst the three groups did not reveal any statistical difference, and hence all the three groups were comparable.
Conclusion: HbA1C is a novel marker for determining the glycaemic status of a person. In cases of acute ischemic stroke and TIA, HbA1C should be used as a screening tool in determining the previous glycaemic status, prevalence of prediabetes and differentiate it from stress hyperglycaemia.

An Exploratory Study on Ketogenic Diet and Nutrition

Dr.Magesh V; Dr.Mutharasu C

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5716-5722

In the US, dietary recommendations in >50 y centered on reducing saturated and total fat intakes. During this time, however, obesity and diabetes rates have dramatically increased, with potentially devastating consequences for public and economic health. Ketogenic diets have recently gained extensive media interest and nutrition studies. During this time, however, obesity and diabetes rates have dramatically increased, with potentially devastating consequences for public and economic health. Ketogenic diets have recently gained extensive media interest and nutrition studies. In addition to decreases in blood glucose and insulin, which can be accomplished by reducing carbohydrates, persistent ketosis could convey specific metabolic advantages that are important for cancer, neurodegenerative disorders and other insulin resistance conditions. Based on existing data, a well-formulated ketogenic diet does not seem to have significant public safety issues and should be seen as a key solution to obesity and diabetes. Medical studies of good consistency.

Analyzing Diabetic Data Using Naive-Bayes Classifier

A. Sharmila Agnal; E. Saraswathi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 2687-2699

Approximately 422 million people across the world have diabetes, particularly in countries where the average income is in the middle and lower end of the economic spectrum. Statistics reveal that every year, about 1.6 million deaths are recorded which can be directly attributed to diabetes. The graph suggests that number of cases as well as the prevalence of diabetes have been steadily incrementing over the past few decades. Through this new implementation of the Bayesian Classifier, raw medical data is analyzed and the risk of diabetes diagnosis based on each patient’s medical information can be calculated. The raw data is converted into class labels and the likelihood of a positive potential diabetes case is derived, as a probability (≤1). This can not only be used by healthcare professionals but also by common users, and can be useful in detecting the risk and preventing it in time without taking any medical tests. This classifier uses very basic information that would be known to each patient or can easily be obtained.

Comparative Evaluation Of Glycemic Status, Levels Of Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, Lipid Peroxidase And Osteocalcin In Gcf In Type-Ii Diabetes Patients With Chronic Periodontitis Under Ayurvedic Treatment.

Dr. Nubesh Khan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 3192-3199

Background: Nishamalaki or Nisha Amalaki representing various combination formulations of Turmeric and Indian gooseberry is recommended in Ayurveda, proven efficacious and widely practiced in the management and prevention of complications of Madhumeha (Diabetes).
Aims: To assess the effectiveness of scaling and root planing on the glycemic status and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of Malondialdehyde, Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase and Osteocalcin in Type II diabetes patients with chronic periodontitis under systemic administration of Nishamalaki, an ayurvedic hypoglycemic formulation.
Material and methods: The study included 90 newly diagnosed Type II diabetic patients in the age group between 30 to 50 years with mild to moderate chronic periodontitis and was randomly divided into 45 patients of two groups each. Group A were Type II diabetic patients with mild to moderate chronic periodontitis taking supplements of Nishamalaki 1 gram twice daily for 3 months and Group B were Type II diabetic patients with mild to moderate chronic periodontitis undergoing scaling and root planing and receiving supplements of Nishamalaki 1 gram twice daily for 3 months.
Results: Independent t-test has been applied to compare the two groups. It has been observed there is no significant difference exists between the two groups. However administration of Nishamalaki and scaling has been all effective in group B parameters.
Conclusion: Nishamalaki showed protective effect and appeared to be useful in reducing the glycemic status, levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, lipid peroxidase and osteocalcin in GCF in type-2 diabetes patients with chronic periodontitis.

Correlation Of Hba1c With Lipid Profile In Patients Of Ischemic Stroke Or TIA

Sahil Kumar; Sukhminder Singh; Gurinder Kaur; Ravneet Kaur; Anshul Bhateja; Aprajita Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 4778-4785

Background: Stroke is the second leading cause of death in the world in the last two decades. The present study was conducted to evaluate correlation of HbA1C with lipid profile in patients of ischemic stroke or TIA.
Materials & Methods: 50 patients of acute ischemic stroke or TIA, were assessed for glycosylated blood glucose and lipid profile level.
Results: There were 10 patients in age group of <50years, 6 patients in age group of 50-60 years, 16 patients in age group 60-70 years, 11 patient in age group of 70-80 years and 7 patients in age group >80 years. The mean FBS (mg/dl) in group I was 96.6, in group II was 116 and in (%) group III was 163, RBS (mg/dl) was 132.1, 157 and 205.6 in group I, II and III respectively, HbA1C (%) was 5.3, 6.15 and 8.43, mean cholesterol level (mg/dl) was 148.6, 151.1 and 220.5, LDL (mg/dl) was 91.6, 97.5 and 154.21, HDL (mg/dl) was 41, 39.8 and 37.6, TG (mg/dl) was 106.9, 192.2 and 175.5 in group I, II and III respectively. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: HbA1C can be helpful in the management and outcome of patients of ischemic stroke and TIA.

Therapeutic Effect of Luteolin in Diabetic Wounds: Minireview

Amnah Asiri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 692-698

Diabetic wounds are a popular health problem affecting 15% of diabetic individuals. Traditional treatment depends on understanding the relationship between diabetes and wound healing mechanisms. Recent studies tend to use natural products that possess active components for treatments. Luteolin is the most common flavonoids found in many medicinal plants. The study has also highlighted the recent advances in the therapeutic effect of luteolin, particularly, on diabetic wounds healing. Luteolin has demonstrated its anti-inflammatory effect through its impact on fibroblast cell proliferation and migration. Further studies are highly recommended to focus on luteolin as an anti-inflammatory agent in human diabetic wounds healing.

Diabetes Data Prediction in healthcare Using Hadoop over Big Data

Gajanand Sharma; Ashutosh Kumar; Himanshu Sharma; Ashok Kumar Saini; Priyanka .; S.R. Dogiwal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 1423-1432

Diabetes mellitus is one of the major non-communicable diseases which have great impact on human life today. A huge amount of data is generated including a wide variety of the Electronic Medical Record (EMR), pharmacy reports, and laboratory reports, among other data related to patients. Big data analytics can be applied to this data to generate useful patterns and relation between different factors which affects diabetes. The results obtained from this analysis shows relation between different attributes which can be used to improve healthcare system. In this paper the analysis of the diabetes dataset is done using Hadoop framework, which is a distributive framework and can be used to analysis large amount of data. The dataset is taken from PIMA Indian Database, which includes different factors that affect diabetes like age, blood pressure, BMI (Body-Mass Index), skin thickness etc. Results produced by the analysis of data are projects on Power BI.

Deep Learning Techniques based Non-invasive detection of fasting Blood Glucose Level measurement using Electrochemical Saliva

D. Arul Kumar; Dr.T. Jayanthy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1598-1607

In Deep learning methods such as automatic encoder, long-term short-term memory (LSTM) and repetitive neural network (RNN), in mixed group of population, fasting blood glucose level (FBGL) was used to detect the BG level. The Indian population is healthy and sick. The appearance of high FBGL from the electrochemical parameters of human saliva, redox potential, pH, concentration of sodium, and calcium ions was evaluated. Samples were taken from 175 randomly particular persons, half of healthy patients and half of those with diabetes. Models were trained with 70% of all data and tested in the remaining set. In every algorithm, the data points were randomly crossed three times before the model was implemented. The effectiveness of machine learning techniques is presented in terms of the four parameters that are statistically significant, the accuracy, the sensitivity, and the F1 score. The proposed analysis shows that the RNN-based deep learning method yields better results. This deep learning technique to measure blood glucose level non-invasively using electrochemical saliva will helps the society to control the diabetes effectively.

Advanced Glycation End-Products In Diabetes Complications

Anush N; Bineesh C. P.; Jeena Gupta; Pranav Kumar Prabhakar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 2190-2198

Diabetic complications, such as, retinopathy, nephropathy lead to blindness and end stage renal failure respectively, various neuropathies, and ultimately increased mortality. While the exact mechanisms that lie behind the pathological changes associated with diabetes remain obscure, however, it is widely believed that chronic or intermittent hyperglycemia may alter various metabolic pathways at the tissue level, for instance, increased flux through the polyol and the hexosamine pathways as well as a persistent activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Reducing sugars such as glucose and fructose may react non-enzymatically through their carbonyl groups with free amino groups of proteins (commonly the Ɛ amino group of lysine) to form a Schiff base intermediate which then rearranges to a more stable structure known as Amadori product. The Amadori products generated by the aforementioned Maillard reaction may then undergo further reactions, including dehydration, oxidation and rearrangement resulting in the irreversible formation of heterogeneous advanced glycation end products (AGEs)

Pharmacogenomic Advancements For The Management Of Diabetes Mellitus

Paranjeet Kaur; Vishal singh; Amit Mittal; Sanjeev Kumar Sahu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 2607-2616

Pharmacogenomics (PGx), likewise perceived as pharmacogenetics, is a branch about pharmacologyor genomics. It is an ongoing abstention that examination the results about genomic, yet hereditary variety about the assimilation, digestion, working effectiveness, antagonistic responses of pills between the ethnic body, in this way the improvement of advance medications have been incorporated. The PGx thought has been proposed since 1950s, alongside the primary reason for distinguishing significant hereditary forms up to desire to fix ailment between people. As of now PGx is the former decision as a result of coordinating genomic records into clinical practice and offering therapeutic choice help. PGx inquire about indicated amazing accomplishments for different sickness. Among them, Diabetes is a most plentifully influenced by quality inconstancies. Diabetes is infection characterized dependent on hyperglycemia. There are monogenics of diabetes where characterizing the hereditary reason dramatically affects treatment with patients having the option to move from insulin to sulfonylureas. Be that as it may, most of diabetes is type-2 diabetes. Until this point in time, clinically significant pharmacogenomics has to a great extent been restricted to extreme eccentric antagonistic medication responses, to variety in sedate digestion, and to treatment result in malignant growth chemotherapeutics where the physical transformations drive the decision of focused intercession. In this review article, we concentrate on pharmacogenomics in type-2 diabetes and utilize this not exclusively to layout the ongoing advances in the field however to address the difficulties that are confronted while thinking about hereditary qualities of treatment adequacy and symptoms in like manner complex illness status of diabetes.

SALIVA IN DIABETES-A REVIEW

Danisca Uthayasankar; Gifrina Jayaraj; Gayathri R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1395-1403

Saliva is a unique fluid which plays an important role in maintaining the normal oral health of an individual. Diabetes is the major factor that leads to the changes in the salivary pH, salivary flow and dental caries. 32 articles were collected from the pubmed website and were included as citations in our present review. Salivary glucose and blood glucose level are directly proportional to each other. Normal level of salivary glucose is 0.5-1.00 mg/ml. Salivary hypofunction in diabetic individuals is observed. Diabetes leads to the reduction of salivary pPH and salivary flow. It also helps in multiplication of harmful microorganisms in the oral cavity.

Analysis Of The Assessment Of The Attitude To The State Of Its Health Among The Inorgonized Population

Jo‘rayeva Hafiza Iskandarovna; Soliyev Alisher Urakovich; Djumayev Karomat Shoyimovich; Khusenov Olim Nutfilloyevich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3346-3352

Analysis of the assessment of attitudes towards their health among the unorganized population. With the important role of timely and adequate detection of various diseases and pathological conditions by doctors of the health facility, the adequacy of assessing patients health is of particular importance. An adequate assessment of the patient's own health is an important help in the timely referral to the doctor and the conduct of the preventive measures. In this regard, the frequency of the main components of the metabolic syndrome among people who differ in assessing their health was analyzed.
Among the unorganized population of Bukhara there is an inadequate assessment of the state of health among patients with arterial hypertension, with body mass index and obesity and a violation of carbohydrate metabolism.

PREVALENCE AND IMPACT OF STRESS AND DEPRESSION IN ADULTS WITH DIABETES - A SURVEY

Preety Rajesh; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Manjari Chaudhary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 799-809

Depression occurrence is found to be three times higher in people with diabetes mellitus. Sometimes the majority of the cases with depression are under diagnosed. According to the International diabetes federation, diabetes is the largest global health emergency of the 21st century. A questionnaire was created with a set of ten questions related to diabetic patients and depression. 100 random participants of the age 25- 50 years took the survey and a random sampling method was done. More than half the participants are well aware that depression is common in adults with diabetes (57.5%). 71.3% think that diabetic patients are more anxious than a normal person, 54.5% are aware that using antidepressants in diabetic adults can be risky, 51% think that diabetes can be under diagnosed during treatment and 70% are aware that glucose metabolism will be altered if the doabetic patient is under depression or stress. Awareness about diabetic patients who could possibly be dealing with stress and depression was created.

PREVALENCE OF DENTURE STOMATITIS AMONG DENTURE WEARERS IN PATIENTS REPORTED TO A PRIVATE DENTAL HOSPITAL.

Sharon keziah.V Sharon keziah.V1; Dr. Deepika Rajendran; Dr. R. Pradeep Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1237-1246

Denture Stomatitis( DS) is one of the common denture related complications in patients wearing dentures after years of denture use. There have been various studies on its prevalence despite the fact that its exact etiology is still unknown. Removable dentures have served as an important prosthesis in dentistry, whereby it helps in regaining the phonetics and masticatory functions as well as esthetics in edentulous patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors that can cause denture stomatitis in denture wearers. This study was designed as a retrospective clinical study. All the patients with removable dentures (Complete dentures , Removable Partial dentures , Cast partial denture ) were taken into account and the data was retrieved. The data was analysed and results were recorded.Out of the 1415 subjects wearing dentures (complete or partial ) , 80 were found to have denture stomatitis in which 57.4% were women and 42.6% were men. The majority of the DS patients were in the age group range of 51-80 years. Temporary partial dentures (50%) were the most prevalent type of prosthesis in patients with denture stomatitis. When the medical history was reviewed most of the patients did not have any underlying systemic diseases(61.1%) did not have any medical condition, (18.5%) were diabetic, (11.1 %) were hypertensive. When all the diabetic patients(2577) were evaluated , 9.32% had denture stomatitis .In the study, it was observed that denture stomatitis was prevalent in elderly patients with slight female predilection. Diabetes was the most prevalent systemic illness associated with denture stomatitis