Keywords : Carvedilol
Protective Effects of Propranolol and Carvedilol on ExperimentallyInduced Ulcerative Colitis in Male Albino Rat
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2900-2914
Background:Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of large intestine.
Overproduction of free radicals, lowered antioxidant capacity, inflammation and
abnormal apoptosis are involved in its pathogenesis. Propranolol and carvedilol, β-
blockers with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects which may have a protective role
The study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of propranolol and carvedilol on UC
development and to distinguish which of them have greater beneficial effect on
experimentally-induced UC in male albino rats.
Methods: Fifty male albino rats were randomly allocated to five groups with each group
comprising eleven rats except control group composed of six rats. Group (1): control
group, Group (2): ulcerative colitis group, Group (3): propranolol-pretreated (30
mg/kg/d), Group (4): carvedilol-pretreated (30 mg/kg/d) and Group (5): mesalazinepretreated
(300 mg/kg/d). Treated groups received drugs by oral gavage for seven days
before and three days after induction of colitis. UC was induced in groups 2 to 5 by
intrarectal administration of 1ml of 4% Acetic Acid (AA), while group (1)received 1 ml of
normal saline solution administered intrarectally instead. To estimate the severity of AAinduced
UC and the effect of propranolol and carvedilol, the following parameters were
measured: colon weight/length (W/L) ratio, colon weight/body weight (CW/BW) ratio,
colonic malondialdehyde (MDA) and colonic markers of inflammation [tumor necrosis
factor (TNF-α) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)] and macroscopic and microscopic
Results:In UC group, colon W/L ratio, CW/BW ratio, macroscopic and microscopic
scorings and colonic levels of MDA, TNF-α and NF-κBwere significantly increased.
Pretreatment with propranolol, carvedilol and mesalazine significantly reduced these
parameters when compared to UC group. However, colon W/L ratio, CW/BW ratio,
macroscopic scoring of mucosal damage and colonic MDA, TNF-α and, NF-κB levels in
carvedilol-pretreated group were significantly lower than propranolol-pretreated group.
Conclusion:Both propranolol and carvedilol had a coloprotective effect againstAAinduced
UC depending on their ability to decreases inflammation and oxidative stress
state in rat colon; butcarvedilol had better effects than propranolol. Thus, carvedilol can
be considered the β-blocker of benefit in patients with UC who have other co-existing
diseases indicatingthe use of β-blockers.