Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Thyroid gland


Dr Naveen S, Dr. Madan Mohan Babu, Dr. Suresh .A, DrNithisha Mary Jacob, Dr. Shubham Gupta, Dr.SohamShrivastava

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 168-178

Background: thyroid gland diseases are common around the world. Diagnosis is usually by
thyroid profile estimation levels. The accuracy of Doppler ultrasonography is accurate and
sensitive in evaluating the gland in detail (size, margins and nodule’s). The indices like peak
systolic volume, pulsatility index and resistive index is useful for diagnosing pathological
thyroid. The aim of the study was to assess the findings of Doppler indices [PSV, PI, RI] of
bilateral superior thyroid arteries [STAs] in normal and pathological thyroid conditions and
use them as reference to evaluate the thyroid status and correlate the USG findings with
thyroid function tests.
Methods: This observational study was conducted between January 2020 and June 2021 at
Vydehi institute of medical sciences. The study consisted of 140 patients divided into two
groups 70 each i.e normal thyroid and pathological thyroid respectively.
Results: The mean age of the pathological group was 44.11± 10.54 years and mean age of
normal group was 42.54± 10.27 years. The study consisted of 27 males and 113 females.
Totally 119 were hypothyroid and 21 were hyperthyroidism. In the pathological group 6 had
low T3 and t4 levels and 17 had increased TSH levels whereas in the normal group 7 had
increased TSH levels. Pathological group the mean PSV was 21.87± 1.20, mean PI was
1.02±0.23 and mean RI was 0.74±0.06. The normal group the mean PSV was 16.4±1.29,
mean PI was 0.91±0.46 and mean RI was 0.54±0.04. The results suggested patients with
increased TSH levels had increased PSV, PI and RI which was significant.

Assessment of quantitative spectral Doppler parameters; resistivity index (RI) and acceleration time (AT) together to show their reliability for differential diagnosis of parenchymal thyroid diseases

Dr. Aditya Kaul, Dr. Monika Sharma, Dr. Sidhant Lochav, Dr. Govind Khatri, Dr. Bhawna Sandhir, Dr. Ankitaa Thakral

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1124-1129

Aim:To assess some quantitative spectral Doppler parameters, resistivity index (RI) and
acceleration time (AT) together to show their reliability for differential diagnosis of
parenchymal thyroid diseases.
Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Radiology, Maharishi
Markandeshwar University, Solanfor the period of 1 year. Patientsweredivided into five
groups such as group I (normal); group II had first detected, early untreated Hashimoto
disease(EH);groupIII comprised of chronic Hashimoto patients that are under treatment
and/or follow up (H); group IV had multinodular parenchymal hyperplasia (M) and group V
had nodular hyperplasia with Hashimoto (HM). They underwent spectral Dopplerultrasound
usingPhilipsAfiniti 70 G machine by a linear 5-12 MHz probe. Quantitative spectral Doppler
parameters such as resistivity index (RI) and acceleration time (AT) were recorded.
Results: Out of 200, 62.5% were female and 37.5% male most of the patients between 30-40
years 42.5% and followed by 40-50 years was 30%. The distribution of patients was done
based on diseases. The mean RI in group I was 0.57, in group II was 0.60, in group III was
0.45, in group IV was 0.51 and in group V was 0.53. Mean AT in group I was 25.9, in group
II was 24.8, in group III was 69.5, in group IV was 45.8 and in group V was 44.5.The
difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: The resistivity index and acceleration time together are reliable for differential
diagnosis of parenchymal thyroid diseases.

Deleterious effect of Perfluorooctanoic Acid on Rat Thyroid Gland

Ahmed AbdulhamidAlbakoush; Mohey el-sayedhulail; Emtethal Mamdouh El- Bestawyand Amira EbrahimAlsemeh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3993-3999

Background: Thyroid hormone is critical for the normal physiological function of
almost all mammalian tissues. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a manufactured
compound which persist in water and soil. The aim of the present study was to
evaluate the possible changes in the thyroid gland of adult male albino rats after
oral administration of PFOA. Material and methods: twenty male albino rats (150–
200 gm) and pathogenically free were obtained from Zagazig university. Animals
divided randomly in to two groups, Group I (control) and Group II rat was PFOA
and. Serum sample were collected for estimation thyroid hormones and thyroid
gland samples were prepared for differ microscopic examination. Results: In our
study, a significant decrease in the level of T3 and T4 with a significant increase of
TSH in PFOA group compared to control group. . Thyroid gland sections in rats
treated with PFOA showed a normal immunohistochemical expression of iNOS,
while, in PFOA group showed a staining was stronger and the area of
immunoexpression was greater in thyroid gland. Using Toluidine blue stain,
thyroid gland sections in control group showed typical thyroid follicles lined with
cuboidal epithelium and filled with homogeneous colloid and separated by capillary
beds. However, PFOA group showed some follicles are distended with colloid,
others appear collapsed. Mast cells in the interfollicular space with variable
densities of the colloid staining. Conclusion: These findings suggest that oral
dosing in rats with PFOA results in a noticed decrease in thyroid hormones and a
structural change in thyroid tissues.