Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Liver


Dr. Nikhila Phadnis, Dr. Govind Shiddapur, Dr. Nidhi Rana, Dr. Prateek Harsh .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2539-2543

Liver abscesses can be tricky to diagnose, with varying etiologies. As seen in this case of a 40-year-old male, who presented with pain abdomen and vomiting. A contrast scan revealed a giant hepatic abscess, with an impending perforation. A percutaneous drain was immediately inserted. Over the course of four months, the abscess was drained completely.

Histological outcome on liver and testis in male rats received Tamsulosin

Rand Abdulateef Abdullah, H. kh. Ismail

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 208-221

     Tamsulosin is alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist which can alleviate the symptoms of urinary tract infections in elderly men because it reduces spasm of periurethral smooth muscle fibers and reduce the obstruction around bladder. Thirty animals were separated into 3 groups. Group (1) is control group, group (2) received 0.4mg/kg/day of the medicine orally for seven days. Group (3) received 0.4mg/kg body weight of the medicine for thirty days. Results:  Group (2) liver tissue sections showed dilatation of portal vein, ballooning degeneration and necrosis of some hepatocytes while group (3) showed Severe congestion of portal vein with inflammatory cell infiltration and necrosis of most of hepatocytes. Microscopic examination of testis tissue slides of group (2) showed the tubules were less numerous, degeneration and necrosis of germinal epithelium while in group (3) testis sections showed reduced number of atrophied seminiferous tubules with interstitial edema. Vacuolation of spermatocytes and distortion of the process of spermiogenesis. It is concluded that tamsulosin can produce some histological effects on both liver and testis tissues when used for short duration (one week) while it can lead to harmful histological damage when it is given for long period (four weeks).

Retrospective Analysis of Blunt Abdominal Injuries in Forensic Autopsies at a Tertiary Care Centre

Nandini Pegu, Netramoni Kakati

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 4092-4096

Introduction: Blunt injury in the abdomen is seen more commonly because of rapid industrialization and increased number of vehicles ultimately leading to more number of accidents. According to the World Health Organisation by the year 2020, trauma will inadvertently become the first or second leading aetiology of death that happens over all ages. Therefore, the present retrospective study was carried out to evaluate the cases of blunt abdominal trauma from the records of forensic autopsies.
Materials and Methodology: A total of 90 autopsy cases were taken and 75 samples were included after scrutinising the records. A complete data was particularly obtained from the department records. There were some inclusion criteria that were followed in this study procedure that include those patients with history of blunt trauma abdomen due to road traffic accidents, accidental falls, and trauma by blunt objects and assault, above 14 years of age and both sexes. Those patients who did not fulfil the above inclusion criteria were relatively excluded from the study. Mechanism of death and pattern of organ involvement was also recorded. All the results were recorded in Microsoft excel sheet and were analysed by SPSS software.
Results: In the present study, a total of 75 patients were analysed. Mean age of the patients of the present study was 29.7 years. Majority of the patients belonged to the age group of less than 30 years. 36 percent of the patients belonged to the age group of 30 to 50 years. Table – 2 tabulates the various organ involvement wherein liver, intestine and spleen were the most predominant organs involved in the blunt abdominal trauma. In the present study, the most common mechanism of death was haemorrhage followed by shock and infection.
Conclusion: To conclude, the most common cause of Blunt Trauma Abdomen was reportedly road traffic accident which has been followed by fall from height and assault.

Investigating the Effects of Teasel on LiverEnzymes

Khabat khedri, Mehrdad Fojlaley, Fernando Maldonado Lopes, Maziyar Sayadi Amirkiasar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 6969-6977

Liver is a metabolic organ and it is responsible for detoxification of various materials. Harmful metabolic materials produced in other organs can affect itindirectly. Liver contains proteins and enzymes with large antioxidant capacities.It is assumed that oxidative stress that is caused by reactive oxygen species(ROS) causes various liver damages.Medicinal plants and other medicines derived from them have been known as important sources of medicine by humans since ancient times. Nowadays, ease of access to these drugs has caused the researchers to focus on their use strongly and investigatetheir medicinal properties. Teasel has steroid Saponins that act as natural Testosterone boosters. Teasel increases Testosterone by increasing Luteinizing hormone (LH). In the current study, low doses of Teasel have been unable to reduce the increase of the liver enzymes which are produced in response to resistance training, but doses of 10 and 15 mg/kg have been able to do it well.

A study of acute kidney injury in cirrhosis of liver

Dr. Meghna Vaidya, Dr. Nitin Sarate, Dr. Juhi Kawale, Dr. Vinayak Pai

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 26-34

Background: The prevalence of renal dysfunction has been reported to vary from 14-50% in
patients with cirrhosis. The prevalence is estimated to be approximately 50% among patients
with cirrhosis and ascites and 20% of patients with advanced cirrhosis admitted to the hospital
3,4. The wide range in prevalence is likely due to different study populations and varying
definitions of renal dysfunction. Patients with HRS who fail to respond to medical therapy or
those with severe renal failure of other etiology may require renal replacement therapy.
Simultaneous liver kidney transplant (SLK) is needed in many of these patients to improve
their post-transplant outcomes. However, the criteria to select patients who would benefit from
SLK transplantation are based on consensus and lack strong evidence to support them. Heath
care system has evolved over the last decade and newer drugs are available for the management
of complication of cirrhosis. We attempt to study its impact on course and outcome of acute
kidney injury. Also few of the patients could possibly be on the antiviral drugs for hepatitis B
and hepatitis C. If these patients are admitted they will be included in study and we would study
the effect of the effect of this drug on acute kidney injury and vice versa. Hence, the present
study was conducted to study clinical profile of patients with acute kidney injury in liver

Clinical profile and evaluation of level of dependence of alcohol in patients of alcoholic liver disease

Dr. Mridul Arora, Dr. Aarish Bali, Dr. Karanpartap Singh, Dr. Kiran Kumar Singal, Dr. S.S. Kaushal, Dr. Shrdha Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 204-208

Introduction: In India, there is a high frequency of ALD, with alcohol being responsible for roughly
half of all instances of cirrhosis. However, not everyone who consumes alcohol develops the condition,
and the total chance of acquiring the disease in a person is determined by a number of variables. The
length, amount, and kind of alcohol ingested, as well as nutritional state, comorbid illnesses, sex, race,
and hereditary variables, may all have a role. Multiple investigations on the impact of drinking patterns
in the development of illness have shown conflicting conclusions.
Objectives: Present study aims towards analysing the clinical profile of patients with alcoholic liver
disease. Present study also aims to perform psychiatric screening using CAGE criteria and alcohol use
disorder identification test (AUDIT) scale for assessing the severity of alcohol dependence.
Methods: Present study was a single centric, prospective, observational and hospital-based study. 50
patients with clinical/investigational evidence of alcoholic liver disease were include in study. CAGE
Criteria to screen and alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT) scale was used for assessing the
severity of alcohol dependence.
Results: The mean age of the recruited patients was 50.80 ± 12.74 years. Among total 50 patients, 96%
patients were males and 4% of patients were females. Total 26% patients have CAGE score of four, 34%
patients have CAGE score of three, 40% patients have CAGE score of two whereas no patient had a
CAGE score of zero. AUDIT scoring indicate that 96% patients exhibit alcohol dependence, 4% patients
presented with harmful or hazardous drinking levels whereas no patient presented with Low-risk
consumption. A total of 96% patients were alive whereas mortality occurs in 4% patients in present study.
Conclusion: Our findings show a link between the type, amount, and duration of alcohol consumption
and the development of alcoholic liver disease.


Mamataliev A.R.; Khusanov E.U.; Korzhavov Sh.O.; Makhramkulov Z.M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 2173-2177

In this work, the options for the topographic structure of the extrahepatic bile ducts were studied, compared with the portal vein and the own hepatic artery, different options for the location of the extrahepatic bile duct of a morphological nature. Consequently, a comparative study of the structural features of the extrahepatic bile ducts in mammals with and without a gallbladder and structural rearrangements of the extrahepatic bile ducts after cholecystectomy is an urgent scientific problem in theoretical and practical medicine.


KhamrakulovaMukaddaskhon .; AdilovUtkir .; SadikovAskar .; NarkhojaevaShahnoza .; SaginbekovKadirjan .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2738-2746

Background: The broad development of the chemical industry, the use of
pesticides in agriculture has led to an increase in hepatitis. At the same time,
different substances in their structure can cause liver function failure.
Objective: The objective of this work was to assess the functional state of
the liver of animals poisoned with the pesticide Bagira, using in their diet dishes
made from local food and additional introduction of a complex of local herbal
medicines into the diet.
Methods: The study involved patients with toxic hepatitis who had
industrial contact with chemicals. The total number of patients was 80 males,
aged 35 to 78 years.
Results (Findings): Based on the results of our research, the antioxidant
phyto tea helps to eliminate cytolytic, cholestatic, inflammatory syndrome,
improve the protein-synthetic function of the liver, improve the functional
activity of the liver, remove toxins from the body, maintain the function of
organs and systems. It is a natural, safe, powerful antioxidant.
Conclusions: 1) Studies have shown that patients diagnosed with chronic
hepatitis have disorders of the functional state of the liver, as well as the
gastrointestinal and nervous systems.
2) Change of biochemical indicators indicates a violation of metabolic, proteinsynthetic,
biliary, antitoxic functions of the liver: increase of bilirubin fractions,
the activity of alanine transferase (ALT), AST, the level of alkaline phosphatase,
gamma-glutaminetranspeptidase (GGT) in serum.
3. The use of phyto tea "Antioxidant" in patients with toxic liver damage
contributed to the increase of liver functional activity.

Liver Micro-Circulator Back After Its Partial Resection For 15 Day Of Life

Askarov T. A.; Olimkhujayev F. Kh.; Akhmedov M. D.; Fayziev Y. N; Ashurmetov A. M.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 4099-4106

In an experiment on 180 white mongrel male rats, 31-34% (left lateral lobe)
of the liver was resected on the 15th day of life. We found that after resection of the liver,
constantly occurring liver complexes were detected, which consist of 3 types of lobules. The
initial link of blood outflow from the hepatic lobes is the initial hepatic venules, which are
formed from the fusion of sinusoids in the subcapsular zone of the liver. After resection,
the main process is the formation of new structural and functional units – liver lobes in the
subcapsular area of the organ.


Aziza Nishanova; OishaAlaviya .; AdilovUtkir .; KhamrakulovaMukaddaskhon .; SadikovAskar .; ImanovFurkat .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2769-2784

Introductory information/relevance (Background): Widespread
prevalence of toxic hepatitis from chemical factors, the growth of chronic forms
of the disease, leading to a decrease in working capacity of the working
population, determine the multidimensionality of the problem and the relevance
of the development of new methods of prevention and treatment using a set of
herbal medicines.
Objective: Experimental study of the influence of the pesticide parargyte
on the functional state of hepatocytes and correction of metabolic processes with
the use of decoction from the complex of plant preparations.
Methods: Experimental studies were carried out on 146 white male rats
weighing 190-210. The mechanism of biological action of hepatotropic factors
was studied in acute and chronic experiments and correction of metabolic
processes with the addition of plant antioxidants.
Results (Findings): Experimental studies revealed that under the
influence of the pesticide propargit was observed a disturbance of carbohydrate
energy metabolism in the liver in all study periods. Application of a complex of
plant preparations to poisoned animals normalized the carbohydrate energy
metabolism and improved the functional state of the liver.
Conclusion: Application of the complex of herbal medicines - nettle
leaves, black currant fruits, rose hips, mountain ash fruits, green tea with
pesticide poisoning has a hepatoprotective effect on liver metabolism.


MukaddaskhonKhamrakulova .; SabirovaGulchehra .; SadikovAskar .; SadikovKhumoyun .; NavruzovErnazar .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2810-2822

The energy supply of liver functions is carried out mainly by aerobic mitochondrial
processes. We have studied some aspects of carbohydrate energy metabolism in
mitochondria of the liver at the chronic influence of dichloroethane complex of factors,
noise and vibration on experimental animals’ organism. The research aims to study some
parameters of carbohydrate energy metabolism in mitochondria of the liver under the
chronic influence of dichloroethane, noise and vibration. The researchers carried out
experiments on 98 purebred white male rats weighing 160-180 g. Dichloroethane in the
form of 10% oily solution was injected into the animal’s stomach in a dose of 1/20 LD50
(255 mg/kg), in conditions of noise (95-110dBa) and vibration (2-16dBa) during 15 and 90
days. After the experiments end in 15, 30, 60 and 90 days after exposure cessation to
chemical and physical factors, the rats were decapitated and determined some indicators of
carbohydrate and energy metabolism in the liver and blood of experimental animals.
Presented results of experimental studies show that at repeated exposure to dichloroethane,
noise and vibration there was observed an increase in the intensity of anaerobic glycolysis
in blood, which is confirmed by the accumulation of lactic acid and reduction of glycogen.
Similar changes were observed in the reduction of activity of alkaline phosphatase in the
liver. Inhibition of enzyme activity (dehydrogenase) in all studied biospheres can be
explained by the influence of dichloroethane, noise and vibration on enzyme functional
activity. Inhibition of enzymes GDG, MDG, SDG and alkaline phosphatase in the liver is
observed at multiple effects of dichloroethane, noise and vibration. As a result of the
reduction of redox enzymes, under-oxidized products of anaerobic glycolysis of lactic,
pyruvic acid are accumulated and the level of glycogen is reduced. Prolonged exposure to
various chemical and physical factors in concentrations causing external effects in the
experimental animals’ organism is manifested by hidden changes in several physiological
reactions, biochemical indicators of the individual organs function and systems.

Effect Of Pesticides On The Content Of Cytochrome P-450 Of The Monooxygenase System And On The Ultrastructure Of Hepatocytes In Rat Embryos

Tuychieva Dilfuza; Mirkhamidova Parida; Parpieva Mashhura; Babakhanova Dilnoza; Alimova Rano

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2473-2483

Our results show that the pesticides butylcaptax, dropp and karate are highly toxic pesticides, when exposed to these pesticides, the activity of the enzyme of the P-450 monooxygenase system is disrupted. Also, the research results showed that when poisoning with the above pesticides, ultrastructural, and therefore functional changes in the subcellular components of embryonic hepatocytes occur. When using RAF (plant antioxidant factor), enzyme activity and other indicators are significantly restored, which indicates that RAF has antioxidant properties.

Influence Of Karate On The Activity Of Enzymes Of The Anti-Oxidizing System Of Rat Liver Protection And Ways Of Their Correction

Parida Mirkhamidova; Dilfuza Tuychieva; Dilnoza Bobokhonova; Mashkhura Parpieva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 3757-3765

As a result of research, it has been established that synthetic karate pyrethroid causes functional changes in antioxidant enzymes in microsomes and mitochondria. An important aspect of our study was the comparison of the taxation rate when animals were poisoned with a karate pesticide and when animals were protected from poisoning with an antioxidant of plant origin. The results obtained indicate that the plant antioxidant factor (PAF) has protective properties and accelerates the restoration of enzyme activity.

Determination Of Residual Pesticide In The Liver Of Rats Poisoned With Indoxacarb Pesticide

Parpieva Mashkhura; Mirkhamidova Parida; Tuychieva Dilfuza

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 4497-4505

An aqueous solution of indoxacarb pesticide was sent to rats by the Peroz method at a dose of 1/10 LD50 once via zond and the amount of residual pesticides in the rat was determined at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 days after poisoning. For the analysis of residual pesticide quantities, the HPLC MS (6420) Tripl Quad LC/MS (Agilent Ttchnologies, USA) device was used. As a method of ionization, APCI(Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization) method was used.

A Mini Review On Liver Injuries Among Humans Due To Drugs And Consumption Of Alcohol

Sumaira Yousuf; Mahendra P. Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 4268-4276

Liver is the most important vital organ that carries out metabolism of body e.g. formation of cholesterol and triglycerides, synthesis of glycogen, formation of blood clotting proteins and bile formation. Hepatic damage and subsequent liver failure due to both unintentional and intentional acetaminophen overdose has afflicted patients for decades and includes the metabolic cornerstone pathways that exist within hepatocytes in the microsomes. The side effects of drugs on the hepatocytes have been overlooked for years. Drug induced liver injury is the most adverse effect observed in clinical practices. It accounts for around half of acute liver disorder. Anti tuberculosis drugs and acetaminophen overdose are the main issues that result in death from curable diseases. Metabolism of isoniazid and acetaminophen (APAP) results in the formation of toxic metabolites that results in the oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) store depletion leads to hepatocellular necrosis and steatosis. Alcohol consumption is also the most common cause of liver cirrhosis. Liver peroxidation is considered to be the major mechanism of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity. To overcome this oxidative stress, there is need of antioxidants that can balance the redox homeostasis of liver by lowering the APAP overdose effect. Consumption of natural antioxidants derived as secondary metabolites from plants in the form of polyphenols and flavonoids prevent oxidative stress. Medicinal plants are best remedies used for hepatotoxicity caused due to oxidative stress. They are cost friendly, easily available and have no mutagenic effect. Herbal medicines form important part of traditional healthcare system of India.