Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : BMI

Association of Body Image Perception and Nutritional Status in School Children of Uttarakhand

Dr. Vishal Kaushik, Dr. Pramod Kumar Singh Yadav, Dr. Rajan Mohan, Dr. Ashok Kumar, Dr. Nilansha Rai

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 1974-1978

School-going age is full of challenges when it comes to growth and puberty. Anthropometric measurements including body mass index (BMI) remain the most popular methods to assess the nutritional status of children. On the other hand, body image is a complex term and includes how we perceive, think, and act toward our bodies. This study was undertaken to determine the association between body image perception and nutritional status in students of independent schools. 
Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 402 students of the middle and secondary stage (class 6-12) attending independent schools in Dehradun, India. An interview method was used to collect the data on their body image followed by a physical examination and nutritional assessment.
Results: 63.18% of students (n=254) were having normal BMI, 2.24% (n=9) were underweight, 26.62% (n=107) were overweight and 7.96% (n=32) were found to be obese. 25.62% (n=103) of students had an accurate perception of their body image when compared to their BMI. On the contrary, 74.38% (n=299) of students were observed with inaccurate perceptions of their current height and body weight. 
Conclusion:In this present study, we could conclude that the majority of the students were not aware of their current weight and height. Also, the majority had a false perception of their body image as compared to their weight/ BMI. 

Study the association between maternal Body Mass Index (BMI) and obstetric & perinatal outcome in singleton pregnancies

Ravindra Survase, M J Jassawalla, Snehal Shintre, Parveen Sunil Vidhate

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 1621-1627

High BMI is associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, macrosomia, induction of labour, caesarean deliveries and poor perinatal outcomes.Low BMI has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of preterm deliveries, low birth weight and anemia and a decreased risk of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, obstetric intervention and postpartum haemorrhage. Aim & Objective: 1. To assess correlation between maternal Body Mass Index (BMI) and perinatal outcome. Methods: Study design: Prospective observational Study. Study setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Nowrosjee Wadia Maternity Hospital, Mumbai (NWMH), (Tertiary Health Centre). Study population: patients who delivered / underwent completion of pregnancy at the institute such cases were included in the study. Sample size: 100 Results: The highest number of patients belonged to the age group of 23-28 yr (61%%), followed closely by the age group of 29-35 yr (33%). Patient between age group 18-22 yr was only 6%. LSCS was performed in 48%, out of which Emergency LSCS constituted 40% & Elective LSCS constituted 8%. P-value for LSCS was 0.001 & for Emergency LSCS was 0.003 suggesting these are more common in BMI Group III & IV. Instrumental Deliveries were performed in 4% of patients out of which Forceps applied in 2% & Vacuum extraction done in 2% patients. Out of 90 patients, in 7 (7.78%) patients second stage of labour was prolonged. Meconium-stained liquor was found more commonly in BMI Group III with P-value for 0.028. Total of 25 patients were diagnosed to be suffering from gestational hypertension. 5 (20%) of them had postpartum haemorrhage & Blood Transfusion was needed in 3 (12%) them. Foetal Distress was found to be the most common complications affecting 18% of patients who participated in this study. P-value for Foetal Distress is 0.011 suggesting significant association being more common in BMI Group IV. Neonatal complications respiratory distress syndrome & Meconium Aspiration Syndrome were found in 4 % & 3% babies without any significant association in any of the BMI group. Conclusion: Vaginal Delivery was the most common obstetric outcome, Neonatal outcome was Live Birth among all the patients.

A Cross Sectional Prospective Study to Evaluate the Effect of Yoga on Blood Sugar and Body Mass Index (BMI) Values for Different Time Durations of Yoga Training at Tertiary Care Center

Anshu Tandon, Ashutosh Tandon

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 2198-2205

Yoga asanas and pranayama can control the blood sugar in a cost-effective manner, as there is no requirement of any sophisticated equipment with maximum space or fitness classes. The aim of this study to evaluate the effect of Yoga on blood sugar and body mass index (BMI) values for different time durations of Yoga training at tertiary care center.
Materials & Methods: A cross sectional observational study done on 200 subjects of both the genders in the age group 20-50 years were performed in the Department of physiology and Lala Lajpat Rai Memorial (LLRM) Medical College, Meerut, U.P., India during one year period. Subjects performed asanas supervised by primary investigator, in sitting, standing and lying position for 45 minutes daily, five days a week. Each asana was performed for 3 repetitions and the end position of each repetition was hold for 30 seconds. Purak and Rechak (deep breathing) was coordinated with the different posture of every asana. Thirty seconds rest period was given between each asana. Cool down was done with Shavasana for 5 minutes.Appropriate descriptive and implemented statistics were carried out using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 22.0 software.
Results: Our study showed that 62% of participants were between 41-50 years among males and 92% of participants between 31-50 year’s  in females. Both male and female participants showed a negative correlation between the blood sugar level and yoga performance. Also, a negative correlation existed between the BMI and their yoga performance. Positive correlation is seen between the blood sugar levels and BMI values in both genders.
Conclusion: Yoga cannot cure diabetes but keeps a beneficial check on blood sugar values. Hence yoga is more of cost effective, does not need any equipment as in exercise, it can be done within four walls   with adequate ventilation and long term effect of this yoga can explore the beneficial effects on glucose and other hormonal homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, it can improve cognition, and keep the body in shape with a sense of well-being.

Relationship Between Subcalcaneal Fat Pad Thickness And Plantar Heel Pain: A Case Control Study

Dr. BN Roshan Kumar; Dr. NB Mahesh Kumar; Dr. TY Prasanna; Dr. RA Ashwin Annamalai; Dr. KM. Sandeep

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 126-136

Background: Heel pain is common in active young and old adults. Plantar pain usually develops due to degeneration of heel fat pad. Loss of elasticity and changes in thickness of fat pad are considered to cause plantar heel pain.

To compare sub calcaneal fat pad thickness and its compressibility between the patients with and without current plantar heel pain.
To assess correlation of heel pad parameters with age and BMI.

Materials and Methods: A case control study was conducted in the Department of orthopaedics at Raja Rajeswari Medical College and Hospital. Heel pad compressibility index, heel pad thickness in loading (HPTL), heel pad thickness in unloading (HPTUL) were considered as primary outcome variables and demographic variables, anthropometric variables, were considered as Study relevant parameters. Heel Pain was considered as Primary explanatory variable.


Sakshi Singh; Mrs. Deepa Reddy; Dr. Rita Lakhani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1246-1257

Background& Aim of the study: Indian data regarding current trends in childhood obesity are emerging. Lifestyle changes and worldwide nutrition transition are important factors for the obesity epidemic. Current eating habits include the consumption of fast foods, sugary drinks, baked food, soft drinks, etc. These eating habits with decreased physical activity, lack of sleep, and lack of social leisure activities will lead to childhood obesity. The present study was aimed to determine the selected contributing factors associated with childhood overweight/obesity among school children aged between 13 to 16 years, in Navi Mumbai.Material and Methods: A case-control study was conducted among 300 school children in that 74 cases (overweight/obese) and 74 control (non -obese children) aged from 13 to 16 years were selected by using purposive sampling technique. For the present study, two different schools were selected in Navi Mumbai such as NMMC School and Swami Vivekanand School. The conceptual framework of the present study was based on web of causation theory. D. Y. Patil school of Nursing ethical committee approval was taken for this study. Observational tool (weighing machine & measuring tape) was used to measure the weight and height of the school children and interview tool of risk assessment tool was used to analyse the selected contributing factors such as food habits, physical activities, sleeping patterns, medical history & social leisure activities.  The tool was modified based on validity and reliability. The collected data was tabulated, analyzed and interpreted by SPSS version. Frequency percentage distribution, odds ratio and chi-square test was used in this study. Results: Result revealed that out of 300 school children, 22% were overweight,3% school children were obese, 10% wereunderweight,and 65% were healthy. It was observed that nutritional factors like Bake food (OR=10.8, CI: 95%), Fast Food (OR=6, CI: 95%), Sugary drinks (OR=10.5, CI: 95%), soft drinks (OR=5, CI: 95%) were more likelihood of causing obesity & were significant factors. Physical factors like muscle & bone strengthening exercises (OR=0.092, CI: 95%), and aerobic activity (OR=0.11, CI: 95%) were less likelihood of causing overweight. In leisure factors, Students played outdoor games (OR=0.2, CI: 95%), and performed their hobbies (OR=0.15, CI: 95%) were less likelihood of causing obesity. Conclusion:Since school children obesity is rising at an alarming rate, the selected contributing factors determinants of obesity need to be addressed among school children. Eating fast food, soft drinks, baked food, and untimely meal were associated as risk factors for overweight/ obesity. While very less physical activity-exercise, lack of sleep & social leisure activities was also associated with overweight/ obesity. In order to prevent overweight and obesity, it is necessary to create awareness among schoolchildren about healthy eating practices and desirable lifestyles.

Effect of CPAP, CPAP with Lifestyle changes and CPAP with Pranayama on Anthropometric evaluation in obese Diabetic subjects with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Shah VK; Badade ZG; Banerjee A; Rai S; More K

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 999-1008

Background: The incidence of OSA among persons who have type 2 diabetes may vary anywhere from 8.5% to 86%. Obstructive sleep apnea is more common in people of South Asian heritage who have type 2 diabetes (OSA). People of South Asian descent who have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes tend to be overweight, and this obesity has been associated to obstructive sleep apnea. 
Method: In present study 246 subjects received Polysomnography (PSG) and among them 192 assessed for CPAP titration. 78 participants were removed due to inclusion criteria, CPAP intolerance, refusal to participate, those who can't afford treatment, etc. The remaining 114 subjects were obese non-diabetics (61) and obese type 2 diabetics (53). These 53 obese diabetic subjects were divided into 3 groups: CPAP group, CPAP with Lifestyle changes and CPAP with Pranayama group. Follow-up was done after six-month.
Result: We found BMI, Waist Circumference, Hip Circumference and Neck Circumference were decreased in all three-study groups after six months of interventions. It was very highly Significant (p<0.001) in all groups. We have also found a positive correlation with AHI and Anthropometric evaluation.
Conclusion: The pattern of sleep improved across the all-different stages of sleep. Using CPAP in conjunction with these two interventions not only improves the success rate of treating OSA, but also shortens the overall time necessary for therapy.

Prospective Analysis of Impact of Obesity on Skin Infections at a Tertiary Care Hospital

Anil Mohite, Priyanka Singhal (Gupta)

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 5950-5952

Background: Obesity is a worldwide major public health problem with an alarmingly increasing prevalence over the past 2 decades. The consequences of obesity in the skin are underestimated. The present study was conducted to assess the effect of obesity on skin infections.
Materials & Methods: In the present study conducted at Department of Dermatology, L. N. Medical College & Research Centre, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh (India); a total of 90 obese subjects were enrolled in the study. All subjects attended dermatological examination for skin diseases. The P-values of 0.05 or less were considered to indicate statistical significance.
Results: Prevalence of Plantar hyperkeratosis, Skin tags, Striae distensae, Intertrigo (Candidal, dermatophytes, bacteria), Hyperhidrosis, Keratosis pilaris, Hyperpigmentation, Stasis pigmentation increases from BMI I to BMI III. Plantar hyperkeratosis showed a significant difference in three groups.
Conclusion: The study concluded that as obesity increases the prevalence to skin diseases also increases.

Study of prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity among school children aged 6-14 years studying in affluent private schools in Hyderabad and associated social factors leading to obesity and overweight

Dr. Abhishek Mahankali V; Dr. Karanam Pranoty; Dr. Pallati Vijay Ananth

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 1737-1749

Background: The term "obesity" refers to an abnormal expansion of the adipose tissue that can be caused by an increase in the number of fat cells (hyperplastic obesity), an increase in the size of the fat cells themselves (hypertrophic obesity), or a combination of both of these factors. The body mass index (BMI) is frequently used as a measurement of obesity.


Anju Goel, Taruna, Manisha Gupta, Prateek Agrawal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1673-1679

Background: Obesity is linked to a wide range of respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obstructive sleep apnoea, pulmonary embolic disease and aspiration pneumonia.
Aims and Objective: To assess the correlation between Obesity markers (BMI and waist circumference) and PEFR in adult males.
Material and Methods: One hundred male subjects in the age group of 20-50 years were recruited, their obesity parameters BMI and WC were recorded by standard methods and Peak expiratory flow rates by Mini Wright’s Peak flow meter.
Results: Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed a significant negative correlation of BMI with PEFR (r = -0.3885) and Waist circumference with PEFR (r = -0.4010, p<0.05). Conclusion: Obesity produces significant deterioration in the PEFR.


Dr. Tushar Ravindra Godbole,Dr. Rahul Gautam Koppikar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 588-595

Background:Obese children also suffer from emotional, mental, and social trauma. Obese
children are seen to have depression and very low self-esteem. Also, such children are teased
by society and have high peer pressure. Additionally, obesity and overweight pose a high
burden on the health care system.
Aims:The present trial was carried out to document the efficacy of counseling about physical
activity, nutrition, and weight on obese children of low socioeconomic status.
Methods: The study was carried out on 48 children and was based on the questionnaire on
the lifestyle modification and counseling sessions with questions based on healthy habits and
physical exercise. Associated comorbidities such as asthma or diabetes were also asked along
with their treating paediatrician. The collected data were subjected to statistical evaluation
and the results were formulated.
Results: Counselling for nutrition, physical activity, and weight were provided to study
participants and the results showed that 80% (n=12) obese, 66.6% (n=6) overweight, and
58.3% (n=14) healthy subjects received counselling for nutrition. In male participants
61.53% (n=16), 69.23% (n=18), and 65.38% (n=17) respectively were counselled for
nutrition, physical activity, and weight. Similarly, in females 68.18% (n=15), 63.63% (n=14),
and 63.63% (n=14) respectively were counselled for nutrition, physical activity, and weight.
Regarding diabetics in the study (n=2), all the subjects were counselled for weight, nutrition,
as well as physical activity. In subjects with asthma, the counselling for nutrition, physical
activity, and weight was given to 63.6% (n=7), 54.5% (n=6), and 54.5% (n=6) respectively.
Conclusion:The present study concludes that overweight and obese children do not get more
counseling sessions compared to their healthy peers. There is a need for more interactions at
home and more reinforcement of counseling sessions in the school curriculum with special
emphasis on overweight and obese children regarding their nutrition, physical activity, and

Clinical profile of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at a tertiary care hospital

Dr. Nishchit KN, Dr. Akshatha K, Dr. Kalavathi GP

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 209-213

Macrovascular complications of diabetes mellitus include cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular
accidents and peripheral vascular disease. Macrovascular disease is a significant cause of mortality in
diabetic patients. Diabetic individuals have a multitude of risk factors for atherogenesis and the odds of
developing coronary artery disease and ischemic strokes are 2 to 4 times and 2 to 3 times more,
respectively, than non-diabetic individuals. This is a prospective observational comparative study in
which 60 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the age group of 35-65 years were included and
results are compared with 60 Normal Individuals. The study design was approved by the Ethical
Committee of the institution. In NN group, 12(85.7%) patients were on OHA, 02(14.3%) patients on
insulin. In NH group, 19(82.6%) patients were on OHA, 04(17.4%) patient was on insulin. In HH
group, 16(69.6%) patients were on OHA, 7(30.4%) patients were on insulin. The distribution of BMI
among all the three groups was equal. P value was 0.215 which shows that the groups were similar to
each other in the distribution of BMI.

A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Bone Marrow Aspiration (BMA), Bone Marrow Imprint (BMI) and Bone Marrow Biopsy (BMB) in Patients Suffering from Acute Leukaemia at Tertiary Care Center

Neeraj Verma, Yogesh Kumar Gupta, Madhuri Agarwal, Manish Kumar Singhal, Akansha Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1355-1358

Background: Bone marrow examination is an important tool in diagnosing and
controlling hematological disorders. Bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy are
compatible. Thus; compiled the current study to evaluate and compare the effectiveness
of bone marrow aspiration, imprint and biopsy in patients with acute leukemia.
Materials& Methods: The present study was conducted in 50 clinically suspected
patients of leukemia who attended inpatient and outpatient department of medicine,
department of general pathology at SMS Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur,
Rajasthan, India over a period of one year. All Patients with leukemia who underwent
both bone marrow aspiration and bone marrow trephine biopsy examination were
included in the present study. We analyzed all the results by SPSS software. One way
ANOVA was used for assessment of level of significance. P- value of less than 0.05 was
taken as significant.
Results: The age of the patients ranged from 6 months to 70 years with male to female
ratio of 1.5:1. In three cases, dry tap was observed, which was further diagnosed with
BMI and BMBx. Diluted marrow was observed in two cases which was further
diagnosed with BMI and BMBx. Findings of BMI and BMBx were in concordance with
each other in 100 percent of the cases.
Conclusion: Bone marrow aspiration, imprint and biopsy are complementary to each
other with aspiration smears being primarily used for cytological diagnosis and biopsy
sections mainly useful to identify histological features like architectural pattern and

To evaluate the Pre-hypertension among MBBS students and its associated factors

Dr. Sameer Srivastava,Dr.AnupamTyagi, Dr.Nandini Srivastava, Dr.Shyam Sunder Keshari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1639-1647

Aim: To evaluate the Pre-hypertension among MBBS students and its associated factors.
Methods: 200 students of MBBS were included in this study. Out of these 200 participants,
60% were males and 40% were females. The mean age of the students was 22.55±7.66. As
per JNC 7 guidelines BP was measured, with a mercury sphygmomanometer.
Anthropometric measurements and basic laboratory parameters for blood glucose and lipid
profile estimation were measured in the study.


Dr Md Rashid AhsanLodhi, Dr AsifAyaz, Dr SayantaannSaha, Dr. C. R. Mallikarjuna .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 3105-3108

Background: In endocrinology, the most commonly prevalent and undiagnosed condition encountered is thyroid dysfunction having a high burden on the healthcare sector in India. In addition, Iodine is an essential micronutrient for mental and physical growth in humans, its deficiency remains highly prevalent globally. Thyroid enlargement is commonly associated with thyroid deficiency clinically with decreased iron and selenium levels, and an increase in smoking, natural goitrogen, and TSH levels. Goiter representing enlargement of the entire thyroid gland is seen associated with raised levels of TSH, hyperthyroidism, or hypothyroidism.
Aim: The present clinical study was conducted to assess the association of thyroid hormone levels and goiter by assessing the thyroid profile in subjects with goiter.
Methods:The present cross-sectional study included 200 subjects comprising of 100 subjects with goiter and 100 normal healthy subjects in the age range of 18-35 years. For all the included subjects, thyroid hormone profile and thyroid function tests were assessed.
Results:The study results showed a significant difference between healthy subjects and subjects with goiter in hyperthyroid and hypothyroid subjects. The prevalence of goiter was largely influenced by lower and higher concentrations of TSH.
Conclusion:The present study concludes that the prevalence of goiter largely depends on abnormal and normal levels of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) depicting hormonal dysfunction. TSH levels, thyroid nodules, and female gender were found to be the possible predictor for goiter, whereas, thyroid volume, TSH levels, and female gender were found to be predictors for thyroid nodules. Assessment of epidemiological profile is needed to obtain the definitive conclusion.

Retrospective Evaluation of Hypertrophy of Salpingopharyngeal Fold in OSA at a Tertiary Care Hospital

Jitendra Pratap Singh Chauhan, Raveendra Singh Rajpoot, Ajai Kumar, Somendra Pal Singh, Sunil Kumar Singh Bhadouria

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5769-5774

Introduction: The most common cause of sleep disordered breathing is reported to be
the obstructive sleep apnoea. It could possibly lead to serious physiological, social and
few neurocognitive disorders. Since the reported prevalence rate is higher, OSA has
often been misdiagnosed and unnoticed.
Materials and Methodology: This study was designed as a retrospective analysis of
patients reported with the polysomnographic confirmation of obstructive sleep apnoea.
Those patients included in this study had undergone Drug Induced Sleep Endoscopy
(DISE) using flexible video rhino-laryngoscope under BISTM monitoring which is
reported to be a valid bi-spectral index monitor in measuring the depth of sedation.
Drugs like dexmedetomidine and midazolam was initially used in titrating doses in
order to maintain BISTM score in the range of 60–80. The DISE video data of 189
patients was assessed by two ENT surgeons individually. Each of them was instructed to
grade the hypertrophy of the salpingopharyngeal fold as Grade 0 having normal
anatomy, Grade 1 being hypertrophy causing partial obstruction and Grade 2 being
hypertrophy which is reportedly responsible for complete obstruction of lateral
pharyngeal wall. Data of 160 patients of the 189 had 100% agreement between the two
expert surgeons while grading the hypertrophy. Thus, the data of 160 patients was
included in the study for further comparison and analyses. The patient’s data was
divided into two groups. Group 1 included 110 patients who had isolated palatal level
obstruction whereas group 2 constituted 50 patients affected with sleep apnoea due to
obstruction at multiple levels BMI of the patient was calculated. There was no
significant difference between the two groups for age (p<0.05), AHI (p <0.05) and BMI
(p<0.05) Shapiro Wilks test of Normality was applied to check for the distribution of the
data, non-normal distribution the data was subjected to non-parametric analyses.

Correlation between BMI and plasma homocysteine levels in pre and postmenopausal women

Dr. Muruga, Dr. Rangaswamy R, Dr. Anurag Yadav, Dr. Vinay KS

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1915-1919

Homocysteine occupies a branch point in methionine, cysteine and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) metabolism. About half of the homocysteine formed is conserved by remethylation to methionine in the “methionine cycle”. The other half is irreversibly converted by cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine 𝛾-lyase to cysteine. After getting the informed consents from the subjects, 2.5ml of fasting blood samples were collected for lipid profile in a plain vacutainer tube and 2.5 ml of blood sample were collected in EDTA tubes for homocysteine estimation. This however, was done after the 7th day of the last menstrual period for premenopausal group. Samples were centrifuged at 3000 rpm to separate serum and plasma for the analysis of lipid profile and homocysteine estimation. The positive correlation between BMI and homocysteine which clearly indicates the increase in BMI results in increase in plasma homocysteine levels with Pearson correlation co-efficient of 0.232 and p value of 0.11.

A study on comparison of anthropometrical measurements in oraon and non-oraon boys

Dr. Kunj Bihari Patel, Dr. Meet Krishna, Dr. Avinash Thawait

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 37-45

A few studies based on published data have indicated patterns of anthropometric variation
along ethnic, geographic, latitude, longitude and altitude, nutrition and several confounding
variables.Many growth studies have been published for the tribal populations of Chhattisgarh.
However, no study, especially with regard to the growth status of the Oraons of Chhattisgarh
has been undertaken. Cases taken in this study were registered cases in government schools
of Jashpur district. 200 boys (100 Oraon and 100 Non Oraon) were included in the study
according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Age range was 5-18 yrs. At most of the ages
BMI was less for OT boys than NO boys, except at the age periods of 17+ and 18+ where the
BMI of OT boys was more than NO boys. In the age period of 15+ the BMI of OT and NO
boys was found to be same. The difference was statistically significant at age periods of 7+,
8+ and 10+and highly significant in age period of 17+

A Hospital Based Observational Study to Evaluate the Effect of Prelabour Body Mass Index on the Mode of Delivery

Dr. Ramdas Garg, Dr. Avantica Agarwal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 2679-2684

Background: Pre-pregnancy obesity is strongly associated with certain pregnancy
complications and perinatal conditions. Placental structure and function are important
for maternal and fetal health both during and after pregnancy. The aim of this study to
evaluate the effect of prelabour body mass index on the mode of delivery.
Materials and Methods: An hospital-based prospective study involving pregnant women
at term (33-37 weeks) admitted to gynaecology ward in district hospital Dholpur,
Rajasthan, India during one-year period. A total of 120 cases in the age group of 18-40
years included in the study. Patients were classified into 3 categories based on their first
trimester BMI. Category I included normal women (BMI 20- 24.9 kg/m2), Category II
included overweight women (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2) and detailed history and clinical
examination including general physical, obstetrical and systemic examinations.
Category III included obese women (BMI >30 kg/m2). Data were analysed statistically
by Chi-square test of the dependence of variables and a p-value of less than 0.05 was
considered as statistically significant.
Results: Under anthropometric parameters, the differences in mean age, mean weight,
mean height and mean BMI among the three categories women were statistically
significant (p<0.001**), In this study, it was observed that overweight and obese women
were slightly older and short in stature when compared with women with normal BMI.
There was increased incidence of antepartum complications in Category III women as
compared to Category II and Category I women. The difference in the onset of labour
as well as mode of delivery among the three categories was statistically significant
Conclusion: As obesity is a modifiable risk factor all attempts should be made to
maintain a normal BMI in women of childbearing age. Pre–pregnancy counselling,
health programme and appropriate multidisciplinary management should be done.


Dr. Anand Ranjan Dr. Pradeep Shinde

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1772-1776

Aims: The main aims were to assess the incidence of prehypertension amongst the medical students in our institution with its correlation with increasing Body Mass Index (BMI) & to see if there was any gender variation.
Materials & Methods: A total of 500 medical students consented to participate in this study, their BP reading were recorded after a demographic questionnaire to assess their socioeconomic status & BMI.
Results: 277 students [55.4%) were prehypertensive out of which 145(29%) students had a high SBP & 132(26.4%) had high DBF. Amongst the 227 students, 33.2% had both high SBP & DBF out of which 64.1% were boys & 35.9% were girls. In the entire study population, out of the 500 students, 25% of the boys & 40% of the girls were overweight.
Conclusions: In our centre we had more than 50% of the study group in the prehypertensive range with a higher incidence amongst boys & about 40% of the girls were overweight these figures are alarming & hence a follow-up study is required for further analysis.

Development of Smart Health Monitoring System

D.S. Dayana; G. Kalpana; D. Godwin Immanuel

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 866-874

In the last few eras the humanity has witnessed an increase in visiting and downloading of
fitness applications. The theme of this project is to provide every possible tool which can be
helpful for Ones fitness journey. This app is used to track the fitness level of a person. It
shows user the holistic view of their health so that they never lose the track of their fitness.
This app is having certain options through which user can keep check on their fitness. It
can be used to track user’s progress by keeping check on their weight and their Calorie
Intake. This app will let user calculate BMI, BMR, calorie requirement and accordingly
provide meal plan and workout plan. There are researches and studies are going on
every day on various aspects of fitness, healthy living and diet. This app is also having a
discussion forum where people can post about various researches and their personal
health issues which can be resolved in the further posts.

Effects Of Obesity On The Serum Levels Of Free And Total Prostate-Specific Antigen In A Sample Of Iraqi Men.

Dr Ziad Hammad Abd; Dr Ruya Abdulhadi M. Saeed; Omar Farhan Ammar (alrawi)

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 142-148

Objectives: the study aims to assess the relationship between obesity and prostatic markers (total prostatic specific antigen (tPSA), and free prostatic specific antigen (fPSA)). Methods: this study was conducted on 127 men aged ≥40 years at The Department of Urology at Al-Ramadi Teaching Hospital. Exclusion criteria were a history of previously diagnosed or treated prostate cancer, the use of prostacare or any drugs that affect the levels of PSA in the serum. Results: the age range of the participants of the study was between 40–80 year. The number of men with normal BMI was 26 (20.47%), 47 men were overweight (37%), 33 men were obese (25.98%), and finally, 21 men were severely obese (16.53%). The mean of parameters total and free prostate-specific antigen (tPSA, fPSA), in the study, were (mean ± SD) (1.683±0.563) ng/ml, (0.537±0.189) ng/ml, respectively. Conclusions: there are no significant relationships between BMI, tPSA, and fPSA, at P≤0.05 in a sample of Iraqi men.

Relationship Of Body Mass Indexwith Theperformance Of National Level Taekwondo Players

Sunil Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 3965-3969

The purpose of the present study was to analyse the relation of body mass index with the performance of Taekwondo players. The subjects selected for this study were national taekwondo players. The data for this study was collected during senior national taekwondo championship 2018. The data for body mass index was caluculated by using the weight and height data of the players. The data collected then was analysed using Pearson product moment correlation coefficient at 0.05 level of significance. The results of the study showed significantnegative relationship between body mass index and the performances of taekwondo players.


Dr. Shanvi Agrawal; Dr. Seema Sathe Kambala

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 2130-2139

BACKGROUND: There are various people having dental arches with edentulous areas which are unrestored and are present posterior to the natural remaining teeth. Such people are known to have a SDA or Shortened Dental Arch. Individuals having SDA may consume a limited diet, containing highly processed& soft foods which can aggravate the possibility of obesity.
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we will evaluate the difference in the nutritional status of the patient with SDA as compared to completely dentulous patients and propose a desired intervention for such patients.
METHODS: This research will be executed at “Department of Prosthodontics, Sharad Pawar Dental College, Sawangi (Meghe) DMIMS DU, Wardha”. Total 40 patients reporting to OPD with unrestored edentulous area posterior to natural teeth as well as completely dentulous patients will be included in this study .Nutritional assessment using “mini nutritional assessment- short form” is evaluated for every subject and compared.
RESULTS: It is expected that this study would provide an insight to the difference in the nutritional status of the patient with SDA as compared to completely dentulous patients and propose a desired intervention for such patients.
CONCLUSION- There are various people having dental arches with unrestored edentulous areas remaining distal to the remaining natural teeth. Such people are known to have a SDA or Shortened Dental Arch .Individuals having SDA may consume a limited diet, containing highly processed& soft foods which can aggravate the possibility of obesity. This study will aid in evaluating the difference in the nutritional status of the patient with SDA as compared to completely dentulous patients and propose a desired intervention for such patients.

Evaluation of the relationship between obesity and severity of periodontal diseases in rural population: A Study Protocol

Ms. Gauri , Bendre; Dr. Priyanka Jaiswal; Dr. Diksha Agrawal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2034-2037

Abstract: Background- Excessive accumulation of fat results into obesity. Obesity further
have an adverse effect on health as it has been seen to be associated with diabetes mellitus,
hypertension, heart disease like coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease such as
hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, metabolic syndrome like insulin resistance, some
cancers such as cancer of esophagus, thyroid, kidney, uterus, colon and breast, and
psychosocial problems. Also, obesity is considered to be a risk factor for periodontitis
which is an inflammation of supporting periodontal structures around the tooth which
results from the complex interaction between pathogenic bacteria and the host immune
response. However, the impact of obesity on different severity of periodontal disease is not
evaluated in rural population. Aim: To evaluate the relationship between obesity and the
severity of periodontal disease in Rural population. Methodology: A total 400 obese
subjects will be included in the study. Biometric parameters like age, weight, height, waist
and neck circumference, subcutaneous skin fold will be evaluated. Also periodontal
parameters like Plaque index (PI), Papillary bleeding index (PBI), Probing pocket depth
(PPD), Clinical attachment level (CAL) and Gingival recession (REC) will be evaluated
and co-relation between these parameters will be carried out. Results: A statistically
significant association will be observed between BMI and periodontitis of overweight and
obese study individuals having periodontitis. A positive co-relation will be observed
between biometric parameters and periodontal status of obese individual. Conclusion: A
significant association will be observed between BMI and periodontitis of overweight and
obese study individuals having periodontitis in rural population.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 2040-2048

BACKGROUND – Insulin resistance and profound changes in body weight are common features of pregnancy. Obesity in pregnant women and glucose intolerance due to insulin resistance, ultimately leading to Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM), both can add to poor maternofetal outcome such as, macrosomia, prematurity, shoulder dystocia, preeclampsia, and even increased chances of fetal demise. Leptin is a novel potential regulator of insulin resistance. Measuring serum leptin levels in pregnant women with different BMI categories may potentially help in early detection of GDM, and predicting poor maternofetal outcome at early stages of pregnancy.
1. To study serum leptin levels in women with GDM
2. To study the body mass index in women with GDM and classify study subjects according to BMI
3. To study the serum leptin levels in women with GDM belonging to various BMI categories and evaluate its association.
4. To correlate serum leptin and BMI with materno-fetal outcome in women with GDM
METHODOLOGY – This prospective hospital based study will be conducted in department of obstetrics and gynecology, at Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital (AVBRH). 96 pregnant women seeking care at outpatient unit and/or in patient unit of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, in the AVBRH hospital, Sawangi, Meghe, in first trimester, will be included in the study. Screening for GDM in twice, first as soon as possible after diagnosis of pregnancy (first trimester) and second between 24-28 weeks, fasting Serum Leptin will be measured at 28 -32 weeks of gestation.
EXPECTED RESULT - It is expected that levels of Sr. Leptin will be higher in the women with GDM and will be abnormal in various BMI categories with a proportionate rise with increasing BMI.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 2104-2112

Background: PCOS is the most common endocrinological disorder affecting 6 -14% amongst reproductive age group. The pathophysiology of PCOS is complex and it is still not well understood. Many markers have been studied to correlate between homocysteine level and other clinical, metabolic and hormonal profile. Preliminary investigations indicate that in women with PCOS, serum biomarkers of cardiovascular disorders such as homocysteine are abnormal. Furthermore the interactions between homocysteine and PCOS, biochemical features such as obesity, insulin resistance and higher levels of androgen, have been researched and the potential determinant of this finding is still being explored.
Aim and Objectives: We aim to determine association between hyperhomocysteinemia and PCOS. The objectives of this study is to evaluate and compare clinical, metabolic and 
hormonal profile in women of PCOS with normal homocysteine level with that of increased homocysteine level.
Materials and Methods: This is a prospective observational study which will be performed in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology, AVBRH, DMIMS (Deemed to be University, Wardha), a tertiary care teaching hospital situated in the rural area of Wardha district in over 140 patients for period between 2020-22. This study will include PCOS patients based on Rotterdam diagnostic criteria and will exclude patients with known metabolic, cardiovascular and endocrine disorders. Metabolic and hormonal profile will be evaluated with BMI, Lipid profile, Insulin resistance, serum levels of LH, FSH, DHEA and Testosterone in all patients. Serum homocysteine levels will be measured using ELISA.
Expected Results: We expect that there will be significant difference in clinical, metabolic and hormonal profile of PCOS women having hyperhomocysteinemia than women having normal homocysteine level.

Risk Factors For The Progression Of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease And The State Of Intestinal Microflora In Overweight And Obese Patients

Botir T. Daminov; Umida Sh. Usmanova; Bahromkhon A. Alavi; Gozal N. Sobirova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 3535-3548

Recently, the growth of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has been actively discussed in domestic and foreign literature. In Uzbekistan, the incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease increased from 27.0% in 2007 to 37.1% in 2014 and ranked first among liver diseases.

Detection Some Biomarkkers In Sarcopenia Patients-Basra City

Abdullah Abbas Hamzah Al- Rubaye; Amna Nasser Habeeb

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2417-2429

Background: Sarcopenia is a reduction in the rate, strength, and function of skeletal muscle mass that occurs mainly during aging, reduced physical activity, inflammation, and, or as a result of oxidative stress. C-terminal agrin fragment (CAF), procollagen type 3 N-terminal peptide (P3NT), and myostatin circulate biomarkers in elderly people associated with skeletal mass. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is also a circulating inflammation marker that contributes to the release of hs-CRP and alpha1 antichymotrypsin (AACT).
The objective of Research: To define the differences between certain biomarkers in the sarcopenic subject, the study compared the findings with those of the non-sarcopenic subject that may support awareness of the sarcopenia principles.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 170 participants living in Basra city. The weight (kilogram)/height (meter) 2 equation was used in the BMI calculation. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and calcium were estimated by a fully automated biochemistry analyzer using enzymatic methods. VLDL-cholesterol was tallied by using the Fridwald equation. Vitamin D, IL-6, myostatin, CAF, P3NT, AACT, and hs-CRP were measured by a fully automated ELISA analyzer.
Results: current study parameters included (BMI, total cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, IL-6, myostatin, CAF, P3NT, AACT, and hs-CRP) ) in the sarcopenic subject showed more than the control subject with significantly higher changes (P<0.01)., whereas the parameters included (HDL-cholesterol, calcium, and vitamin D) were demonstrated in sarcopenia group less than 
a control group with significantly higher changes (P<0.01). BMI had a direct correlation with total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL- cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, IL-6, myostatin, CAF, P3NT, AACT, and hs-CRP, with highly significant (P < 0.01). BMI had an inverse correlation with HDL-cholesterol, calcium, and vitamin D, with highly statistic changes (P <0.01).
Conclusions: A findings of the study revealed that obesity serves as a health risk for sarcopenia in elderly adults. High blood levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, myostatin, CAF, P3NT, IL-6 AACT, and hs-CRP in blood circulation raise the risk for sarcopenia in the elderly. Decrease concentrations of vitamin D, calcium, and HDL-cholesterol increase the opportunity for the elderly to have sarcopenia.

Determination Of Trace Elements And Total Antioxidant Capacity İn Obese Iraqi Patients

Ibrahim Abdulkareem Sabri; Assistant professor Doctor Hakan ÇOLAK; Assistant professor Doctor Mustafa Taha Mohammed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2348-2358

Obesity is one of the principle preventable reasons for death. extra than forty % of Iraqis be afflicted by weight problems (obesity). is that it is excessive weight gain with excess body fat. This causes the patient to be exposed to several diseases. (weight problems) is measured in lots of ways, the most crucial of which is referred to as (BMI - body mass index), that's a tool for calculating weight in relation to frame height. someone is overweight if this indicator has a fee of 30 or more.
Methods: The study included healthy natural subjects as a comparison group (control) and they were (61 samples) Including (32) females and (29) males, and their ages ranged (3_15) years, and Patients Group (59 blood samples) were obtained they range in age (2_17) years, Included (35) males, (24) females.
Samples were collected from the patients reviewed at [Al Khayal Hospital].Level of antioxidants was assessed by estimation in the serum convergences of complete cancer prevention agents limit (TAC) by UV spectrophotometric strategy. also, Serum minor components (Zn, Cu and Fe) assessed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS .)
The Statistical Analysis System-SAS (2012) program was utilized to distinguish the impact of contrast factors in study boundaries. T-test was utilized to huge look at between implies. in this examination.
Result: Our study observed significantly elevated concentrations of (TAC)
(p < 0. 01)in the control than patient. Investigation of serum minor components (Zn, Cu and (Fe) found that the mean estimations of Zn, Fe, Cu, were (106.52 ± 0.76) and (70.44 ± 0.76), and (65.85 ± 1.97 ) μg/dl for the patient and (53.73 ± 2.11), (31.16 ± 0.87), and (91.12 ± 3.00) μg/dl for the controls, thusly. There was a significant contrast in minor components the patients and controls (p < 0.01).


N. S. Kshirsagar; Supriya patil; M. M. ladded; S.S. Vhalwal; Archna V. Rokade

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 4130-4135

Study objective is to study the influence of early pregnancy BMI on neonatal birth weight. To Study the association between gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight. An observational correlational study, consisting of 1031 pregnant women, with singleton uncomplicated pregnancy, booked at Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Karad before 12 weeks of pregnancy, conducted between June 2014 to December 2015. After getting written informed consent from the patient, patients included in the study. Those who developed any complication during the study were excluded. With rising BMI, weight gain in pregnancy is greatly increased. Maternal pregnancy BMI has a positive association with the birth weight of neonatal. Lower BMI is significantly linked to a relatively low weight gain lower birth weight.

A Cross-sectional Study on Knee Osteoarthritis among Rural Population in Field Practice Area of Tertiary Care Centre in Tiruvannamalai District, Tamil Nadu

Dr R Senthil Kumar, Dr G Kartheesan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 693-698

Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) accounts for nearly four-fifths of osteoarthritis (OA) worldwide and increases with obesity and age1Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common causes of pain and disability, representing a significant burden for the individual and for society
Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted to find out the prevalence of Knee Osteoarthritis among rural population of age group above 40 years and also to find out the association between risk factors and prevalence of Knee OA with the sample of 370 by simple random sampling
Result: The prevalence of  knee osteoarthritis was found to be 31.6% in our study The  prevalence was found to be highest in the age group70 and above. The prevalence  of knee OA in females was more than the males. The lifestyle risk factor like DM and BMI ≥25 was found to be significantly associated with knee OA. (p <0.05).
Conclusion:The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis was found to be highest among elderly (>70) population, more common in females, significantly associated with obesity


M. Kaja Lakshmy, E. Prabhakar Reddy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 193-199

Malnutrition includes both over nutrition and under nutrition. Country like Indiaharbours burden
of both types. College students are highly vulnerable to malnutrition as they seem tobe nonchalant
about their dietary habits, physical activity and general health due to academic burdenand lack of
time. With increasing importance given to physical appearance one group of students areinto diet,
consumption of dietary pills and bulimia. On the other hand another set of students areaddictedto
junk food andsedentarylife and end up in overnutrition. Our study aim is a) To estimate the
prevalence of malnutrition among medical studentsb) To assessthefactorsassociated with
malnutrition amongmedical students.Acrosssectionalstudy was done among undergraduate
medical students. Asemi-structuredquestionnairewasselfadministeredamong200studentsandalsoanthropometricexaminationwasconducted
wascalculatedwiththe quetlet’s equation(weightinkgdivided by height in m2 ) The dietary habits
and intensity and frequency of physical activity werequestioned.Thedatawasentered in an Excel
sheet and theresults weretabulated.According to the WHO BMI scale , 13 students were
underweight , 113 were healthy ,55 were overweight and 19 were obese . Obese and Overweight
students were found to be morelethargicand had worsedietaryhabits than
thehealthystudents.Obesity and overweight is quite common among medical students .
Awarenessabout the ill effects of malnutrition has to be provided and medical students should be
encouraged totake care of their health so that they can adapt to a healthy lifestyle and also
practice the education ofhealthpromotion amongtheirpatients in future.