Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Nicotine dependence

Nicotine Dependence Level On Adult Smokers In West Java Indonesia

Tita Syiami Qodriani; Laili Rahayuwati; Setiawan .; Rindang Ekawati

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1282-1291

Introduction: Smoking is an adverse behavior for one person and others. Although there are various negative effects of smoking, it does not affect the smokers to quit smoking, thus they had a nicotine dependence. The purpose of this research was to identify the sociodemographic characteristics and smoking history with nicotine dependence, and to identify the level of nicotine dependence on smokers.
Patients and Methods: This research was quantitative descriptive research. The population in this study was 338 smokers. This research used total sampling method and it obtained a sample of 159 adult respondents. Data were collected using the Fagerström Nicotine Dependence (FTND).
Results: The result of this research showed that, even though respondents in low levels of nicotine dependence (42,1%), most respondents were in a moderate level of nicotine dependence (39%), high of nicotine dependence (13,8%), and very high of nicotine dependence (5,1%). In addition, the majority of nicotine dependence tended to occur in respondents aged 18-40 years (49,7%), male (84,3%), final year of high school (49,1%), working as an entrepreneur (65,4%), and had an income of less than Rp2.893.074,72 (68,6%). In respondents’ smoking history, nicotine dependence was more likely to occur in respondents who started smoking at the age of 13-17 years (50,3%) with smoking for 1-10 years (30,2%), and smoking clove cigarettes (52,8%).
Conclusions and Recommendations: The conclusion of this study that most respondents were in low levels of nicotine dependence and some respondents were in moderate, high, and very high levels of nicotine dependence, and there was a tendency between income and nicotine dependence.


S. Sushanthi; Sri Sakthi; Arthi Balasubramaniam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2033-2040

Socioeconomic status (SES) and literacy level is a major determinant of tobacco use but little is known whether SES affects nicotine dependency or not. Socioeconomic status (SES) is strongly related to smoking behaviour. The association is so strong that smoking is regarded as a marker for deprivation and one can identify disadvantaged groups by simply observing their smoking prevalence. The main objective is to examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on nicotine dependence. A retrospective study was conducted using case records of patients attending private dental college from July 2019- March 2020 . A total of 201 case sheets of patients who had the habit of tobacco use with recorded nicotine dependence score and their income and educational status were retrieved. The study included two measures of SES - education and income using the Modified Kuppuswamy scale(revised version february 2019). Nicotine dependencies are assessed using Fagerstrom nicotine dependence scale. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test was used to analyze the data. More prevalence of literate participants(78.6%) and middle income smokers(<25000) (43.78%) are more prevalent among the study population . No statistically significant association was found between education and nicotine dependence scale(p = 0.750); income and nicotine dependence ( p=0.432) . Chi-square tests were used for association and descriptive statistics were used. Nicotine dependency shows insignificant variations across different indicators of SES- income and education among patients attending private dental college in Chennai.