Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Immunization


Status And Barriers For Primary Immunization Among Children Aged 2 Years To 5 Years In The City Of Koppal: A Cross Sectional Study

Chethana K V, Mallikarjun Biradar, Anil Kumar L

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2021-2027

Background: Immunization plays an important role for the child survival. It is the
process whereby a child is made immune to an infectious disease. As per the recent
WHO bulletin these life saving vaccines have been successfully averted around 20
million premature deaths and 500 million disease cases. Objectives: 1. To determine the
status of primary immunization among children in Koppal. 2. To study about the
Barriers for primary immunization among their parents. Methodology: Study design:
Cross sectional study done at Koppal city. Study population: Children 2 years to 5 years
of age Koppal city. Study period: Two months, Sampling method: Cluster sampling.
Sample size: 221 children. Data analysis: Data entered in Excel Sheet and analyzed
using SPPS 21. Results: . Out of 221 children 52.9% were males and 47.05 were females.
In our study 75.11% were fully immunized, 24.43 were partially immunized. 80.3% of
male children were fully immunized, 69.2% of females were fully immunized. The
association between immunization status and literacy of parents found to be significant.
Conclusion: Immunization process will become more successful if the child receives full
course of recommended immunization doses.

Extraordinary events of diphtheria cases with the achievement of first-rate basic immunization

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 383-387

Background:Diphtheria is a lethal disease caused by a type of microorganism from a group of bacteria called Corynebacterium diphtheria. In 2015, 1 case was found, and one died, in 2016, there were 8 cases, and one died, and in 2017, there were 36 cases, and 2 children died.
Aims:The purpose of this study is to analyze the extraordinary causes of diphtheria cases continue to increase despite good basic immunization coverage.
Methods:This study used the literature review that was obtained from various sources, namely Google Search, Google Scholar, Sciencedirect.com, E-book, and SAGA Journal, Scientific Work with the keywords of immunization and diphtheria from 2015-2019.
Results: From the results of observations on the physical environmental conditions of the house carried out by chi-square statistical tests, the significance of 0.008 or p-value was <0.05 (p <α) [6]. The results of statistical analysis using multiple linear regression showed a significance value of 0.01, indicating that there was an effect of population density (p <0.05) (2)
Conclusion: It can be concluded that the cause of diphtheria outbreaks in Sampang District is independent of basic immunization coverage, including (1) poor vaccine management, (2) inadequate physical environment of the house, and (3) population density.Therefore, further and more detailed research is to be carried out.

Extraordinary events of diphtheria cases with the achievement of first-rate basic immunization.

Mohammad Saleh; Ratna Dwi Wulandari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 593-597

Background:Diphtheria is a lethal disease caused by a type of microorganism from a group of bacteria called Corynebacterium diphtheria. In 2015, 1 case was found, and one died, in 2016, there were 8 cases, and one died, and in 2017, there were 36 cases, and 2 children died. Aims:The purpose of this study is to analyze the extraordinary causes of diphtheria cases continue to increase despite good basic immunization coverage. Methods:This study used the literature review that was obtained from various sources, namely Google Search, Google Scholar, Sciencedirect.com, E-book, and SAGA Journal, Scientific Work with the keywords of immunization and diphtheria from 2015-2019. Results: From the results of observations on the physical environmental conditions of the house carried out by chi-square statistical tests, the significance of 0.008 or p-value was <0.05 (p <α) [6]. The results of statistical analysis using multiple linear regression showed a significance value of 0.01, indicating that there was an effect of population density (p <0.05) (2) Conclusion: It can be concluded that the cause of diphtheria outbreaks in Sampang District is independent of basic immunization coverage, including (1) poor vaccine management, (2) inadequate physical environment of the house, and (3) population density.Therefore, further and more detailed research is to be carried out.

Impact on Routine Immunization Services During the Lockdown Period in India: Implications and Future Recommendations

Nishantadeb Ghatak; Roy Rillera Marzo; Sheikh Mohd Saleem; Neha Sharma; Amarjeet Singh; Sudip Bhattacharya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 35-40

World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the ongoing COVID-19 as a global pandemic on March 11, 2020.For this advancement, countries all over the world has begun to implement lockdown as one of the strategies to tackle the spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus. Like other countries, the lockdown in India also poses serious problems to the health industry and to many other sectors. One of the severely affected and ignored programs, the Universal Immunization Programme (UIP)which approximately addresses 27 million new-borns seeking immunization per year, is also suspended. In this scenario, outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases could be catastrophic for communities and health systems which are battling the impacts of COVID-19. At present, there exists no definite medicine and vaccine for COVID-19. The immunity of an individual plays a crucial role in the prevention of disease as well as severity. The interruption of vaccination program can give rise to a resurgence of measles cases. This resurgence can lead to profound immunosuppressants which can cause an increased incidence of COVID-19 with a rise in the number of severe cases which eventually leads to increased mortality rate. Moreover, the suppression of immune function can lead to increased incidence of other infections which may have a huge burden to the healthcare system where services have already been compromised due to low resources. Lessons should be learned from Europe and Africa. Initiatives should be taken to restore the routine immunization program immediately with all precautionary measures as per WHO guidelines.

ANALYSIS OF IMMUNIZATION PROBLEMS IN PREVENTION OF DIPHTHERIA

Anasyia Nurwitasari; Arief Hargono; Risma D. Anggraini

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 895-903

Diphtheria in Bangkalan Regency is the third highest in East Java. The highest diphtheria cases in the last 5 years occurred in 2018. Until the end of January 2019, there had been 4 cases of diphtheria outbreaks, in which 2 cases of the toxigenic laboratory were confirmed positive. The purpose of this study was to determine the priority and root causes of immunization and to be used in planning and implementing a diphtheria control program appropriately.This was an observational descriptive study conducted at the Bangkalan District Health Office in January 2019. Problem identification was carried out using the Nominal Group Technique method. The determination of priority problems was done by using the Capability, Accessibility, Readiness, and Leverage (CARL) method. The root cause of the problem was done using a fishbone diagram. The priority problems detected were coverage of basic complete immunization and Diphtheria Pertussis Tetanus (DPT) Booster immunization for the last 3 years had not met the target and was not evenly distributed.The priority of the root of the problem is that the village immunization coordinator is not good at collecting data on the number of targets and does not conduct education before immunization. Immunization coordinator training at the village or private level is still limited. Strengthening the role of village immunization coordinators involving other sectors and the formation of community empowerment programs is also limited.

ASSESSMENT OF THE PREVALENCE OF INFLUENZA IMMUNIZATION AMONG DIABETIC PATIENTS ATTENDING PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTER IN MAKKAH AL-MOKARRAMAH 2019

Raghad Jameel Alhajaji, Atef Mohammad Raffa, Turki Abdulqader Dawaji, Asmah Ali Miswak, Haneen Mohammad Alshanqity, Abdulrahman Ahmad Alshamrani Wael Abdulqader Gamloo, Juman Maid Albajaly, Fahad Abdulmukrem Alsulami, Raeed Mustafa Rommani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 394-405

Background:
      Influenza is a seasonal epidemic with main symptoms that include fever, cough and muscle aches. Fever is a big distinguishing component between a cold and influenza. Some other common symptoms which may or may not be seen with a cold as well are headache, chills, loss of appetite, fatigue and sore throat. diabetes, influenza is a significant burden on the healthcare systems. A significant issue and a significant big health concern happen every year is looking how we could mitigate and manage it and obviously take the burden off the health care system. Diabetic patients, as other chronic diseases patients, could catch the influenza infection, which is a respiratory infection caused primarily by influenza A and Influenza B. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a major health problem worldwide. It is a number of metabolic disturbances that is characterized and identified by the presence of hyperglycemia in the absence of treatment.
Aim of the study: to assessment of the Prevalence of Influenza Immunization among Diabetic Patients attending Primary Health Care Center In Makkah Al-Mokarramah,2019.
 Methods: A Cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in the city of Makkah among diabetic patients attending  Primary Health Care Center during  the October to December 2019, the Sample size patients participants.  Our total participants were (300).
Results: shows the majority of participant (39.5%) have average level of total attitude of diabetic patients towards seasonal influenza vaccination followed by (29.5%) of participant weak while Range(7-19) and Mean ±SD(13.065±3.822), X211.59 P=0.003.Conclusion: Undermining the effect of influenza and misconceptions on the effectiveness of the vaccine could much be improved by increasing awareness and knowledge, seasonal vaccination among diabetics in KSA is low. Level of knowledge and perception are the main barriers to vaccination. Health care provider’s advice may be an important key predictor of previous influenza vaccination and they should continue to educate and encourage all diabetics to get vaccinated for influenza at least once yearly.

ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES OF PATIENTS ATTENDING IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE ABOUT THE SEASONAL INFLUENZA IMMUNIZATION AT MAKKAH AL-MOKARRAMAH 2019

Sabah Ali Alwahat, Ahmad Muhymeed Alqurashi, Maram Mofareh Alotaibi, Jamilah Hamid Almalky, Hussam saleh hassan heji Fouad Mohammed Alshehri, Adil Awad Mobark Allehyani, Talal Ghali Salman Alsehli, Yahya Ali Dosh, Eyad mohammed ali shelaiyah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 314-326

Background
seasonal influenzavaccination is essential for population health. However, despite its strong recommendation, studies indicated a low rate of vaccine response. Influenza is a serious disease that can cause hospitalization, intubation, and death in high-risk groups. Influenza complications are due to changes in the immune, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. Patients  with an influenza infection are at increased risk of severe illness and complications and have a higher mortality and morbidity rate. Despite the significant role of seasonal influenza vaccination in preventing and minimizing the serious complications of influenza infection in patients, unsatisfactory compliance still exists for vaccination. Vaccination against influenza is the main way to reduce the substantial health burden that seasonal influenza causes, and is the primary tool to prevent influenza infection. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended that all people above age 6 months receive the influenza vaccination annually unless contraindicated
. Aim of the study:To explore knowledge and attitudes of patients attending in Primary Health Care about the seasonal influenza Immunization at  Makkah Al-Mokarramah 2019.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 participants from  health care centers in Makkah Al-Mokarramah city. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used. It includes questions on sociodemographic variables, knowledge, attitude, and vaccine response. during the September to December 2019.
 Results:the majority of participant (50.5%) have average of the knowledge towards seasonal influenza vaccination followed by (29.0%) of participant high while Range(3-9) and Mean ±SD(6.390±1.781), X225 P=0.001also shows the majority of participant (50.5%) have average of the knowledge towards seasonal influenza vaccination followed by (29.0%) of participant high while Range(3-9) and Mean ±SD(6.390±1.781), X225 P=0.001
Conclusion:The study showed poor knowledge and attitude toward seasonal influenza Immunization among patients and general population but a relatively accepted rate of vaccine response. Vaccination response was associated with knowledge, marital status, education, and age. This study recommends implementation of the health educational programs to increase the knowledge to the patients and general population.