Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Immunization


ANALYSIS OF IMMUNIZATION PROBLEMS IN PREVENTION OF DIPHTHERIA

Anasyia Nurwitasari; Arief Hargono; Risma D. Anggraini

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 895-903

Diphtheria in Bangkalan Regency is the third highest in East Java. The highest diphtheria cases in the last 5 years occurred in 2018. Until the end of January 2019, there had been 4 cases of diphtheria outbreaks, in which 2 cases of the toxigenic laboratory were confirmed positive. The purpose of this study was to determine the priority and root causes of immunization and to be used in planning and implementing a diphtheria control program appropriately.This was an observational descriptive study conducted at the Bangkalan District Health Office in January 2019. Problem identification was carried out using the Nominal Group Technique method. The determination of priority problems was done by using the Capability, Accessibility, Readiness, and Leverage (CARL) method. The root cause of the problem was done using a fishbone diagram. The priority problems detected were coverage of basic complete immunization and Diphtheria Pertussis Tetanus (DPT) Booster immunization for the last 3 years had not met the target and was not evenly distributed.The priority of the root of the problem is that the village immunization coordinator is not good at collecting data on the number of targets and does not conduct education before immunization. Immunization coordinator training at the village or private level is still limited. Strengthening the role of village immunization coordinators involving other sectors and the formation of community empowerment programs is also limited.

Extraordinary events of diphtheria cases with the achievement of first-rate basic immunization

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 383-387

Background:Diphtheria is a lethal disease caused by a type of microorganism from a group of bacteria called Corynebacterium diphtheria. In 2015, 1 case was found, and one died, in 2016, there were 8 cases, and one died, and in 2017, there were 36 cases, and 2 children died.
Aims:The purpose of this study is to analyze the extraordinary causes of diphtheria cases continue to increase despite good basic immunization coverage.
Methods:This study used the literature review that was obtained from various sources, namely Google Search, Google Scholar, Sciencedirect.com, E-book, and SAGA Journal, Scientific Work with the keywords of immunization and diphtheria from 2015-2019.
Results: From the results of observations on the physical environmental conditions of the house carried out by chi-square statistical tests, the significance of 0.008 or p-value was <0.05 (p <α) [6]. The results of statistical analysis using multiple linear regression showed a significance value of 0.01, indicating that there was an effect of population density (p <0.05) (2)
Conclusion: It can be concluded that the cause of diphtheria outbreaks in Sampang District is independent of basic immunization coverage, including (1) poor vaccine management, (2) inadequate physical environment of the house, and (3) population density.Therefore, further and more detailed research is to be carried out.

Extraordinary events of diphtheria cases with the achievement of first-rate basic immunization.

Mohammad Saleh; Ratna Dwi Wulandari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 593-597

Background:Diphtheria is a lethal disease caused by a type of microorganism from a group of bacteria called Corynebacterium diphtheria. In 2015, 1 case was found, and one died, in 2016, there were 8 cases, and one died, and in 2017, there were 36 cases, and 2 children died. Aims:The purpose of this study is to analyze the extraordinary causes of diphtheria cases continue to increase despite good basic immunization coverage. Methods:This study used the literature review that was obtained from various sources, namely Google Search, Google Scholar, Sciencedirect.com, E-book, and SAGA Journal, Scientific Work with the keywords of immunization and diphtheria from 2015-2019. Results: From the results of observations on the physical environmental conditions of the house carried out by chi-square statistical tests, the significance of 0.008 or p-value was <0.05 (p <α) [6]. The results of statistical analysis using multiple linear regression showed a significance value of 0.01, indicating that there was an effect of population density (p <0.05) (2) Conclusion: It can be concluded that the cause of diphtheria outbreaks in Sampang District is independent of basic immunization coverage, including (1) poor vaccine management, (2) inadequate physical environment of the house, and (3) population density.Therefore, further and more detailed research is to be carried out.

Impact on Routine Immunization Services During the Lockdown Period in India: Implications and Future Recommendations

Nishantadeb Ghatak; Roy Rillera Marzo; Sheikh Mohd Saleem; Neha Sharma; Amarjeet Singh; Sudip Bhattacharya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 35-40

World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the ongoing COVID-19 as a global pandemic on March 11, 2020.For this advancement, countries all over the world has begun to implement lockdown as one of the strategies to tackle the spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus. Like other countries, the lockdown in India also poses serious problems to the health industry and to many other sectors. One of the severely affected and ignored programs, the Universal Immunization Programme (UIP)which approximately addresses 27 million new-borns seeking immunization per year, is also suspended. In this scenario, outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases could be catastrophic for communities and health systems which are battling the impacts of COVID-19. At present, there exists no definite medicine and vaccine for COVID-19. The immunity of an individual plays a crucial role in the prevention of disease as well as severity. The interruption of vaccination program can give rise to a resurgence of measles cases. This resurgence can lead to profound immunosuppressants which can cause an increased incidence of COVID-19 with a rise in the number of severe cases which eventually leads to increased mortality rate. Moreover, the suppression of immune function can lead to increased incidence of other infections which may have a huge burden to the healthcare system where services have already been compromised due to low resources. Lessons should be learned from Europe and Africa. Initiatives should be taken to restore the routine immunization program immediately with all precautionary measures as per WHO guidelines.