Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Vaccine


Challenges of COVID-19 Vaccine Delivery Management in India

Dr Sandeep Bhardwaj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2509-2515

Corona Virus or SARS-CoV-2 or Covid-19 virus has disrupted the world like nothing else humanity has seen. It has brought about an unprecedented health crises that we only heard about in books. Every country was found wanting in preparation to fight the attack. With no treatment in sight, the only solution scientists started working on was to make a vaccine to prevent infection. Vaccine development history shows at best 10 years in the making. In a rare worldwide cooperation of best minds of the world, this feat was achieved in 10 months. Humanity will never forget the year 2020 which brought a crises and the human spirit to find solution to it.
The main objective of this study is to look at the scenario post vaccine discovery and approval. The disease being so contagious, has to be curbed by vaccinating the entire population. This is not an easy task as it involves mind boggling efforts on part of government authorities who are directly concerned with public health. For a vast and highly populated country, it is even more complicated. The study examines the major challenges in vaccinating the billion plus Indian population. Availability of skilled manpower, a weak healthcare infrastructure, delivery logistics, cost of the vaccine, and spread of misinformation are some of the most important challenges that have emerged out of this study.

An IoT enabled Convenient Vaccine Cold box for Biomedical Use

Dr Punit Fulzele; Amit Kumbhare; Abhiram Mangde; Dr. Abhay Gaidhane; Dr. Prachi Palsodkar; Prof. Alok Narkhede; Dr. Gaurav Mishra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 1576-1585

Vaccines are very crucial for treating preventable diseases, but its need a constant environment like maintenance of temperature. Currently it is a barrier in healthcare scenario. In this paper, work is focused on the designing of the cold box which is capable to maintain a temperature range from 20-80 C constantly using Peltier-based thermoelectric chip, specific structural design obtain through calculation and IoT based solutions. Another crucial characteristic of this instrument is that it delivers an optimal power usage forecast to keep the ideal vaccine storage in precise temperature range in presence of limited power supply from environment. Due to a collective action of the phase change material and thermoelectric device, the temperature inside the box is will be maintained. The details of the location and the temperature settings will be accessible and visible on the Blink Application. This box is an efficient carrier as it will aid in tracing, automated settings, consistent temperature, carrying and packaging which will be an alternative to the currently available techniques in practice.

Impact on Routine Immunization Services During the Lockdown Period in India: Implications and Future Recommendations

Nishantadeb Ghatak; Roy Rillera Marzo; Sheikh Mohd Saleem; Neha Sharma; Amarjeet Singh; Sudip Bhattacharya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 35-40

World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the ongoing COVID-19 as a global pandemic on March 11, 2020.For this advancement, countries all over the world has begun to implement lockdown as one of the strategies to tackle the spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus. Like other countries, the lockdown in India also poses serious problems to the health industry and to many other sectors. One of the severely affected and ignored programs, the Universal Immunization Programme (UIP)which approximately addresses 27 million new-borns seeking immunization per year, is also suspended. In this scenario, outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases could be catastrophic for communities and health systems which are battling the impacts of COVID-19. At present, there exists no definite medicine and vaccine for COVID-19. The immunity of an individual plays a crucial role in the prevention of disease as well as severity. The interruption of vaccination program can give rise to a resurgence of measles cases. This resurgence can lead to profound immunosuppressants which can cause an increased incidence of COVID-19 with a rise in the number of severe cases which eventually leads to increased mortality rate. Moreover, the suppression of immune function can lead to increased incidence of other infections which may have a huge burden to the healthcare system where services have already been compromised due to low resources. Lessons should be learned from Europe and Africa. Initiatives should be taken to restore the routine immunization program immediately with all precautionary measures as per WHO guidelines.

Application Of Hmm-Viterbi Model For Identification Of Epitopic Signature Within Screened Protein-Antigens Of Hepatitis C Virus

Amit Joshi; Nillohit Mitra Ray; Rahul Badhwar; Tapobrata Lahiri; Vikas Kaushik

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 4095-4102

Antigenic drift in epitopic part of a virus, especially for Hepatitis C Virus is a well-known fact. However, this problem can be overcome due to the fact that the epitopes are dispersed amongst a few proteins that are already filtered out by researchers. Minor changes or variation in the sequential structure of this protein group results in amendment of their epitope structures which ultimately renders any vaccine or drug ineffective against the target organism. Therefore the problem is reduced to first revisiting the identification steps of altered sequences of these 10 proteins which is quite achievable experimentally and secondly identification of epitopic part out of these altered peptide sequences. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) have been comprehensively deployed in analysis of bio-molecular sequences. The work presented in this paper deals with the recognition step of epitopes through probabilistic machine learning model Viterbi of HMM and achieved significantly high efficiency towards this direction. As a consequence, a considerably high precision was obtained for T-cell based linear epitope recognition.

Recommended Medications For N- Cov Disease - A Review.

Dhayanithi. J; Smiline Girija A.S; Brundha M.P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2572-2582

With the raising concerns on the mortality rate in the recent covid pandemic, the lacunae of proper treatment strategy plays a vital factor. Since there is no approved medication for COVID-19, medications involving hydroxychloroquine sulfate and chloroquine phosphate were recently recommended. The National Medical Products Administration of China has approved Favilavir, an antiviral medication, with minimal side effects and a moderate control on viral replication. Remdesvir, another antiviral, has drawn the attention of several researchers to treat the novel COVID-19 virus as COVID-19 is identical to SARS and MERS viruses. Remdesvir, was successful in the previous outbreaks of SARS and MERS. Some researchers also suggest high doses of vitamin C supplementation may improve the patient''s condition. This review thus provides a basic overview on the recommended medication and urges the need to develop novel anti-covid drugs and vaccines.

DEVELOPING A UNIVERSAL VACCINE - TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY AND POPULAR PERCEPTION AMONG MICROBIOLOGIST - A SURVEY

Sutharshan G S; Dr. Ganesh Lakshmanan; Dr.Durairaj Sekar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1330-1340

An infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce. The vaccine is a substance used to stimulate the production of antibodies and provide immunity against infection, prepared from causative agents of a disease treated to act as an antigen. Every infectious disease has an individual vaccine developed specifically for it. The main aim of the study is to find the perception and feasibility of universal vaccines that can be used against multiple infections, among microbiologists. An online survey was conducted with a self-structured questionnaire comprising 15 questions that was distributed through the google forms. The sample size of this study was 100. The results were analyzed by performing the statistical software “SPSS version 20”. The data was represented in the pie chart form. From this study population, the whole of 67% of the participants gave a positive response about the awareness of the universal vaccine and its feasibility . The survey research helps to find the feasibility of developing a universal vaccine. From this study, it is clear that microbiologists have knowledge and awareness about universal vaccines.

Developing A Universal Vaccine - Technical Feasibility And Popular Perception Among Microbiologist - A Survey.

Sutharshan , G S; Dr. Ganesh Lakshmanan; Dr.Durairaj Sekar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2415-2428

An infection is the invasion of an organism''s body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce. The vaccine is a substance used to stimulate the production of antibodies and provide immunity against infection, prepared from causative agents of a disease treated to act as an antigen. Every infectious disease has an individual vaccine developed specifically for it. The main aim of the study is to find the perception and feasibility of universal vaccines that can be used against multiple infections, among microbiologists. An online survey was conducted with a self-structured questionnaire comprising 15 questions that was distributed through the google forms. The sample size of this study was 100. The results were analyzed by performing the statistical software “SPSS version 20”. The data was represented in the pie chart form. From this study population, the whole of 67% of the participants gave a positive response about the awareness of the universal vaccine and its feasibility . The survey research helps to find the feasibility of developing a universal vaccine. From this study, it is clear that microbiologists have knowledge and awareness about universal vaccines.

RECOMMENDED MEDICATIONS FOR N- COV DISEASE - A REVIEW

Dhayanithi. J; Smiline Girija A. S; Brundha M. P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 412-420

With the raising concerns on the mortality rate in the recent covid pandemic, the lacunae of proper treatment strategy plays a vital factor. Since there is no approved medication for COVID-19, medications involving hydroxychloroquine sulfate and chloroquine phosphate were recently recommended. The National Medical Products Administration of China has approved Favilavir, an antiviral medication, with minimal side effects and a moderate control on viral replication. Remdesvir, another antiviral, has drawn the attention of several researchers to treat the novel COVID-19 virus as COVID-19 is identical to SARS and MERS viruses. Remdesvir, was successful in the previous outbreaks of SARS and MERS. Some researchers also suggest high doses of vitamin C supplementation may improve the patient's condition. This review thus provides a basic overview on the recommended medication and urges the need to develop novel anti-covid drugs and vaccines