Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : vaccine


Knowledge, Attitude and Practices toward COVID vaccine among medical students in Belagavi- A cross-sectional study

Dr Hemavathe S, Dr Abhinandan Wali, Dr Sriram T R, Dr Aniketh Manoli, Dr Chandra Metgud

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 222-230

Context/Background: COVID-19 is an emerging and rapidly evolving situation. Though several vaccines have been developed and brought into general use, vaccine hesitancy still exists among the public. Assessing the awareness toward COVID vaccine among medical students is important since their perception and practice will have a significant impact on their family members, friends and relatives.
Aims/Objectives: This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices toward COVID vaccine among medical students.
Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out among the undergraduate medical students of a medical college in Belagavi between May - June 2021. A total of 802 students participated in the study. A framed questionnaire assessing their knowledge, attitude and practice toward COVID vaccine was distributed to each participant.
Results: Most of the study participants were female (51%), and most of them were in the first year of their course at the time of the study (23.6%). Majority of them received COVID-19 related information from healthcare workers (72.7%). 92.8% and 92.6% of the participants responded that the vaccines control COVID-19 and it was by developing antibodies, respectively. 70.5% said that the vaccines should not be given to immunocompromised individuals. 82.2% of the participants have taken 2 doses of COVID-19 vaccination. Almost all participants (98.8%) felt that even after vaccination other measures like social distancing, wearing mask and avoiding social gathering are to be followed.
Conclusions: The findings in the present study show good knowledge, positive attitude and practice towards COVID-19. It is necessary to keep on with further education and training strategies to get a better understanding and positive attitude toward the pandemic for all medical students.

Knowledge, attitude and practice towards Hepatitis-B disease and vaccine among health care workers and medical students of tertiary care center

Dr. Ravishankar P Shivshette, Dr. Yallapa U Jadhav, Dr. Varsha V Kendre, Dr. Muralidhar P Tambe, Dr. Ganesh Jagadale

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 3384-3392

Background: Hepatitis B viral disease is highly infectious and once infected, the individual remains lifelong infected. There is no complete cure at present, so prevention is the mainstay of treatment. Being transmitted through the parenteral route, health care workers, medical students, pregnant mothers, and newborn babies are particularly at risk of the diseases.
Objective: To determine knowledge, attitude and practice of HCWs and medical students towards Hepatitis B infection and vaccination.
Methods: In the cross-sectional quantitative descriptive survey 202 HCWs and medical students participated. A self-administered, 22 items questionnaire comprising four sections. 5 Questions regarding demographic data, 7 questions assessing knowledge, 7 questions assessing an attitude, 3 questions assessing practices towards Hepatitis B. Respondents answered in limited as well as multiple choice formats.
Results: A total of 202 responded to the questionnaire; 74.75% were in the 15-25 age range with the highest female respondents (52.48%). While assessing their knowledge about Hepatitis 53.96% were fully vaccinated, 32.18 % were partially vaccinated and 13.86% were non-vaccinated. 94.04% of participants correctly identified the HBV infection (P = 0.008). The overall KAP scores of HCWs and medical students were found to be 87.20%, 90.20%, and 82.50%, respectively. It was observed lacking in practice toward HBV.
Conclusion: The study points satisfactory knowledge, attitude score but lack in practice towards HBV. Many participants are not fully vaccinated and so strong awareness is required on the significance of vaccination as a successful strategy for reducing Hepatitis infection

NeuromyelitisOptica like presentation following COVID vaccination

Shaifali Arora, Vineet Sehgal, Priyanshu Bansal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 909-915

COVID vaccinations have been developed in the record time frame. But with such rapid
inventions, there comes a risk of potential side effects. Not many serious side effects linked to
vaccinations have been reported to date. Through our case report, we wish to present a 50-
year-old patient who suffered from a NeuromyelitisOptica-like presentation just 2 weeks after
the COVID vaccination. We aim to bring a potential side effect of the vaccine to physicians'
notice so that any patient with similar symptoms does not go undiagnosed. We do not want to
discourage people from taking vaccinations as these side effects are quite rare.

A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY ON KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTIONS OF MEDICAL STUDENTS ABOUT COVID-19 PANDEMIC

Dr. Kavitha BS,Dr. Shashiraj HK, Dr. Shomi Anand

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1685-1688

Introduction: The spread of COVID-19 pandemic globally has left us with many unanswered questions about the spread, modality of treatment and preventive measures to be taken to reduce its spread. Lack of sufficient knowledge about the virus and the lack of clarity about preventive measures has led to lot of confusion about healthcare practices. First year medical students although not involved in treatment of COVID-19 patients they can act as information providers and sensitize the community about the pandemic. Hence the present study was taken up among first year medical students.
Aim: To assess the basic knowledge about Novel Corona virus disease and its spread and clear the myths among them regarding COVID-19.
Materials and methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted among first year medical students belonging to 2019-20 batch. Data was tabulated using Microsoft office excel sheet and the response were expressed as total count and percentages distribution. Data was analyzed using EPI INFO (Version 7).
Results: Majority of the study participants have good knowledge about the virus, origin of the first case and mode of spread.92.25% of the study participants knew that elderly and people with comorbidities were more prone for coronavirus disease. 100% of the study participants knew that RT-PCR test has the diagnostic test for COVID-19. The entire study participants knew about non availability of a vaccine to prevent COVID-19 infection and some vaccines were in different stages of clinical trials.
Conclusion: The students of first year MBBS have good background knowledge and awareness about coronavirus disease which will help us to use them as the information providers to sensitize community people about various preventive measures one has to take to prevent the spread of COVID-19 pandemic.

Challenges of COVID-19 Vaccine Delivery Management in India

Dr Sandeep Bhardwaj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2509-2515

Corona Virus or SARS-CoV-2 or Covid-19 virus has disrupted the world like nothing else humanity has seen. It has brought about an unprecedented health crises that we only heard about in books. Every country was found wanting in preparation to fight the attack. With no treatment in sight, the only solution scientists started working on was to make a vaccine to prevent infection. Vaccine development history shows at best 10 years in the making. In a rare worldwide cooperation of best minds of the world, this feat was achieved in 10 months. Humanity will never forget the year 2020 which brought a crises and the human spirit to find solution to it.
The main objective of this study is to look at the scenario post vaccine discovery and approval. The disease being so contagious, has to be curbed by vaccinating the entire population. This is not an easy task as it involves mind boggling efforts on part of government authorities who are directly concerned with public health. For a vast and highly populated country, it is even more complicated. The study examines the major challenges in vaccinating the billion plus Indian population. Availability of skilled manpower, a weak healthcare infrastructure, delivery logistics, cost of the vaccine, and spread of misinformation are some of the most important challenges that have emerged out of this study.

Application Of Hmm-Viterbi Model For Identification Of Epitopic Signature Within Screened Protein-Antigens Of Hepatitis C Virus

Amit Joshi; Nillohit Mitra Ray; Rahul Badhwar; Tapobrata Lahiri; Vikas Kaushik

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 4095-4102

Antigenic drift in epitopic part of a virus, especially for Hepatitis C Virus is a well-known fact. However, this problem can be overcome due to the fact that the epitopes are dispersed amongst a few proteins that are already filtered out by researchers. Minor changes or variation in the sequential structure of this protein group results in amendment of their epitope structures which ultimately renders any vaccine or drug ineffective against the target organism. Therefore the problem is reduced to first revisiting the identification steps of altered sequences of these 10 proteins which is quite achievable experimentally and secondly identification of epitopic part out of these altered peptide sequences. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) have been comprehensively deployed in analysis of bio-molecular sequences. The work presented in this paper deals with the recognition step of epitopes through probabilistic machine learning model Viterbi of HMM and achieved significantly high efficiency towards this direction. As a consequence, a considerably high precision was obtained for T-cell based linear epitope recognition.

An IoT enabled Convenient Vaccine Cold box for Biomedical Use

Dr Punit Fulzele; Amit Kumbhare; Abhiram Mangde; Dr. Abhay Gaidhane; Dr. Prachi Palsodkar; Prof. Alok Narkhede; Dr. Gaurav Mishra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 1576-1585

Vaccines are very crucial for treating preventable diseases, but its need a constant environment like maintenance of temperature. Currently it is a barrier in healthcare scenario. In this paper, work is focused on the designing of the cold box which is capable to maintain a temperature range from 20-80 C constantly using Peltier-based thermoelectric chip, specific structural design obtain through calculation and IoT based solutions. Another crucial characteristic of this instrument is that it delivers an optimal power usage forecast to keep the ideal vaccine storage in precise temperature range in presence of limited power supply from environment. Due to a collective action of the phase change material and thermoelectric device, the temperature inside the box is will be maintained. The details of the location and the temperature settings will be accessible and visible on the Blink Application. This box is an efficient carrier as it will aid in tracing, automated settings, consistent temperature, carrying and packaging which will be an alternative to the currently available techniques in practice.

Impact on Routine Immunization Services During the Lockdown Period in India: Implications and Future Recommendations

Nishantadeb Ghatak; Roy Rillera Marzo; Sheikh Mohd Saleem; Neha Sharma; Amarjeet Singh; Sudip Bhattacharya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 35-40

World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the ongoing COVID-19 as a global pandemic on March 11, 2020.For this advancement, countries all over the world has begun to implement lockdown as one of the strategies to tackle the spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus. Like other countries, the lockdown in India also poses serious problems to the health industry and to many other sectors. One of the severely affected and ignored programs, the Universal Immunization Programme (UIP)which approximately addresses 27 million new-borns seeking immunization per year, is also suspended. In this scenario, outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases could be catastrophic for communities and health systems which are battling the impacts of COVID-19. At present, there exists no definite medicine and vaccine for COVID-19. The immunity of an individual plays a crucial role in the prevention of disease as well as severity. The interruption of vaccination program can give rise to a resurgence of measles cases. This resurgence can lead to profound immunosuppressants which can cause an increased incidence of COVID-19 with a rise in the number of severe cases which eventually leads to increased mortality rate. Moreover, the suppression of immune function can lead to increased incidence of other infections which may have a huge burden to the healthcare system where services have already been compromised due to low resources. Lessons should be learned from Europe and Africa. Initiatives should be taken to restore the routine immunization program immediately with all precautionary measures as per WHO guidelines.

Recommended Medications For N- Cov Disease - A Review.

Dhayanithi. J; Smiline Girija A.S; Brundha M.P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2572-2582

With the raising concerns on the mortality rate in the recent covid pandemic, the lacunae of proper treatment strategy plays a vital factor. Since there is no approved medication for COVID-19, medications involving hydroxychloroquine sulfate and chloroquine phosphate were recently recommended. The National Medical Products Administration of China has approved Favilavir, an antiviral medication, with minimal side effects and a moderate control on viral replication. Remdesvir, another antiviral, has drawn the attention of several researchers to treat the novel COVID-19 virus as COVID-19 is identical to SARS and MERS viruses. Remdesvir, was successful in the previous outbreaks of SARS and MERS. Some researchers also suggest high doses of vitamin C supplementation may improve the patient''s condition. This review thus provides a basic overview on the recommended medication and urges the need to develop novel anti-covid drugs and vaccines.

Developing A Universal Vaccine - Technical Feasibility And Popular Perception Among Microbiologist - A Survey.

Sutharshan , G S; Dr. Ganesh Lakshmanan; Dr.Durairaj Sekar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2415-2428

An infection is the invasion of an organism''s body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce. The vaccine is a substance used to stimulate the production of antibodies and provide immunity against infection, prepared from causative agents of a disease treated to act as an antigen. Every infectious disease has an individual vaccine developed specifically for it. The main aim of the study is to find the perception and feasibility of universal vaccines that can be used against multiple infections, among microbiologists. An online survey was conducted with a self-structured questionnaire comprising 15 questions that was distributed through the google forms. The sample size of this study was 100. The results were analyzed by performing the statistical software “SPSS version 20”. The data was represented in the pie chart form. From this study population, the whole of 67% of the participants gave a positive response about the awareness of the universal vaccine and its feasibility . The survey research helps to find the feasibility of developing a universal vaccine. From this study, it is clear that microbiologists have knowledge and awareness about universal vaccines.

DEVELOPING A UNIVERSAL VACCINE - TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY AND POPULAR PERCEPTION AMONG MICROBIOLOGIST - A SURVEY

Sutharshan G S; Dr. Ganesh Lakshmanan; Dr.Durairaj Sekar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1330-1340

An infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce. The vaccine is a substance used to stimulate the production of antibodies and provide immunity against infection, prepared from causative agents of a disease treated to act as an antigen. Every infectious disease has an individual vaccine developed specifically for it. The main aim of the study is to find the perception and feasibility of universal vaccines that can be used against multiple infections, among microbiologists. An online survey was conducted with a self-structured questionnaire comprising 15 questions that was distributed through the google forms. The sample size of this study was 100. The results were analyzed by performing the statistical software “SPSS version 20”. The data was represented in the pie chart form. From this study population, the whole of 67% of the participants gave a positive response about the awareness of the universal vaccine and its feasibility . The survey research helps to find the feasibility of developing a universal vaccine. From this study, it is clear that microbiologists have knowledge and awareness about universal vaccines.