Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : COVID-19


AFFECTIVITY in TIMES of COVID-19 and its IMPACT on CIVIC EDUCATION of SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS, PERU

Francisco Alejandro Espinoza Polo; Jaime Luis Alcántara Marcelo; Carlos Alfredo Cerna Muñoz; Gaby Esther Chunga Pingo; Enaidy Reynosa Navarro

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1-9

The positive emotional state of students, in which they accept themselves
physically, accept others, and participate in issues of common good in times of
pandemic, characterizes the learning environment of the subject under study. The
purpose of this research was to determine the impact of affectivity on the learning of
citizenship and civic education of the students in second grade of high school in the
educational institutions Sebastián Barranca and Nuestra Señora de Las Mercedes in the
province of Ica, Peru, in times of the pandemic. There was a population of 150 students
and a sample of 93, chosen by means of a probabilistic sample selection. Two
instruments were applied: the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory and the learning
questionnaire in the area of citizenship and civic education, developed by the
researchers of this study. The index r of rho Spearman was used for the correlation and
for the influence the linear regression, having as a result: affectivity influences
significantly (p < 0.01) in the dimension Living respecting himself and the others whose
general values are r = 0.293**; r2 = 0.078; and it has a non-significant impact (p > 0.05)
on the dimensions Participation in public affairs to promote the common good and
Learning in the area of citizenship and civic education (r = 0.072; r2 = 0.5%; r = 0.192;
r2 = 3.7%). As a conclusion, activities focused on affection should be promoted in order
to improve the dimension Living respecting himself and the others.

ASSESSMENT of IMPACT of COVID-19 (NOVEL CORONA VIRUS DISEASE) on ADULT INDIAN POPULATION: A CROSS SECTIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE BASED SURVEY

Shweta Patel; Manindra Rajak; Kamini Khatak; Ranjana Patnaik; Diwakar Chauhan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 10-23

Background As the pandemic COVID-19 (due to novel Corona virus) is widely spreading across the globe, it is creating extensive fear, anxiety, apprehension and stress. These are all inevitable and growing reactions to the changing and uncertain situation in which all of us find ourselves. Objectives This study was carried out to assess the psychological impact of the novel, unprecedented situation arising due to pandemic in adult Indian population. Method The data was collected with self-reported questionnaire based survey. The survey was circulated in social media as Google form and participation was completely voluntary. Data was statistically analysed by using chi square test for the calculation of significance. Results The responders had moderate level of perceived stress and anxiety 71%; 63.1% were found to be above average in terms of wellness, 80% were reported to smoke/chew tobacco/consume alcohol and 98.1% were well aware of COVID-19 and seriously followed social distancing. Conclusion Since disruptive effect of COVID-19 social distancing is dominating our daily lives, it is important to maintain connection. Anxiety and fears of each and every individual should be acknowledged and better understood by other individuals, communities and caregivers.

A pre-assessment of the educational programs intended to be applied by Turkish universities in light of the continuing spread of COVID-19

Ismail A. Elhaty; Tariq Elhadary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 1-20

Education is an ongoing process and an activity which we do not have the privilege of delaying or stopping. It has to go on despite any difficulty, obstacle or even crisis like COVID-19 that the whole world is experiencing at present. Hence, the study aims to evaluate the situation and assess the proposed scenarios for the next phase. Based on questionnaires targeting students and academicians at Turkish universities, and a previous study the authors published recently, the study discusses the present status, and explores the future proposed academic plans at Turkish universities. The results showed that both students (77.5%), and instructors (81.8%) fear the infection by COVID-19 which might affect their choice of the proposed educational program (72.2% and 86.6% respectively). The results also showed that students (52.4%) and instructors (62.5%) prefer to continue teaching social subjects using distance learning program while they prefer blended (36.4% and 56.3% respectively) slightly more than face to face for science subjects particularly the practical courses. The authors assume that the blended program is a way out where it offers a reasonable solution for university education especially at science departments.

Differences Symptoms From Covid-19 And Common Cold: A Systematic Review

Erina Thursina Rusydi; Muh. Ardi Munir; Rosmala Nur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 724-727

Covid -19 has mild symptoms which is like Common Cold and severe symptoms that same as like SARS and MERS. Common Cold itself has the main symptoms of fever, cough, myalgia, headache, nasal congestion, and sore throat. Because of this, many people are mistaken about the symptoms caused by Covid-19 and Common Cold. The aim of this research is to find out the different symptoms of Covid-19 and Common Cold. This study uses a method with literature review. Sources from the research were obtained by searching for national and international journals. Generally journals are indexed on Google Scholar, Elsevier, Science Direct, e-books, and others. Literature collected in accordance with the theme to be raised. This study shows the symptoms of Covid-19 and Common Cold have similarities, because both are diseases that attack the upper respiratory system. But Covid-19 symptoms themselves are moderate to severe and can be accompanied by shortness of breath, so it can causes ARDS (Acute Respiratory Disease Syndrome) which can lead to death. The laboratory test is a way to make a diagnosis to make sure the symptoms are caused by Covid-19 which is tested by reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) which results are positive on Covid-19. As for the Common Cold laboratory tests themselves are not required. The symptoms of Covid-19 and Common Cold have a similarity, because both are diseases that attack the upper respiratory system. Covid-19 can be enforced by laboratory testing while the Common Cold is not needed.

Eosinophil count as the predictor of main outcomes of COVID 19:case-control study

Haider Shaheed Mohammed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4429-4438

Background: eosinopenia is habitually encountered hematological parameter in patients with COVID 19,its precise relevance with diagnosis, seriousness, and detrimental terminal consequences in COVID 19 cases is ambiguous.
Objectives: the study was implemented to construct a link between eosinopenia and COVID 19 concerning diagnostic usefulness, anticipation of deleterious ramifications, and lethality in COVID 19 cases.
Materials and methods: A random sample of (100) patients with acute respiratory illness subjected to admission in medical department in Al-Hussein teaching hospital were incorporated in the analysis ,(50) cases with COVID-19 pneumonia and (50) control with influenza A pneumonia, both accused by clinical and radiological attributes and verified by Polymerase chain reaction. Eosinophil total, laboratory analysis of inflammatory indices and organ function was accomplished for the sum total of cases and controls.
Results: mean age is (63.8400), (53) males and(47) females,(52) of entire sample were eosinopenic ,(48) were non-eosinopenic,(46) of eosinopenic patient belong to COVID-19 category but just (6) belong to control category with significant difference (p value=0.001).(27) patients from COVID-19 category elected to be transferred to ICU services, concurrently just( 5) patients from control category seek ICU service ,(26 ) patient from COVID-19 category who were admitted to ICU are eosinopenic meanwhile just one in control category was eosinopenic( odd ratio:1.053).(26) patients of COVID-19 category died meanwhile (5) patients from control category died,(25) patients who died in COVID-19 category were eosinopenic meanwhile just one in control category was eosinopenic(Odd ratio:1.565).
Conclusion: admission eosinopenia is a dependably applicable, easily intelligible test for prompt anticipation of diagnosis as well as unfavorable consequences of COVID 19.

Coronavirus Disease (COVID)-19 in Tamil Nadu: Psychological impact and the associated factors concerned with the pandemic among the general population

Dr.V.Anu MDS; Dr.C.Krithika MDS; Dr.V.R. Nithya; Dr. K.Indrapriyadharshini MDS; Dr. Abarajithan Ponsharmila BDS; Dr. R. Vijayalakshmi MDS

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 1106-1118

Background: Fear of the pandemic and the impact of lockdown makes the people emotionally vulnerable during this crisis. This study was aimed to investigate the psychological impact and the associated factors concerned with the pandemic among general population in Tamil Nadu, India. Methodology: A structured questionnaire was used to assess the demographic details, physical status, history of contact with COVID-19, awareness, concerns and practice of prevention about COVID-19 and need for additional health information. Psychological Impact was assessed using Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Result: 985 individuals participated in the study and their mean IES-R score was 22.79. Age was found to be negatively associated (B=-0.062; CI = - 3.10-0.003) with mean IES-R scores, females (mean IES-R score= 23.84) were associated significantly (B = 2.412; CI = 0.520-4.305) with higher scores when compared with males. Participants who rated their current health status as ‘very poor’ were negatively associated (B =-5.277; CI = -6.786 – - 3.767) with other participants. 50.1% were aware about the transmission of COVID-19. Dissatisfaction about health information available among the participant showed higher IES-R scores (mean IES-R score = 30.8). Linear regression analysis showed a significant relationship (B = 2.766; CI = 1.903- 3.630) between mean IES-R score and participants opinion about their likelihood of surviving if infected with COVID-19. 57.1% are worried about their family member getting COVID-19. Conclusion: Considering COVID-19 pandemic, health care policymakers should plan and implement strategies for psychological support, both for COVID positive patients as well as the general public.

Assessing COVID-19 Related Knowledge And Perceptions Of Preventive Health Care Employees Working In Health Region Kalmunai-Sri Lanka

Shaikila Issadeen; Issadeen Aboobucker; RKAR Kariapper; Ikrima Rifath

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 418-426

According to Coronavirus disease Situation Report– 161 published by World Health Organization on 29 June 2020, globally 10 million cases and 500000 deaths and in Sri Lanka 2037 cases and 11deaths of COVID-19 had been reported . A poor understanding of the disease among Preventive Health care Employees might result in delayed treatment and rapid spread of the infection. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge and perceptions of Preventive health care Employees about COVID-19.A cross-sectional, study was conducted during June and July 2020, midst of COVID-19 outbreak in the country. A self-administered questionnaire with 25 survey item was used. A chi-square test was applied to investigate the level of association among variables, with significance set to P<.05. Out of 230 participants, 200 employees completed the survey and response rate was 86.95%.Among participants 71.5% (n=143) were female, 38.5% (n=77) were aged 40-49 years, and most of employees were Public Health Midwife (n=141, 370.5%) and least were Medical Officers of Health (n=11, 6%). Most participants (n=103, 51.3%) used Government web site to obtain information on COVID-19. A significant proportion of participants had poor knowledge on incubation period (n=41.20.5%) and more (n=187,93.5%)on complication of the disease. All the participants perceived very well about importance of taking travel history and category of waste related to patients (n=200,100%) and poorly (n=76,36%) perceived about the indication of personal protective equipment. Generally participant had moderate amount of knowledge (>57.62%) and positive perception (>69.01%) and Medical officers and Public Health Inspectors scored more than Public Health Midwife. As the global threat of COVID-19 continues to emerge, it was critical to improve the knowledge and perceptions of Preventive Health care Employees .Health ministry should provide a comprehensive and tailored educational and training programme, targeting all staff specially PHM , to promote preventive measures of COVID-19, to achieve equilibrium in terms of knowledge on COVID-19.

The Test Of Humanity During The Covid-19 Situation In Indonesia

Elfindah Princes; Teddy Indira Budiwan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 435-445

The history has shown that during dangerous situation, people seek for their own safety. However, the example shown from the Covid-19 quick anticipation in Wuhan, China has shown the exact opposite. The researcher tries to identify human behaviors during the pandemic situation of Covid-19 in Indonesia. The researcher argues that compared to other countries, Indonesian people have different characteristics and responses. They are more self-centered and judgmental. Using the qualitative approach, the researcher classifies the people into 4 groups during a pandemic situation with two main groups as the research priority. First, the egocentric group as the group dominating the food and medical supplies. The panic buying in Indonesia causes this group of people to pile up stocks at home and cause the retail price to rocket. The second group is the profit-seeking group who takes advantage of this situation and sells the important food and medical supply in high price. The four groups represent the chaotic society culture in Indonesia and are the main reasons for questions if the humanity still exists. This research gives an understanding to the government to face the next pandemic if it happens someday. There are two limitations. First, at the time this research is made, the Covid-19 pandemic is still ongoing. There is a high possibility that a new group might appear near or at the end of the pandemic. Second, this paper does not separate the people into groups of different income levels, age groups and gender. Future research should address these limitations.

PREDICTION OF DEATHS CAUSED BY COVID-19 USING MACHINE LEARNING

Kanaga Suba Raja. S; Usha Kiruthika; V. Balaji; Anjana Sriram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 2946-2951

Covid-19 prediction models are the most welcome and need of the hour in this current pandemic situation for paving way for decision making by Authorities. India due to its protective characteristics against COVID-19 is supposed to have the least death rate compared to nations having similar number of Covid cases. But the recent increase in the death toll has been a matter of deep concern. The SEIR models which were practiced earlier could not predict death rates accurately due to certain limitations in the procedure. Hence this paper is presented with a model which can efficiently predict the deaths due to covid-19 in every state in India. The aim of this paper is to present a model which predicts the number of fatalities caused by corona with maximum efficacy.

Implementation of Ethical Echo System to Prevent and Overcome Crisis like Covid-19

Dr. Giriraj Kiradoo

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3477-3484


Background -The main purpose of this paper is to focus on identifying the significance of ethical
ecosystem in ensuring that crisis like Covid-19 could be effectively dealt or prevented in future.
An ethical ecosystem is formed with the contribution of different individuals, groups,
organisations and institutions that collaboratively work to protect the environment and promote
sustainable use of resources.
Materials and methods-The qualitative research of the scientists, doctors and other
knowledgeable persons has been used which provides reliable source of information about the
disease and its link with the management of ecology over the globe.
Results-Findings of this research helped in identifying the significant role is being played by
different national and international industries and organisations for overcoming the Corona
pandemic. Findings of this paper informed that ethical ecosystem management is an important
approach that ensures the appropriate and sustainable use of the ecosystem and environment.
Conclusion-The problem of Corona pandemic that started from China, spread throughout the
world and raised various questions about the ethics of humans actions towards nature and
environment. This paper concludes that different industries, sectors and institutions that work
within the wider society have their own ethical responsibilities towards the broader ecosystem.
Therefore, the ethical actions that are currently being taken by different organisations around
the world could be a significant example for future approaches of ethical ecosystem
management.

Effectiveness of Dexamethasone for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) due to Coronavirus: A Systematic Review

Tri Setyawat; Ari Setiyawan Nugraha; Sarifuddin .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 206-211

Estimates have suggested that up to 12% of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 have required invasive mechanical ventilation, with the majority developing acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS). Corticosteroids are the most potent anti-inflammatory drugs. The therapeutic mechanism of corticosteroids might base on attenuating the action of many cytokines that participated in the inflammatory reaction associating severe CAP However, the clinical and efficacy of dexamethasone in COVID-19 patients are currently unclear, so research is needed to know the effectiveness of dexamethasone therapy in patients with COVID-19. This research uses a structured analysis focused on preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyzes (PRISMA) in order to classify all existing literature with appropriate keywords. The database using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews & Meta Analyses) for instruments and used flowcharts based on the 2009 PRISMA checklist and based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, we found that dexamethasone resulted in a significant increase in the number of ventilator-free days (days alive and free of mechanical ventilation) over 28 days in patients with COVID-19 and moderate or severe ARDS.

THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON WORK FORCE IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SECTOR

Dr. P.K. Anjani; Dr. Suja Sundram; Ms. V. Abinaya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3660-3674

The COVID-19 pandemic has intensified and expanded in terms of its global reach, with huge impacts on
public health and unprecedented shocks to economies and labor markets. Many countries have initiated social distancing
policies, Lock downs to slow the virus‟s spread, with the aim of avoiding catastrophic outcomes for national health
systems and minimizing lives lost. ILO estimates show that workplace closures have increased rapidly in recent weeks
that 81 per cent of the global workforce lives in countries with mandatory or recommended closures. With increasing
numbers of partial or total lockdowns in place that restrict operations of business and movement of the vast majority of
workers, for many it has become impossible to work. Quantitative research methods were used for the study, and a
sample population was chosen amongst participants who were single and in a relationship, female and male, with and
without children, by using a convenient sampling method. The questionnaire used contained existing scales where the
Cronbach‟s alpha coefficients were above the recommended 0.8. Out of 250 distributed questionnaires, 200 were
completed and returned, giving an overall returning rate of 80%. The data was analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20.
This study identified the factors influencing work force during COVID 19, the association between the
demographic profile of employees and the factors influencing employees during COVID 19 and also their impact
among the influencing factors. This study identified the existence of positive correlation between the work satisfaction
and the psychological health, which indicates that when there is higher satisfaction in work which eventually leads to
good psychological health. This study also identified that existence of positive correlation between the Family-work
conflict and the psychological stress, which indicates that increase in conflict between the work and family eventually
lead to unhappiness and psychological stress.

Human Activity Recognition using SVM and Deep Learning

V. Parameswari; S. Pushpalatha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 1984-1990

Human activity recognition is one among the foremost vital rising technology. Principle parts from the body parts territory are utilized for human movement acknowledgment to scale back spatial property. A multi scale delineation human action acknowledgment is done to save the segregate data before spatial property decrease. This paper could be a human action Recognition system for identification of person. It takes input a video of COVID-19 patients and searches for a match within the hold on pictures. This method is predicate d on Gabor options extraction mistreatment Gabor filter. For feature extraction the input image is matching with Gabor filter and further personal sample generation formula is employed to pick out a collection of informative and non redundant Gabor options. DNN (Deep learning Models) is used for matching the input human action image to the hold on pictures. This method is used in hospital management application for detecting the COVID-19 patient activity from surveillance cameras. By using the SVM and deep learning the human activity is recognized using matlab tool.

Covid-19: The Investigation On The Emotional Parental Burnout During Movement Control Order In Malaysia

Syazwani Aniyah Manja; Iylia Mohamad; Hazhari Ismail; Nurul Izzah Yusof

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4912-4929

The moment when we have a child will be a very meaningful as we start to think that we begin our new life with new experience to explore with. Despite that, journey of parenting can be stressful especially when parents are facing other hard situation to handle and combine with some behavior of children that very unexpected, they may start to develop their parental burnout. In fact that the pandemic of Covid-19, the rapid cases increase day by day and affected all over the countries, most of the working parents have to stay and work from home and spend most of their time with children. Due to that situation, this study was examine the parental burnout during 2020 Malaysia Movement Control Order (MCO) in three aspects, parental burnout checklist, parental neglect and also parental violence. The online questionnaire was given to the Malaysian Parents and a total of 158 completed the survey before the the Movement Control Order end.. The results shown there were no significant result of parents gender role, total number of children and having a helper or spouse to help. Thus, results were referred to high means score and found among parents gender role, father get higher with (M=55.79), parent with 2 children (M=56.18), not having a helper or maid (M54.44) and no spouse to help (M=56.32). The finding also found overall level of emotionally is at average to high level. Since parental burnout is a
serious situation that instancy requires more attention, parents are advised to find the best solution such as to contact Pusat Kesihatan Mental Masyarakat (MENTARI) as prepared by goverment for Malaysian before things get worse.

A Study On Covid-19 Data Of India, Andhra Pradesh And Telangana Using Machine Learning Algorithms

K.L.S. Soujanya; Challa Madhavi Latha; N. Sandeep Chaitanya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 371-380

The epidemic of Covid-19 has created a disastrous situation around the globe. The spread of Covid-19 is drastically increasing day by day. Machine learning is one of the efficient tools to track the outbreak of the disease, forecast the probable confirmed and death cases as well as the fatality rate. This study applies multiple regression analysis which is one of the supervised machine learning algorithms to analyze and forecast the fatality rate. The study was conducted to predict the spread of Covid-19 in areas of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, and India. R-Square (R2), Mean square error (MSE), Root mean square error (RSME) and Mean absolute error (MAE) are the main measures used to predict the accuracy of the algorithm. The results reveal that the case fatality rate is higher in Telangana compared to Andhra Pradesh and India, and more diseased cases are observed in Andhra Pradesh. The study was conducted with the available data; if sufficient data is available then the more precise predictions could be possible using multiple regression analysis.

The Effect Of Social Media Exposure On Depression And Anxiety Disorders In Facing Covid-19 Pandemic

Aris Widiyanto; Asruria Sani Fajriah; Joko Tri Atmojo; Rina Tri Handayani; Lidia Ekiq Kurniavie

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4635-4643

Background: WHO has designated Covid-19 as a pandemic, this has an effect on mental health when people are stuck at home and it is unknown when the social distancing rule ends. This affects the quality of student learning faced with stressors in dealing with lecture material and exposure to Covid-19 information from social media. This study aims to predict the effect of social media exposure on depression and anxiety disorders in health students in the face of the Covid-19 pandemic.
Methode: This research is a cross sectional study with a sample of students majoring in health in Indonesia in May 2020. Data were collected using a questionnaire through an online survey. Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression with Stata 13.
Result: Results from the study found that there was a significant effect of social media exposure on depression (OR=1.64; CI 95%=1.05 hingga 2.57; p=0.031) and anxiety disorders (OR=1.64; CI 95%=1.18 to 3.40; p=0.008) in dealing with the Covid-19 pandemic.
Conclusion: Exposure to social media during this pandemic can increase the risk of depression and anxiety disorders in college students. So, it is expected that students also need to know the steps to protect themselves from excessive stress and panic in the midst of the Covid-19 outbreak.

Reasons For 1-17-Year-Old Children To Visit A Dentist During The Covid-19 Pandemic

M.K. Kamalova; I.V. Fomenko; D.S. Dmitrienko; N.V. Matvienko; E.N. Arjenovskaya .; A.G. Gevorkyan .; K.V. Nikitina; E.E. Maslak .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 546-558

COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected dentistry due to high coronavirus infectivity and dangerous consequences. Special recommendations were developed for dentists to limit the infection of staff and patients. to study the reasons for children visiting dental clinics during COVID-19 pandemic and give the characteristics of the patients and provided dental treatment. The cross-sectional study was conducted in four dental clinics, which worked for dental emergency in the cities of Volgograd and Volzhky during the peak of COVID-19 pandemic. The data about 166 paediatric dental patients aged 1-17 years were collected. The reasons for children’s dental visits, age and behavior of the children, the tooth types, and the types of provided treatment were analyzed. The children’s behavior was assessed according to Frankl’s Behavior Rating Scale. Proportions (%), 95% Confidence Interval (CI), mean-value with standard error (M±m) were calculated. The differences were assessed by Pierson’s Chi-square test at p-value 0.05. Microsoft-office Excel-2019 programs were used for the statistic analysis. The majority (98.8%, 95% CI 95.7-99.7%) of the children visited dental clinics due to acute toothache. The primary teeth needed urgent treatment significantly more often than permanent teeth: 83.7% (95% CI 77.8-88.3%) and 16.3% (95% CI 11.7-22.2%) respectively, x2 = 172.171, p < 0.0001. Among the primary teeth the most affected ones were the first and second molars, among the permanent teeth – the first molar. The common reasons for urgent dental treatment in children were caries consequences: apical periodontitis (51.6%, 95% CI 44.5-58.6) or pulpitis (35.3%, 95% CI 28.8-42.3). The other reasons were dental trauma, caries, periostitis, physiological primary tooth mobility. Acute pain in the primary teeth was caused mainly by apical periodontitis, in the permanent teeth by pulpitis. The applied treatment methods were aimed at limiting the use of aerosol generating procedures, reducing the duration of the treatment and preventing the patients’ hospitalization. Almost all the primary teeth with apical periodontitis were extracted; the number of extracted and endodontically treated permanent teeth was approximately equal. The current methods of pulpitis treatment (pulp capping, pulpotomy and pulpectomy) were applied along with the pulp necrotizing agent use. Many (39.7%, 95% CI 32.6-47.4%) children demonstrated negative behavior. Behavior management techniques were used, including tell-show-do (54.5%, 95% CI 42.6-66.0%), sedation (3.0%, 95% CI – 0.8-10.4%), general anesthesia (3.0%, 95% CI – 0.8-10.4%), passive restraint (39.4%, 95% CI 28.5-51.4%). In the limitation of this study we can conclude that COVID-19 pandemic changed the profile of paediatric dental patients and dentist’s treatment options. In 1-17-year-old children the main reason for an emergency dental visit was acute dental pain due to caries consequences. The primary teeth needed urgent dental treatment significantly more often than the permanent teeth. The children often demonstrated negative behavior and required behavior management. The applied treatment methods were aimed at limiting the use of

An Empirical Study on Family Bondage in the Pre and Post Lock Down of Covid-19 (with Special reference to Chennai City.)

Dr.K. Selvasundaram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 859-868

The Covid-19 outbreak has struck the human which impacted lot in all spheres of
the life of everyone on the earth. This pandemic covid-19 threaded the mankind which also
continues still without any medical curing across the world. World claimed to be top on
doing research in medicine to disease to cure it but in controlling and stopping the of
Covid-19 became terrible day by day. This study depicts the family support during the
pandemic Covid-19 to come out who are affected by this pandemic disease. As measures to
contain the spread of COVID-19 are being implemented across the globe (movement
restrictions/curfews, closure of State borders, quarantine and confinement policies, etc.),
the ability of families to maintain contact is negatively impacted. Likewise, the ability of
those traditionally providing services aiming at restoring and maintaining family contact
(RFL), including the Red Cross and Red Crescent (RCRC) Movement, are sometimes
dramatically reduced.

Dance and Music as a Therapy to Heal Physical and Psychological Pain: An Analytical Study of COVID-19 Patients during Quarantine

A. Cineka; J.Michael Raj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 99-109

This paper delineates that involvement to dance and music is an active therapy that offers physical and psychological benefits for the people who affected with diseases. It is closely connected with human emotions which reduce the psychological pain and depression of people when they are getting involved with music and dance. Due to the outbreak of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), patients are totally under stress and fear for life and livelihood. To overcome this perilous situation, involvement to dance and music is suggested to be an apt therapy that fights against the psychological and emotional effects through its unique power. Involvement to dance and music serves as a useful vehicle of hope and positivity to patients who are under quarantine. Hence, this paper aims to study the collaborative understanding of COVID-19 patients’ perspectives on the involvement to dance and music and how it relieves their psychological pain and gains their physical strength while diverting them from fear to during quarantine. There are 215 COVID-19 patients taken as subjects from Tamilnadu, India. There were ten questionnaires used to collect the data through Google forms. The data was analyzed through ANOVA calculation. The major finding of the study indicates that involvement to dance and music brings immeasurable healing to body and mind. Furthermore, this study recommends dance and music to be used as a therapy for COVID-19patients all over the world to keep them healthy and positive.

Effect of perceived stress on psychological well-being of health care workers during COVID 19: mediating role of subjective happiness

Vaishali Dhingra; Manish Dhingra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3683-3701

The pandemic has taken a toll on the mental health of people especially health care workers
like physicians, nurses and paramedical staff who have to work for long hours, in shifts and
under immense stressful situations. There is ample literature available on the effect of stress
on psychological wellbeing. The aim of this research paper is to find out the mediation effect
of subjective happiness on the relationship between perceived stress and psychological wellbeing
of health care workers who are engaged in COVID-19 hospital duties. The sample
included 231 physicians and healthcare workers engaged in duties in two major COVID-19
medical college hospitals of Northern India. The results prove that there is a significant effect
of perceived stress on psychological well- being with subjective happiness playing a
mediating role. Perceived stress decreases subjective happiness which in turn affects
psychological wellbeing of physicians and health care workers during COVID-19. Higher
the level of subjective happiness, lesser will be the impact or there will be delayed impact of
perceived stress on psychological wellbeing. Psychological Well Being (PWB) Scale (Ryff,
1989), Subjective Happiness Scale (Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999) and Perceived Stress
Scale (Cohen, 1994) were used to examine the mediation of subjective happiness on the
relationship between perceived stress and psychological wellbeing.

Current Mathematical Models and Numerical Simulation of SIR Model for Coronavirus Disease - 2019 (COVID-19)

M. Suba; R. Shanmugapriya; S. Balamuralitharan; G. Arul Joseph

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 41-54

This paper deals with seven mathematical models within the current COVID-19
pandemic situations. We developed a number of mathematical models which are
compartment solutions of nonlinear differential equations. These models are useful for
research scholars, faculty members and academicians in the area of mathematical biology.
Also, we study these models and parameter estimation from real-world problem (data of
COVID-19 in World Health Organization (WHO)). The researchers discussed to analyze
the possible solutions of each model in the general discussion section. The researchers
recommended that at the end of the year 2020, there will be a reduction on the spread and
an increased recovery rate of COVID-19. These situations are fully changed and return to
the normal life very soon. In this paper to the researchers discuss the simple SIR model
compared to real-life data for COVID-19 pandemic in Tamilnadu by district wise. This
model helps to predict the future calculations of Susceptible, Infections, and Removed
people from the total population and reproduction number R0 . The researchers conclude
that the infection rate is increased for the next two months (September and October, 2020),
and death rate percentage is also possible to decrease from the number of total
populations. Also the researchers recommend the continuous lockdown for these two
months and for all people to follow the instruction given by the Tamilnadu Government.

The Effect of Social Media Exposure on Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Facing Covid-19 Pandemic

Aris Widiyanto; Asruria Sani Fajriah; Joko Tri Atmojo; Rina Tri Handayani; Lidia Ekiq Kurniavie

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 942-950

Background: WHO has designated Covid-19 as a pandemic, this has an effect on mental health when people are stuck at home and it is unknown when the social distancing rule ends. This affects the quality of student learning faced with stressors in dealing with lecture material and exposure to Covid-19 information from social media. This study aims to predict the effect of social media exposure on depression and anxiety disorders in health students in the face of the Covid-19 pandemic. Methode: This research is a cross sectional study with a sample of students majoring in health in Indonesia in May 2020. Data were collected using a questionnaire through an online survey. Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression with Stata 13. Result: Results from the study found that there was a significant effect of social media exposure on depression (OR=1.64; CI 95%=1.05 hingga 2.57; p=0.031) and anxiety disorders (OR=1.64; CI 95%=1.18 to 3.40; p=0.008) in dealing with the Covid-19 pandemic. Conclusion: Exposure to social media during this pandemic can increase the risk of depression and anxiety disorders in college students. So, it is expected that students also need to know the steps to protect themselves from excessive stress and panic in the midst of the Covid-19 outbreak.

The Level Of Preparation For Pandemic Influenza (Covid-19) Among Early Childhood Education Centre

Hazhari Ismail; Syazwani Aniyah Manja; Iylia Mohamad; Mohd Shawani Ahmad Sabri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4884-4898

The preparation for disasters such as pandemic is essential across the academic institutions. Evidence has shown that greater readiness for disasters saved lives, however, with not enough preparation costs lives. The pandemic influenza causing serious emotional and psychological distress can take place at any time often without notification. Hence, collecting data on the most effective measures for each type of critical incident will give crisis responders the opportunity to intervene efficiently when reacting to the outbreak. This study was examine the preparation level among early childhood education centres in facing the COVID-19 in terms of planning and organization, students learning and program operations, infection control policies and actions, and communication planning. The online questionnaire was given to the owners and principals of children centres and a total of 44 completed the survey during the movement restriction order on March and April 2020. The results shown there were no significant result of preparedness among the types of early childhood centres followed with the years of operation, and the top positions preparation. Therefore, results were referred to means score and found among the centres, both get higher with (M:55.23), the centre which operate less than 5 years shows high means of preparedness (M=52.23) and owner seems more prepared with mean score (M=53.25). In other word, this pandemic is their first time experienced, thus results show not significant. However this will be their new experience to be well-prepared in all aspects such planning, student, infection policy and also communication so that they can manage well if a pandemic happen again.

Assessment Of Risk Factors For Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) In Health Workers

Kirmanj I Baker; Sabah M Zanagana; Nazar A Hasani; Suhaila S Tahir; Burhan O Rasheed; Amal A Rasheed; Mena A Darweesh; Abdulkarim M Ismail

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 254-266

Background: COVID-19 is a pandemic caused by novel Corona virus; it has infected millions of people and caused mortality of more than half million people around globe.
Objective: The study aimed to assess risk factors of infection with COVID-19 among health care workers (HCW) from different aspects.
Methods: A cross sectional study was applied based upon a WHO assessment protocol to explore the real facts and situation leading to Health Care Workers infections.
Results: The current study has shown that health care workers were often affected by the disease exploring that males and young age employees had predominantly higher percentage of infection.
Regarding the occupation, it was clear that doctors were the most often symptomatic (45%) of the total studied samples; 46% contracted the infection through contact with patients at work. Finally the study illustrated that only 46% tried their best to protect themselves from infection and 4 out of 44 cases denied the existence of the pandemic.
Conclusion: It was concluded that males were predominantly infected, patients with longer exposure had higher rate of infection and those properly using PPE had less chance to acquire the disease.

Handling Corona Virus Pandemic In The Indonesian Political Context: A Grounded Theory Study

Riza Primahendra; Tri Adi Sumbogo; Reney Aquino Lensun

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 113-129

Pandemic Covid-19 influence many aspects of life and the effort to handle is paramount. The handling requires political support since it will use massive amount of resources. The study is using grounded theory and data collection is made through in-depth interview and triangulation made by conducting meeting and webinar. The participants of the interview were nine people, the participants of the meeting were 15 people, and the webinar were participated by 74 people. Participants age range from 23-50 years old and having different backgrounds such as volunteers, professionals, company’s employees. The study found that there are five key factors, namely pandemic hit the people differently (theme a), crisis in political communication (theme b), tension between health versus economic approach (theme c), lack of data and weak institution (theme d), and development of volunteerism (theme e). The features have linkages and influences creating complexity of the issue in which theme d affect theme a, theme b, and theme e; theme a have influence on theme c and theme e; theme c give effects on theme b and theme e; theme b influence theme e. The theme that have more influence to other theme is theme d and the theme influenced by all other theme is theme e. The recommendation of the study is to use biopolitics and political valued resources to deal with lack of data and weak institution, and integrating volunteerism in dealing with Covid-19.

Desirable And Undesirable Effects Of Air Purifier In Clinical Settings During Covid-19 Pandemic

Dr. Shilpi Gupta; Dr. Himangi Dubey; Dr. Amit Rai; Dr. Pallavi Singh; Dr. Nitin Jhunjhunwala; Dr. Shreya Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 233-236

The novel SARS-CoV-2 virus which causes the COVID-19 disease, is mainly transmitted through contact with infected persons according to WHO. Breathing, as well as coughing and sneezing releases tiny infectious droplets into the air which potentially contaminate surrounding surfaces and of course the air in the immediate surrounding. These droplets, so called aerosols, can be of varying sizes, from 1 to over 10 μm (micron or micrometre, 1 micron equates to 0.001 mm). It is assumed by experts that viruses do not fly occasionally in the air but are always enclosed in droplets or attached to other particulate matter. This raises the question in which way ventilation and air-conditioning systems play a role in the transmission or containment of epidemic diseases like COVID-19. Maintaining a healthy indoor air quality thus becomes a general, basic – yet extremely important – necessity. While this is true at all times, it’s imperative in times of a wider health crisis to avoid not only the direct spread of a virus, but to support peoples immune systems to withstand more serious impacts by an aggressive disease and thus reducing pressure on a healthcare system fighting against overload.

Indonesian Government Dilematics In Covid-19 Pandemic Handling

Andi Azikin; Karno .; Pratiwi Nurhascaryani; Fitriani .; Suhaeti .; Yoyok Cahyono

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 125-133

The purpose of this paper is to describe the extent to which Indonesia's ability to deal with the Covid-19 pandemic outbreak in Indonesia The Corona virus outbreak or commonly known as Covid-19 is getting more and more violent. The virus thought to have originated in the Chinese city of Wuhan has claimed many lives. Not only in the bamboo curtain country, countries on the continent of Europe, Asia, America and Africa are also affected by this virus, including Indonesia. World Health Organization (WHO) has designated COVID-19 as a pandemic. This pandemic has spread in 212 countries. Quoting from Worldometers, there were 3,911,454 people in the world infected with the corona virus, the death toll from the SARS-CoV-2 virus reached 270,339 people. While those who recovered were recorded as many as 1,340,231 as of Friday. The Covid 19 pandemic has also weakened global economic growth, due to economic downturns. People in countries that have implemented lockdowns or social distancing have paralyzed the country's economy, many industries have closed and even laid off their employees. The impact is that the decreasing income of the lower middle class, especially workers and daily businesses, which are large in number, will quickly trigger a social contraction. Before the Corona outbreak alone, Indonesia had a potential crisis, due to Indonesia's dependence on imported goods to meet domestic consumption. This research is qualitative in nature by looking at the facts and existing data both from direct observation and from various electronic media. In the conditions of the Covid 19 pandemic, the Indonesian government established a Large-Scale Social Restriction (PSBB) policy with a social - physical distincting approach. , not by lockdown. This policy was taken by the government with economic considerations and the state's ability to worry about being unable to provide for the basic needs of the community during the Karatina region as mandated by Law no. 6 of 2018 concerning health quarantine. Meanwhile, the PSBB policy is considered not optimal in handling this pandemic outbreak because it is considered unable to cut the spread of the Covid 19 virus.

Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in Follicular and Endocervical Fluid of IVF Candidates with Positive PCR Tests

Mina Ataei .; Ali Sadeghitabar; Atousa Karimi; Marjan Ghaemi; Sara Amirajam; Soheila Ansaripour

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3752-3758

Introduction & Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic is a unique global challenge with a wide range of severity
extending from an asymptomatic form to a serious intense respiratory syndrome. We have restarted the ART
treatments in cases that need emergent IVF treatment according to the international and local guidelines. This
study aimed to evaluate the presence of viruses in follicular and endocervical fluid in patients with a positive
PCR tests provided on the day of the oocyte trigger. Method: All participants and their partners, who were a
candidate to start ART from April 2020 to October 2020, completed a triage questionnaire two weeks before
starting the ART cycle. A PCR test was performed for all participants before starting the cycle. According to
Avicenna center protocol, a diagnostic test (real-time PCR) by Dacron swap and Pishtazteb kit. The
nasopharynx test for COVID-19 was conducted for all ART patients 48 hours before the day of the oocyte
trigger. PCR test was positive in 32 women. In the operating theater, sterile swabs were used to provide
cervicovaginal specimens to determine COVID 19 virus in cervicovaginal fluid. Also, the first aspirated
follicular fluid was referred to the lab to assess the presence of COVID 19. Result: In this study, virus particles
were not detected in the follicular and endocervical fluid of the women with positive PCR tests. Case
presentation: We describe 32 patients who were candidates for IVF, with approved positive COVID-19 PCR
tests to evaluate whether the virus is present in the follicular and endocervical fluid or not? Discussion: We are
still at the beginning of the road and need reliable data on the safety of the ART at the time of pandemic. The
risk of infection during all process of ART including oocyte retrieval needs attention. The fluids from mature
follicles are a potential site to be infected and the human cumulus cells could not be a deterrent factor to
entrance of the virus in the oocyte. This process may lead to gametes infection. Indeed in real life evaluating
the risk of sexual transmission of COVID-19 is very important. Conclusion: We did not detect virus RNA in
the follicular and endocervical fluid of the patients with positive PCR test. Although, more studies with a
greater sample size are mandatory in this field.

Domestic Harassment Of Women And Children During COVID-19

Mukesh Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 754-761

Domestic abuse, a prevalent problem in all cultures, and debates about this phenomenon are related to the complexities and the tabous. Domestic violence / harassment of relationships refers to romantic marriages or partnerships between spouses and in these situations often the female gender is the survivor. There are many women who experience psychological and physical violence in their close relationships and immediate social environment which later become a serious health problem for them. Domestic violence is a pattern of coercive behaviour which involves physical , psychological, mental, economic and emotional abuse committed by one individual against another near individual with the purpose of gaining and retaining power and control. Domestic abuse can be found in all sorts of intimate marriages, such as married spouses, single spouses, living in families, individuals with shared children, same-sex partners, in past partnerships etc. The aim of this study is to find out the nature and various causes of domestic violence against women during COVID-19's lockdown situation. Using standard questionnaire and random sampling, samples of 165 females from various sectors with varying educational qualifications and family status levels were surveyed. To get the appropriate results, a T-test was applied. Specific causes and character of domestic violence can be found in the COVID-19 case, such as oral bullying, abuse , physical abuse, assault, mistreatment, spouse's aggressive behavior and sexual abuse due in part to factors such as female identity, financial distress, domination, alcohol and extra-marital problems, etc..

PURCHASEINTENTION OF ELDERLY IN A PANDEMIC COVID-19 SITUATION BASED ON ANALYSIS OFCUSTOMER-BASED BRAND EQUITY

Hadi Masyhurrosyidi; Sri Hartini; AryoDwipo Kusumo; Windhu Purnomo

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 709-721

Background: During an unpredictable situation (uncertain environment), high purchase intentions for better and quality services results providers need an extraordinary level of expertise in the healthcare market. Purpose: To determine the effect of customer-based brand equity on purchase intention. Method: observational study with cross-sectional design. The population was all elderly in the East Lombok Regency, samples that fulfilled the criteria; not experience chronic diseases such as stroke, cataracts, chronic kidney disease (CKD), severe diabetes mellitus, and coronary heart disease. Measurement of independence used the ADL Bartle Index instrument. The cognitive level used the MMSE instrument and respondents were willing to fill in the questionnaire. Results: the characteristics of respondents and customer-based brand equity on purchase intention used the chi-square test and fisher's exact test. Risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals of customer-based brand equity, namely brand awareness 1,243 (1,000 to 1,546), brand association 1,245 (1,014 to 1,527), perceived quality 1,229 (1,014 to 1,488), and brand loyalty 1,240 (1,039 to 1,479), the test results showed a significant relationship and had a prevalence ratio (PR)> 1 to the purchase intentionof outpatient health centers. Conclusion: the majority of respondents who have an elderly purchase intention for outpatient services at the public health center

Working Parents And Emotionally Parental Burnout During Malaysia Movement Control Order (Mco)

Syazwani Aniyah Manja; Iylia Mohamad; Hazhari Ismail; Nurul Izzah Yusof

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4930-4953

A working parent definitely refers to either a father or mother or both who take part in a work life. Usually, life of working parents is amazingly gratifying, but still it is not always an easy task for them to perform their routines life by combining their life hours and work together in order to perform their best for both families and careers. As matter of fact that COVID-19 spreading so fast all over countries, majority of a working parents need to stay at home while performing their task as a worker at home On account of that condition, this study was examining the emotionally parental burnout among working parents during 2020 Malaysia Movement Control Order (MCO). The online survey was conducted to the Malaysian working parents and a total number of 145 working parents fulfilled the survey before the 2020 Malaysia Movement Control Order (MCO) ended. The result shown that the level of emotionally parental burnout among working parent during Malaysia movement control order is at aaverage to high level with 84.8% which level that we need to put on alarm to give hands to help them before things get worse. Other than that, even there are not significant, but by mean score, a father is more likely facing a parental burnout where a father need to stay at home taking care of their families and stay together all day. Besides, parents who get salary in range of below RM 2000 and RM2001-RM4000, parent who still need to go to the office during MCO and parents who working more than 4 hours daily got the highest score of parental burnout.

Covid 19 And Its Implications On Dental Practice: A Review Of Literature

Dr. R Naveen Reddy; Dr. Swetha Vempalli

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 677-686

The current outburst of the coronavirus strain 2019 (COVID-19) represents a public health emergency of global distress. Because of the community spread outline of this infection, the outburst is still on a rise in spite of global efforts to control the disease spread. The appearance of coronavirus in today’s life brought so many restrictions in daily life. It appears as life has stuck and limited. Dentistry is the field of medicine which has suffered a lot. The present article highlighted various challenges and effect of coronavirus on oral health and its implication

IS INDIA CAPABLE OF MANAGING PANDEMIC— A SURVEY ON POPULAR PERCEPTION AMONG INDIANS

Jayadharani. C; Dr. Durairaj Sekar; Dr. Ganesh Lakshmanan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 616-625

Pandemic is a global affection which has effects on health, social and political levels,As many countries are trying to tackle the current COVID pandemic, this study aims at analysing the popular perception on the capabilities of India in managing a pandemic among the local population. A questionnaire was distributed through an online google forms link to about 100 South Indian population, The study population were asked to fill out the online form after reading each question thoroughly. The results were collected and Data was analysed using SPSS software version 20. From the results, the majority of the study population answered positive responses regarding India’s capability of managing pandemic and also awareness of Pandemic among people of India.. 100% of the population were aware of the pandemic and its outbreaks. This study gives an insight on the popular perception toward India’s capability of managing pandemic, and creating an awareness on its spread.

ASSESSING OF KNOWLEDGE OF SIDDHA MEDICINE HAVING ANTIVIRAL PROPERTY

Vamshi Ram V; Dr. Dinesh Premavathy; Dr. Preetha S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 139-148

Siddha medicine is an ancient system of medicine practicing in south India till today. In the siddha system, it is considered as each and every individual is a microcosm of this universe. The human body consists of the five primordial elements earth, water, fire, and space and it contains the 3 humours- vatha, pitta, and kapha and the several physical constituents. Based on these humors, the siddha system of medicine detecting, analysing and treating the various diseases.The siddha system of medicine deals with curing all diseases including microbial, bone related disorder, etc. without causing any side effects. The main aim of the study is to assess the antiviral property of the siddha medicine. A survey based questionnaire was done to create knowledge about the antiviral property of siddha medicine. A total questionnaire of 15 questions were collected by google form SPSS statistical analysis was done. The results were collected and data were analysed. The overall awareness of all sub groups was fair reporting correct answers. This study concludes that awareness and measures have been taken towards siddha medicine having antiviral property.

EFFECT OF AYURVEDIC MEDICINES ON COVID-19 AFFECTED PATIENTS

Sheetal Kumari; Dr. Gheena. S; Dr. Dinesh Premavathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 276-284

Ayurveda is a pseudoscientific system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent. Ayurvedic medicines have been proved to be beneficial against viral infection. Ayurveda therapies have varied and evolved over more than two millennia. Therapies are typically based on complex herbal compounds, minerals and metal substances. Ayurveda follows the concept of Dinacharya, which says that natural cycles (waking, sleeping, working, meditation etc.) are important for health. Hygiene, including regular bathing, cleaning of teeth, oil pulling, tongue scraping, skin care, and eye washing, is also a central practice. Plant-based treatments in Ayurveda may be derived from roots, leaves, fruits, bark, or seeds such as cardamom and cinnamon. Products made of Ayurvedic herbs and shrubs play a beneficial role to fight against viral infections.
In the present study , ayurvedic medicines have been perceived to be beneficial against viral infections especially patients affected with COVID-19 by lieu of a literature review. Data was collected and was referred to in brief about the effect of ayurvedic medicines and other alternative medicines. Quality Assessment of various articles was done with context to this present study. Finally it was concluded that ayurvedic medicines were deemed to be potentially effective against patients affected with COVID-19 and other viral infections; though the claim needs to be proven by scientific studies.

SSPOPULAR PERCEPTION ON COVID-19 ABOUT BEING A BIOENGINEERED WEAPON- A SURVEY

S. Selvapriya; Ganesh Lakshmanan; Gheena. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 919-926

Among many controversial claims on COVID-19 pandemic , one such claim is that the SARS-CoV- 2 virus came from a lab, and is the result of an attempt to manufacture a vaccine against the AIDS virus. Another one was that the novel coronavirus may have been accidentally leaked by an intern working at the Wuhan Institute of Virology in China. These led to the claims that COVID-19 is really a lab-made bioweapon. An online survey was conducted with a self structured questionnaire comprising 10 questions about the facts and claims of Covid-19 as a lab made bio weapon. The results were analysed statistically with statistical software “SPSS version 20” and the result was represented in the pie chart form. In the present study, awareness of the pandemic outbreak, and claims of Covid-19 as a lab made bio weapon were analysed among the responses of general population, 82.1% are of the perception that Covid-19 is a lab made bio weapon and among them 80.2% of participants think Covid-19 is Chinese bio weapon. The study concludes that most of the people are of the perception that Covid-19 is really a lab made bioweapon and the study concludes that claims of Covid-19 are a bio weapon that China has created holds ground among the popular perception.

WHAT IS THE SOURCE AND ORIGIN OF COVID 19 -A SURVEY ON POPULAR PERCEPTION

Shradha Jalan; Dr. Ganesh Lakshmanan; Dr. R. Gayathri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 561-571

COVID-19 is a respiratory syndrome affecting countless numbers of lives all over the world. It is reportedly caused due to the SARS-CoV-2 virus which is known to impair the lower respiratory tract causing distress.Over 4 million laboratory confirmed cases of COVID-19 have been reported worldwide in about 187 countries. The study aims at analyzing the public perception on the source and origin of COVID- 19 and to spread its awareness among citizens. A questionnaire was distributed through an online google forms link to about 100 people. The study population was asked to fill out the online form after reading each question thoroughly. The results were collected and the data was analysed using SPSS version 20. From the results analysed from the responses of the study population, the majority of the participants gave a positive response and awareness about the source and origin of COVID-19. This study gives an insight on the public perception towards the source and origin of covid 19.

ACTIVITIES WHICH PEOPLE DO DURING LOCKDOWN - COVID 19 - A SURVEY

Arunn Jaikumarr Ram; Venkatesh Kommi; L.Keerthi Sashanka; Anitha Roy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 299-310

AIM:
The aim of the survey was to know the various activities which people do during lockdown - COVID 19
INTRODUCTION:
A major disaster in the year 2020 is COVID 19. It has a high rate of spread and affected almost all countries. During this period lockdown is very essential (quarantine). People do various activities during this time to keep themselves entertained. A lot of extracurricular activities and in-house activities are being done during this. People do this to keep themselves engaged.
MATERIALS AND METHOD:
The questionnaire was prepared with the help of Google forms and circulated. A total of 104 responses were received .The data was collected, analysed by SPSS and the results were plotted with the help of pie chart and bar graph.Chi-Square test was carried out and p < 0.05 was considered as significant.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
People try to stay at home, trying to keep themselves engaged, play different games, and do different activities during the lockdown. 81.73% of the people said that lockdown was necessary and 18.27% said it was not necessary. The sleep time has changed for most of the people during this lockdown. There is an equal percentage of people who say that their appetite has increased when compared to a decrease during the lockdown.
CONCLUSION:
Almost all people try to follow the rules and keep themselves quarantined, and they keep themselves occupied by doing various activities and spending time with their family.

A SURVEY AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS ABOUT THEIR OPINION ON ONLINE CLASSES DURING COVID-19 LOCKDOWN

Taanya Imtiaz; Kavitha. S.; V. Vishnupriya; Gayathri. R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 238-252

Introduction: Online classes due to lockdown has been an unavoidable essential part of our daily life. In this study the opinion from different mentalities will be noted to get an intention about online classes. Different questions were asked about the classes for instance: class organisation, helpfulness, interest, accessibility, comfortability, impact of learning, comparison between regular and online classes and their preferences among them. This is attained due to different advanced social platforms. Materials and methods: The survey was conducted among 153 college students in 2020. The students were interviewed with a questionnaire containing 15 explanatory questions about online classes during lockdown. The data was then collected and manipulated in 2020 using SPSS software (chi square test). Results: 57.3% of the student population replied that the online classes are helpful, 29.3% may be and rest 13.3% replied no. 52.6% said that they invest proper time for learning and 32.9% sometime, rest 14.5% replied no. 66.7% replied that effective communication was attained and 20.2% not sure and the rest of 13% said no. 38.6% said the classes are good, 37.3% said classes are average and 16% said very good and rest of them said no. More than 87% of them preferred regular classes than online classes and the rest 12% said online classes. Conclusion: If a proper algorithm and plan is followed the online classes conducted will be welcomed by the students, few disadvantages of social media and cyberspace are present.

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE ON IMPACT OF DAY TO DAY LIFE IN SARS, MERS AND COVID-19 - A PERCEPTIONAL SURVEY

Surya Sitara; Ganesh Lakshmanan; Gayatri Devi R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 897-907

COVID-19 is a viral infection associated with pneumonia that originated from Wuhan city in December
2019. In the end of 2019, it began spreading in China. It can spread through air droplets and close
communication with those COVID-19 infected people. There were similar episodes of novel respiratory
viral infection like SARS, MERS etc in the past. The main aim of this study is to determine the
comparative impact of day to day life in SARS, MERS and COVID-19. An online survey with a self
structured questionnaire to analyse the comparative impact of SARS, MERS and COVID-19 pandemic
was carried out. The questionnaire was designed using the online survey platform google forms and the
link was circulated through social networks and with the collected responses a descriptive statistical
analysis was carried out using the “SPSS software 2.0”. It is evident that around 97.7% of participants are
aware about SARS and MERS and nearly 92.2% of participants were aware about the symptoms of SARS,
MERS and COVID-19. Majority of participants were aware of the economic impact, social distancing and
intensity of harm caused by the COVID-19 than other epidemics. SARS, MERS and COVID-19 are dead
full respiratory disorders. This study revealed that the majority of the population were aware about the
difference on impact of these respiratory diseases on day to day life and graded the COVID -19 has the
most impact comparatively.

WHAT COULD BE THE TAKEAWAY MESSAGE FROM COVID-19 PANDEMIC FOR FUTURE PANDEMICS? - A PUBLIC OPINION SURVEY

Trisha Sasikumar; Dr. Durairaj Sekar; Dr.Ganesh Lakshmanan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1360-1369

CoronaVirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus-2 [SARS-CoV-2]. It has caused a lot of deaths worldwide and is growing uncontrollably. Many factors like public co-operation and handling of the government efficiently are responsible for control. AS new norms were formulated and observed, in this current COVID-19 pandemic, This study aims to find the perception of people on the takeaway message from this pandemic to any other upcoming similar scenario. A self administered questionnaire was prepared comprising about 9 questions based on the topic of the survey and circulated to about 100 people through an online google sheets link. The questions were studied carefully and corresponding answers were marked by the participants. The data was collected and statistically analysed. The overall result was positive wherein the public was co-operative about the lockdown and found ways to keep themselves occupied and they believe that the government of India was performing efficiently and that it is well-equipped and can handle any future pandemics. This study helps us understand the public perspective on the current, serious issue going on in the world.

PUBLIC PERCEPTION ON LOCKDOWN FOR COVID-19 - A SURVEY

Harini M; Ganesh Lakshmanan; Gayathri R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 540-548

COVID-19 is a respiratory syndrome affecting countless numbers of lives all over the world. It is reportedly caused due to the SARS-CoV-2 virus which is known to impair the lower respiratory tract causing distress. Available evidence suggests that COVID-19 is to have natural origin and is transmitted by inhaling the droplets expelled from the sputum of infected patients. As governments have put down mandatory lockdown as a strategy to mitigate the COVID 19 pandemic, this study aims to view the public perception of imposed lockdown on them. A questionnaire was distributed through an online google forms link to about 100 people of South Indian population, belonging mostly to age groups >10 years of age. The study population were asked to fill out the online form after reading each question thoroughly. The results were collected and the data was analysed using SPSS version 20. From the study population, the whole of 100% of the participants gave a positive response when asked if they were aware of COVID-16 and were also aware of the lockdown situation. 100% of the population think that the lockdown for COVID-19 is highly essential in order to completely eradicate the virus. This study gives an insight on the positive public perception towards lockdown imposed on them for COVID-19.

ECONOMIC DECLINATION DUE TO COVID- 19 LOCKDOWN - A REVIEW

Yoshita Guntupalli; A. Jothi Priya; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2289-2295

COVID 19 is a strain of coronavirus which is virulent and spreads easily among humans. It has become a pandemic and has caused a global emergency. Though the death rate is not that high it is still considered dangerous. It has caused a huge impact on the global economy. The purpose of this study is to analyse the economic impacts on various sectors of Indian economy. Several relevant articles were selected, analysed and computed inorder to gain accurate information of the economic losses we have faced. National lockdown has impacted not only the Indian economy but also the global economy very severely. Many sectors such as the travel and tourism industry, the live events industry, hotels and real estate have been shut down and have faced severe losses. The GDP has faced a slight declination. The data collection and study analysis was conducted in the year 2020 in Private Dental College, Chennai.

IS COVID-19 REALLY A LIFE THREATENING PANDEMIC - A SURVEY ON POPULAR PERCEPTION

Abinaya. S; Dr.Durairaj Sekar; Dr.Ganesh Lakshmanan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1291-1301

Coronaviruses are named for the crown-like spikes on their surface and belong to the family Coronaviridae within the order Nidovirales. Coronaviruses broadly infect vertebrates including humans, birds, bats, snakes, mice, and other wild animals. The COVID-19 virus spreads primarily through droplets of Saliva or discharges from the hose when an infected person coughs or sneezes. At this time, there is no specific vaccine way or treatment for COVID 19. A self-administered questionnaire was prepared to comprise about 13 questions based on the topic of the survey and circulated to about 100 people through an online google form. The questions were studied carefully and corresponding answers were marked by the participants. The data were collected and statistically analyzed. From the results, the majority of the study population gave positive responses that COVID-19 is really a life-threatening pandemic.100% of the population were aware of the pandemic, it’s outbreaks in several countries and its devastating effects. This study gives an insight into popular perception of COVID-19 as a life-threatening pandemic and awareness on its spread and ways to control it

PANDEMIC OUTBREAK OF COVID-19 AND HISTORY OF OTHER PANDEMIC OUTBREAK IN PAST CENTURIES: A REVIEW

Shilpa Merlyn Jose; Dr. Lavanya Prathap; Ms. Jothi Priya A; Dr. Preetha S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 342-349

Background: Pandemic Outbreak is an epidemic which is spread over multiple countries or continents. There were many pandemic outbreaks in the past centuries. Many pandemics have still not yet been identified and cure is also not identified. The present pandemic outbreak, COVID-19 started off at Wuhan, China in December 2019 and within a month it reached many countries across the world. However the preventive measures taken were somewhat similar to the previous pandemic.
Aim: The aim of the study is to review the pandemic outbreaks in the past century and in the present century.
Methodology: Articles were collected from the past 20 years (2000-2020). The Articles were collected from databases like scopus, google scholar and Pubmed and were reviewed based on the output variables. Results and conclusion: Many pandemic diseases were reviewed from the past centuries, some of these diseases caused many deaths and also have caused a huge decline in the country’s economy. Preventive measures were similar for all the diseases except for AIDS and Bubonic Plague

PSYCHOSOCIAL IMPACT OF LOCKDOWN AMONG STUDENTS

Shifa Jawahar Ali; Gifrina Jayaraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 686-696

Schools and colleges are closed to practice social distancing to reduce the spread of the coronavirus disease. Although online classes are being conducted, some teachers have reported that they do not find the online classes as effective as the real classroom. In online classes, there is reduced student interaction, lack of realistic experience and absence of community feeling. The lockdown is generally considered to have more negative psychological effects due to financial loss, inadequate supplies and fear of life. A cross sectional survey was conducted among students to study the psychosocial impact of lockdown among students.The study population in the study are the students with a sample size of 200. The questionnaire consisted of 31 questions divided into three parts and was shared to students using online survey platform. 17.5% of the students felt that they could communicate to friends the same way as that of regular class, 53.5% did not and 29% partially felt so. 57% of the students felt anxious that their studies are affected during this lockdown, 21.5% did not feel anxious and 21.5% partially felt anxious. Most of the students are showing some symptoms of depression due to the closed schools and colleges and social distancing as a result of lockdown. Hence teachers have to handle them differently after the lockdown ends

COVID -19 VS HANTAVIRUS- A REVIEW

Obuli Ganesh Kishore. S; Jothi Priya. A,; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2248-2254

There is a rapid surge in research in response to the outbreak of COVID-19 which has taken the lives of many people.A detailed structured review of the corona virus could bring about any development in the field of research concerning the discovery of vaccines it treatment methods for COVID-19.Another virus called the Hanta virus that had originated in China was another pandemic which was controlled in the initial stages itself. Different articles and research journals were selected, analysed and computed for better understanding. The collection and analysis of data was done in the year 2020. A review of the epidemiology,clinical features,diagnosis,symptoms and treatment of corona virus and Hantavirus could help in advancements in its field of research. Also the comparison of economical impacts in the world during the pandemic virus attack can also be helpful to be economically prepared to face the crisis and reduce the chaos. But certain limitations that come across in this review had to be rectified for a proper result.But this review can be used for any quick reference regarding these deadly viruses.

EXPONENTIAL SPREAD OF COVID-19 PANDEMIC IN EUROPE AND AMERICA - A PUBLIC PERCEPTION SURVEY

Saivarshine S; Ganesh Lakshmanan; Gayathri R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 572-584

Coronavirus (Covid-19) upsurge is the current outbreak (SARS-COV-2) which has spread to many other countries from the sea markets of Hubei Province,Wuhan, China. Following the initial outbreak, there was a major and exponential spread of COVID-19 pandemic in Europe and America. The rate of detection of new cases and mortality rate in Europe and America surpassed even the actual cases of China and even went many fold than the chinese cases. This study aims at bringing the public perception towards this phenomenon. An online survey was conducted with a self-structured questionnaire comprising 15 questions that were distributed through the google forms. The sample size of this study was 100. The results were analysed by performing percentage distribution and chi square analysis using the statistical software “SPSS version 20”. The data was analysed and the output represented as pie charts and bar charts. People of different age groups largely had a good idea about the reasons for the exponential spread of COVID-19 pandemic in Europe and America. This study analysed the statistics on the knowledge among the public about reasons for exponential spread of covert 19 pandemic in Europe and America and a majority of population were of the opinion that prompt government action and policies can save lives. COVID-19 is a pandemic which is spreading rapidly all over the world in a very short period of time. In general, the public perception is that for preventing the instantaneous transmission of the virus, preventive measures by government policies and maintaining good health conditions among the people are critical to get a favourable outcome.