Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : HIV


Immunological Status of Newly Diagnosed HIV Positive Population at ICTC SMS Medical College, Jaipur

Preeti Garg, Anupriya Yadav, Babita Sharma, Nitya Vyas

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 10490-10495

Introduction: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by retrovirus
known as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), which breaks down the body’s
immune system. Two known types of this virus include the HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV
infects CD4+T lymphocytes mainly replicates within them and lyses the cells as the
replicated virions are released extracellular to infect other CD4+ T cells2. The CD4+T
cells count is a useful tool for the initiation and the follow up of the anti-retroviral
therapy response.
Materials And Methods: Observational study conducted over a period of one year, a
total of 181 HIV positive patients were studied. Patients were tested for CD+T
lymphocyte by BD BIOSCIENCE FACS CALIBUR machine.
Results: Out of 181 HIV positive patients, majority of the patients were between 26 and
35 years of age-group 29.3% , 125(69.1%) male and 55 (30.4%) females.
50.8% had primary level of education In present study 22% participants were nonagriculture
laborer’s.Major route of transmission of HIV in study participants was
through heterosexual contact 97.8%.
Conclusion: The immunological status of HIV positive individuals at the time of
diagnosis plays a vital role in the success of treatment. Our finding suggests most of the
newly diagnosed HIV positive individuals were late presenter with CD4+ T lymphocyte
count less than 350 cells/mm3. Our results show that lower educational levels, migrant
labourers and unsafe sexual practices (without barrier methods, multiple sex partners,
commercial sex workers) are the major risk factors for the acquisition of HIV.

Role of FNAC For Cytological Evaluation of Peripheral Palpable Lesions in People Living with HIV/AIDS

Preeti Pathak, Mayank Sharma, Vinny Gupta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2347-2351

Introduction: AIDS, the acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (sometimes called “Slim disease”) is a fatal illness caused by a retro-virus known asthe Human Immuno- deficiency Virus (HIV) which breaks down the body’s immune system, leaving the victim vulnerable to a host of life-threatening opportunistic infections, neurological disorders or unusual malignancies.
Aim: To evaluate the role of FNAC as a cytological investigative tool in the diagnosis of various superficial and palpable lesions in people leaving with HIV/AIDS.
Methods: This was a randomized and double-blind study conducted on 57 patients suffering for HIV/AIDS who presented with superficial and palpable lesions and subjected to fine needle aspiration using 22 or 23 gauge needle with all aseptic universal precautions to the Dept. of Pathology, Govt. Medical College Kota (Rajasthan) and associated group of hospitals between August 2015 to January 2018.
Results: Male to female ratio was 3.3:1. Cervical and Axillary group of lymph nodes were the predominant peripheral palpable lesions accounting for 59.66% cases. Commonest cytodiagnosis were Tubercular lymphadenitis in 43.86% cases followed by Reactive lymphadenitis in 21.05% cases.
Conclusion: FNAC is a reliable, safe and cost effective for the diagnosis of peripheral palpable lesions in HIV infectedindividuals.

ESTIMATION OF HEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE OF HIV PATIENTS ON ARTIN VINDHYA REGION WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON CD4 COUNT

Dr Hariom Gupta, Dr Ravi Prakash Pandey,Dr Ram Chandra Patel, Dr P. K. Baghel .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2597-2604

BACKGROUND
            Clinically significant hematologic abnormalities are common in HIV infection. Early identification of the hematologic abnormalities would lead to appropriate planning of treatment strategies and prevent further complication. This study was conducted in order to know the pattern of these hematologic abnormalities and its correlation with CD4 count among HIV patients of Vindhya region who were on ART.
METHODOLOGY
            This was a cross sectional, analytic study conducted in the Department of Medicine, SSMCRewa, M.P. between January 2020 to June 2021. The study group included a total number of 200 patients with HIV infection on ART. Patients were investigated for Hb%, total count, differential count and platelet count. CD4 count was obtained by flow cytometric analysis.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:
To analyse the hematological profile of people living with HIV/AIDS and To identify the possible correlation between CD4 count and hematological abnormalities.
RESULTS
            Among 200 patients,52.0%were males and 48.0% were females.90.5% were from rural area.The maximum no. of cases had heterosexual mode of transmission, i.e. 179 (89.5%).Out of 145 anemic cases, maximum no. i.e. 68 (46.89%) cases had normocytic anemia followed by 42 (28.97%) cases of macrocytic anemia.Among patients who had ≤200 CD4 counts, 21.27% cases had severe anemia whereas among patients who had >500 CD4 counts none had severe anemia.11.0%ofpatients hadthrombocytopenia. Among patients who have ≤200 CD4 counts, 23.40% have thrombocytopenia whereas among patients who had>500 CD4 counts only 4.87% had thrombocytopenia.   
CONCLUSIONS
            Hematologic manifestations of HIV infection are common and frequent with progression of disease.
            The Present Study revealed a significant increase in the number and severity of cases of anemia with decreasing CD4 cell count.
            We have to provide proper awareness and education about the HIV safety measures, especially in young adolescents and adults, emphasizing to rural population.
            It is important to simultaneously treat HIV patients for hematologic manifestations to reduce morbidity.

An Epidemiological Study of clinic-demographic Profile of Patients with Infertility in Tertiary Hospital of North India

Yati Tiwary, ShailendraPratap Singh, Tripti Gupta, Nitu Chaudhary, Disha Bansal, Ananya Katyal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2719-2723

Background:Infertility is not merely a health problem, it is also a social injustice and inequality. Infertility have a serious impact on both the psychological wellbeing and the social status of the women in the developing world. Objectives: to find out clinic-demographic characteristics of patients with infertility attending Obstetrics and Gynaecology OPD of RMCH Bareilly.
Materials and Methods: This was a one-year hospital based cross-sectional comparative study carried out in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital, Bareilly, a tertiary care and teaching hospital in western Uttar Pradesh from 1st November 2019 to 31st October 2020 in women with age group 18-45 years presented with indications of primary and secondary infertility and the estimated sample size was 50.
Results: Highest percentage of cases (48%) have been reported for 21-30 age group, followed by 31-40 (38%), above 40 (12%) and below 20 age group (2%). The mean + SD value has been calculated as 31.96 + 7.77. Incidence among patients in high school is highest (34%), followed by primary school (32%), illiterate (22%), post high school (8%) and patients with graduate level education have reported lowest cases (4%).  Homemaker profession has the highest percentage of cases (72%), followed by daily wage worker (14%), other professions (8%) and working women (6%). Class III SES represents the highest percentage (48%), followed by Class IV (40%), Class V (6%), Class II (4%) and Class I represents the least percentage (2%). Most common symptom is menstrual dysfunction (40%), followed by abnormal vaginal discharge (28%), pelvic pain (16%), Fever/Malaise/loss of weight (8%) and very few have been asymptomatic (4%).
Conclusion: There is urgent need of regular health checkups and appropriate preventive, promotive and therapeutic interventions.

An Epidemiological Study of clinic-demographic Profile of Patients with Infertility in Tertiary Hospital of North India.

Yati Tiwary, ShailendraPratap Singh, Tripti Gupta, Nitu Chaudhary, Disha Bansal, Ananya Katyal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2756-2760

Background:Infertility is not merely a health problem, it is also a social injustice and inequality. Infertility have a serious impact on both the psychological wellbeing and the social status of the women in the developing world. Objectives: to find out clinic-demographic characteristics of patients with infertility attending Obstetrics and Gynaecology OPD of RMCH Bareilly.
Materials and Methods: This was a one-year hospital based cross-sectional comparative study carried out in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital, Bareilly, a tertiary care and teaching hospital in western Uttar Pradesh from 1st November 2019 to 31st October 2020 in women with age group 18-45 years presented with indications of primary and secondary infertility and the estimated sample size was 50.
Results: Highest percentage of cases (48%) have been reported for 21-30 age group, followed by 31-40 (38%), above 40 (12%) and below 20 age group (2%). The mean + SD value has been calculated as 31.96 + 7.77. Incidence among patients in high school is highest (34%), followed by primary school (32%), illiterate (22%), post high school (8%) and patients with graduate level education have reported lowest cases (4%).  Homemaker profession has the highest percentage of cases (72%), followed by daily wage worker (14%), other professions (8%) and working women (6%). Class III SES represents the highest percentage (48%), followed by Class IV (40%), Class V (6%), Class II (4%) and Class I represents the least percentage (2%). Most common symptom is menstrual dysfunction (40%), followed by abnormal vaginal discharge (28%), pelvic pain (16%), Fever/Malaise/loss of weight (8%) and very few have been asymptomatic (4%).
Conclusion: There is urgent need of regular health checkups and appropriate preventive, promotive and therapeutic interventions.

Prevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infections among Donors in The Blood Bank of A Tertiary Care Centre and Comparison with General Population

Dr. AshaJyothi. T, Dr. C. Aruna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 21-27

Aim: To annalyseseroprevalence of HIV, HbsAg, HCV, syphilis and malaria in
pretransfusion blood and comparison with general population.
Methodology:It was retrospective study, conducted at Osmania General Hospital,
Telangana during the year from July 2016-June 2018. HIV, HBsAg, HCV tests were
done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure using the third
generation kits.The donor questionnaire form with details of donor and results of
serological tests are maintained in the blood bank.Venous blood so collected is screened
for HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), HCV, syphilis and malaria.HIV, HBsAg,
HCV tests were done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure using
the third generation kits.

Prevalence of HIV seropositivity among thalassemic patients in a tertiary care centre

Rehana Barkat, Khurrum Hayat

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 777-780

Background:Thalassemia also known as “Cooley’s anemia” is an inherited disease of the
red blood cells classified as a hemoglobinopathy. The present study was conducted to
assess prevalence of HIV seropositivity among thalassemic patients in a tertiary care
teaching centre.
Materials & Methods: 80 thalassemic patients of both genders were included. All the
samples for detection of anti- HIV antibodies was done as per the guidelines of National
AIDS Control Organisation (NACO).
Results: Out of 80 patients, males were 45 and females were 35. Age group 0-5 years had
10, 5-10 years had 25, 10-20 years had 40 and >20 years had 5 patients. Seroprevalence of
HIV were 1 case in age group 0-5 years, 3 in age group 5-10 years and 2 in age group 10-
20 years of age.
Conclusion: Authors found lowseroprevalence of HIV among thalassemia patients.

In-Vitro Screening of Reverse Transcriptase Activity of Selected Indian Medicinal Plants against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1

Priyadarshini K; Kulandhaivel M; Sankareswaran M; Anbalagan S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 5168-5175

Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) is that the explanation for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a serious human viral disease.The high cost of the HAART regimen has impeded its delivery to over 90% of the HIV/AIDS population within the world. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-HIV activity of selected Indian medicinal plant extracts.Extracts were prepared from dried plant Vitex negundo, Evolvulusalsinoides and Datura metel leaf with Hexane, Methanol, Ethanol, Chloroform, and Petroleum ether. The phytochemical activities and HIV-1 RT inhibition activity (HIV-1 RT colorimetric ELISA kit –Roche Kit method) was carried with the all solvent extracts of Vitex negundo, Evolvulusalsinoides and Datura metelwas determined. The methanolic extracts of Vitex negundo have given the maximum and positive result with 74.76±1.36, which proves that Vitex negundo has a potential antiviral activity against HIV. Phytochemical analysis conducted on the plant extracts revealed the presence of constituents which are known to exhibit medicinal also as physiological activities.The predominant components present altogether the extracts of Vitex negundo are flavonoids, Terpenoids and steroids. Thus this study seems to justify the normal use of plant for the treatment of communicable disease of viral origin.

An insight among students of health sciences towards HIV/AIDS: A cross sectional study in coastal Karnataka

Ankitha Prem; Mahima Mishra; Suhan .; Smitha Nayak; Suman VB; Anupama N; Priyanka Arun Shirali; Rashmi Kaup Shiva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 26-37

The objective of this paper is to assess the level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS among Interns of a Dental and Medical College. The data is collected through structured questionnaire by cross sectional study method with the sample size of 246. The model is tested on a context of Interns of dental and medical students for the first time. The present study has used a reflective measurement model. Due to the model complexity, the use of Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modelling approach is found to be appropriate for the purpose of analysis of constructs and their corresponding data. The structural model has proved that the path coefficient value and empirical t values of exogenous latent variables on endogenous latent variable are above that threshold value in relationship between knowledge and trust as well as perception and trust except attitude and trust. The testing of hypothesis confirms the strong relationship between knowledge and trust as well as perception and trust. Based on the results of Importance Performance Matrix Analysis results corporate need focus on changing the perception of interns primarily. Hence,medical college must aim at increasing the performance of the target construct trust so their first priority should be to improve the performance aspects captured by the construct perception performance by improving its total effects as this construct has high chance to improve its total effect which in turn improves its performance.

KNOWLEDGE AWARENESS AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS ORAL MANIFESTATIONS OF VIRAL INFECTIONS AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS- A QUESTIONNAIRE BASED STUDY

Sneha Sree. S; Abilasha Ramasubramanian; Jayanth Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 600-615

A virus is composed of nucleic acid either DNA or RNA, surrounded by a protein coat.It requires a living cell to multiply. A viral infection can lead to a spectrum of symptoms from asymptomatic to severe disease.Worldwide,5% of health-care-related infections are being transmitted. Dentists are considered being a high risk group for cross-infection.Therefore it is important that dental students have adequate knowledge and awareness of viral infections.The aim of the study is to evaluate the knowledge, awareness and attitude about oral manifestations of viral infections among dental students.A self explanatory questionnaire comprising 20 questions was presented to 205 students. The questionnaire enquired about oral manifestations of different viral infections and their precautionary infection control measures .Out of 205 students 86.34% were males and 13.66% were females,189 of them knew that the most common oral manifestation in HIV patients is candidiasis.92.6%agreed that a dentist could get Herpetic paronychia.When asked if treatment of patients with viral infections required special clinics 68.1% responded yes.Our study showed that the dental undergraduate students had adequate knowledge on oral manifestations of viral diseases but lacking knowledge about infection control protocol for the various diseases. Hence students should improve their attitude towards them in their dental practice.