Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Spirometry


Vivek Bapurao Chavan, Shweta Shirish Deshmukh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 2047-2054

Background: The hallmark of COPD is airflow obstruction which is typically described by spirometry. Spirometry is a cost efficient method of ordering pulmonary function tests is to start with spirometry and then order further tests in a stepwise fashion to refine the diagnosis.Present study was aimed to study pulmonary function tests in patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Material and Methods: Present study was Cross-sectional Observational Study, conducted in patients clinically diagnosed as COPD in OPD or admitted to our wards and having symptoms of COPD (dyspnea, chronic cough or sputum production).
Results: 100 COPD patients were studied, majority were from age group 50 to 59 years (41%) & age group 60 to 69 years (30%). The male to female ratio was 5.67:1. Mean post-bronchodilator FEV1 % predicted of males in the group was 53.81 ± 19.29) whereas mean FEV1 % predicted of females in the group was 51.26 ± 15.96.  Mean post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio of males in the group was 0.433 ± 0.156 whereas mean FEV1/FVC ratio of females in the group was 0.411 ± 0.128. 15 patients were in GOLD Stage I (FEV1 ≥ 80% predicted) ,34 patients were in Stage II (50% ≤ FEV1 < 80 % predicted),36 patients were in stage III (30% ≤ FEV1 < 50 % predicted) whereas 15 patients were in stage IV( FEV1 < 30%). The difference between mean post-bronchodilator reversibility in FEV1 (in percentage) in patients in GOLD stage 1 vs stage 2 vs stage 3 vs stage 4 (applying ANOVA) was not found to be statistically significant (P=.869>0.05).
Conclusion: Spirometry is important tool in confirming and assessing severity of airway obstruction in COPD patients. Majority of COPD patients were in stage 2 & 3 (GOLD) of airway obstruction confirmed by spirometry.

Establishing the normative values of spirometry in children of 5- 18 years age range living in and around Solan district of Himachal Pradesh, India

Dr. Ankush Sangwan, Dr. Inderpreet Sohi, Dr. AK Janmeja, Dr. Rita Haleja, Dr. Amudeep Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 438-458

Introduction: Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs), especially spirometry is an established mode of
assessing chronic lung diseases especially Asthma. Spirometric reference values are essential in assessing
pulmonary function. Normative values of these tests differ from population to population and with
difference in methods and apparatus used. The normal standards for pulmonary function measurements
among the hilly areas of Himachal Pradesh is not reported yet.
Aim: To measure the normative values of spirometry (FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, PEFR) in children of 5-
18 years age range living in and around Solan district of Himachal Pradesh, India.
Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at M.M Medical College and
Hospital, Kumarhatti, Solan, HP, India and comprised school-going children and nearby community aged
5-18 years. After noting their gender, age, height and weight, the pulmonary function test measures,
Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC%, FEF 25-75%
and peak expiratory flow rate were taken. Simple and multiple regression models were used for the
prediction of pulmonary function test values. SPSS 20 was used for statistical analysis
Results: Of the 200 participants, 110(55%) were boys and 90 (45%) were girls. The mean age was
12.47±3.27 years. The means height, weight, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, force vital capacity,
peak expiratory flow rate FEV1/FVC% and FEF 25-75% were 147.39±16.07cm, 41.30±12.38kg,
2.54±0.70, 2.90±0.8, 5.42±1.30, 87.41±3.85% and 2.90±0.84 respectively. All the three variables - Age,
Height and Weight-had significant linear relationship and positive correlation with the pulmonary
function test values (p0.7). Among these three variables maximum correlation was found with height

Pulmonary Functions deteriorate with increasing duration of exposure to ionizing radiations

Dr. Gaurav Jain, Dr. Shefali Singhal, Dr. Tulika Singhal, Dr. Ashish Gupta .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2631-2636

Background – Radiologic technologists are under the exposure of ionizing radiations for long duration of their occupational work life. Ionizing radiations have previously been found to damage the lung tissue and cause fibrosis.
Methods–Spirometry, a measure of pulmonary function tests was performed on radiologic technologists (n=23) and was compared with healthy subjects (n=23). To assess the effect of duration of radiation exposure over spirometry, correlation analysis along with linear regression was performed with their duration of exposure to ionizing radiations.
Results – There was a significantly lower FVC % of predicted (p = 0.04) and MVV% of predicted (p =   0.05) values among radiologic technologists as compared to healthy controls.  Further with increasing duration of exposure to ionizing radiations, a significant negative correlation was observed for FVC % of predicted (p value = 0.004) FEV1 % of predicted (p value = 0.015) PEFR % of predicted (p value = 0.046) and MVV % of predicted (p value = 0.037).
Conclusion – Ionizing radiations affect the lungs of radiologic technologists and the restrictive type pattern was noted.  In subjects with higher duration of radiation exposure the effect is more pronounced.

Evaluation of Peripheral Neuropathy in Patient with Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Hospital-Based Study from North India

Vandini Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 10532-10540

Background:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by
obstruction in airflow; however, COPD is a systemic illness. Neurophysiological
alterations, such as nerve conduction (monosynaptic reflex test) and strength, have been
correlated with smoking, the severity of the disease, hypoxemia, age, hypercapnia and
peak expiratory flow. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the peripheral nervous system
(PNS) with electromyography (EMG) method in patients with COPD and to examine
their relationship with each other.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Physiology in
collaboration with the Department of Pulmonary Medicine in New Delhi Medical
College and Hospital in Delhi. Our study was conducted among two groups: patient
group (included COPD cases) and control group (included healthy volunteers).
Spirometry was done using MEDGRAPHICS body plethysmograph. Nerve conduction
studies were performed on median, ulnar, peroneal, tibial and sural nerves using
NEURO– MEP–NET EMG/NCV/EP (NEUROSOFT TM) Equipment. The data for
each nerve parameter in the two groups were analyzed Students’ T test.
Results: 39 patients with stable COPD in addition to 39 healthy volunteers as a control
were included in this study. The mean age for patient group was 62.78±7.11 years and
for control group it was 60.13±9.83 years. Males in the patient group were 89.7% and in
control group they were 87.2%. The pulmonary function tests revealed a significant
decrease of FEV1, and FEV1/FVC in the COPD group when compared to the control
group. The patient of COPD was grouped in accordance with these GOLD criteria and
28.2% of patients were having Mild COPD, while 35.9% of patients each were having
moderate and severe COPD. Results of the nerve conduction study showed that there
was a statistically significant decrease in amplitude (mv) and velocity (m/s) and increase
in latency (ms) of peripheral nerve motor and sensory in the COPD group when
compared to the control group.
Conclusion: This study shows that advancement in severity of disease predisposes to
neuropathy. Hence, sensory nerve conduction study can be advised routinely and at
regular intervals to the patients suffering from increasing severity of COPD for early
detection of neuropathy.

A comparative study of spirometry between priests who were exposed to smoke from fire rituals and normal individuals

Sangolli Basavaraj; Ghodageri Shruti; Sharma Vishnu; Noojibail Anupama; Kini Rekha D; Chatterjee Pratik Kumar; Shiva Rashmi K; Shetty Sneha B

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 38-45

Introduction:In India, fire rituals (Homa) are commonly performed during religious functions.Some amount of smoke is generated during this ritual. Prolonged exposure to the smoke may lead to lung function abnormalities. However, there is a scarcity of literature on this aspect.
Aims and objectives:To find the spirometricabnormalities if any, in a group of priests who were exposed to smoke during fire ritual, in comparison with normal healthy volunteers
Materials and methods:This was a cross-sectional case control study with 57 cases and 57 controls. Priests who regularly performed fire rituals, at least 3-4 times per month for more than five years were cases. All casesand controls in thisstudy were male respondents. Controls wereage-matched normal, healthy adults without any history of exposure to the fire ritual. In both groups, those with pre-existing lung diseases and smokers were
excluded. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/ FVC Ratio, PEFR, Forced expiratory flow 25 - 75 % were analysed.
Results: Out of 57 cases, 3 cases had obstructive pattern, 11 had restrictive pattern and majority (43) had normal spirometry values. Among control group, 9 had mild restriction. 48 have normal spirometric values, none showed obstructive abnormality.Data was analysed using Independent student T testin Microsoft Office Excel 2007.When each of these spirometry parameters were compared between two groups, the mean difference of FEV-1, FVC, FEV-1/FVC and FEF 25-75 were not statistically significant.
Conclusion: Exposure to smoke generated from fire rituals did not show any lung function abnormality in thisstudy.