Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Tuberculosis


THE EFFECT OF ANTI-DIABETIC DRUGS REGIMEN COMBINATION WITH METFORMIN COMPARED WITHOUT METFORMIN TO CONVERSION OF ACID-FAST BACILLUS SPUTUM SMEAR IN NEW CASE OF PULMONARYTUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS AND TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

Fransiscus A Wabia, Harun Iskandar, Husaini Umar, Syakib Bakri, Andi Makbul Aman, Hasyim Kasim, Haerani RasyidmErwin Arif, Agus Sudarso, dan Arifin Seweng

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3843-3851

Background : This study aims to determine the effect of a combination regimen of
metformin and without metforminon the conversion of sputum smear in new cases
of pulmonary TB patients with type 2 DM.
Materials andMethods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Wahidin Sudirohusodo
Hospital, Makassar Center for Lung Health, Kasi-Kasi, and Sudiang Community
Health Center from August 2019. This study involved 83 new cases of pulmonary
TB subjects with T2DM. New cases of pulmonary TB patients were obtained by examining AFB sputum in DM patients who had symptoms of pulmonary TB and had no history of suffering or receiving previous anti-TB drug therapy.Pulmonary TB patients receive category 1 anti-TB drugs andDM subjects were divided into 2 groups is metformin and non-metformin. Then, smear sputum is examined in the 2-month intensive phase of anti-TB drug therapy to assess the conversion of AFB sputum.
Results: From a total of 83 new cases of pulmonary TB and T2DM, 44 subjects received a combination regimen of metformin and 39 subjects non-metformin. In this study, there were 42 (95.5%) subjects who conversion sputum smear in the metformin group more higher than in the  non-metformin group but statistically it was not significant (p = 0.282).
Conclusion: There was no significant relationship between the metformin and non-metformin groups on the conversion of AFB sputum smear in new cases of pulmonary TB patients and T2DM.

A Mini Review On Liver Injuries Among Humans Due To Drugs And Consumption Of Alcohol

Sumaira Yousuf; Mahendra P. Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 4268-4276

Liver is the most important vital organ that carries out metabolism of body e.g. formation of cholesterol and triglycerides, synthesis of glycogen, formation of blood clotting proteins and bile formation. Hepatic damage and subsequent liver failure due to both unintentional and intentional acetaminophen overdose has afflicted patients for decades and includes the metabolic cornerstone pathways that exist within hepatocytes in the microsomes. The side effects of drugs on the hepatocytes have been overlooked for years. Drug induced liver injury is the most adverse effect observed in clinical practices. It accounts for around half of acute liver disorder. Anti tuberculosis drugs and acetaminophen overdose are the main issues that result in death from curable diseases. Metabolism of isoniazid and acetaminophen (APAP) results in the formation of toxic metabolites that results in the oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) store depletion leads to hepatocellular necrosis and steatosis. Alcohol consumption is also the most common cause of liver cirrhosis. Liver peroxidation is considered to be the major mechanism of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity. To overcome this oxidative stress, there is need of antioxidants that can balance the redox homeostasis of liver by lowering the APAP overdose effect. Consumption of natural antioxidants derived as secondary metabolites from plants in the form of polyphenols and flavonoids prevent oxidative stress. Medicinal plants are best remedies used for hepatotoxicity caused due to oxidative stress. They are cost friendly, easily available and have no mutagenic effect. Herbal medicines form important part of traditional healthcare system of India.

Analysis of Risk Factors for Tuberculosis in the Lake Coastal Area, Towuti District, East Luwu Regency, Indonesia

Nasra .; Arsunan, A. A .; Yahya Thamrin; Wahiduddin .; Ida Leida Maria; Nurhaedar Jafar; Rezki Elisafitri; Ahmad Yani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 67-73

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is still a global problem. The high incidence of TB is due to the less than optimal TB risk factor interventions. This study aims to analyze the risk factors for TB incidence in the coastal area of the lake, Towuti District, East Luwu Regency.
Methods: This study used a case-control design conducted in the coastal area of the lake, Towuti District, with a sample of 34 cases and 94 controls. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were used to analyze the risk factors for the incidence of tuberculosis.
Results: The results showed that the significant risk factors for TB incidence were family history (OR = 13,920; 95% CI: 4,36–51,23), household contacts (OR = 3.04; 95% CI: 1.188–7,809), close contact (OR = 8.382; 95% CI: 2.969–24, 852), home ventilation (OR = 14.357; 95% CI: 1.585–669.82), income (OR = 2.609; 95% CI: 1.033–6.675) . Home ventilation is the most dominant risk factor for TB incidence in the coastal area of the lake in Towuti District.
Conclusion: TB disease control strategies based on risk factors need to be implemented in coastal areas.

Analysis of tuberculosis prevention and control problems in an Indonesian community health center in 2019.

Nilisrianggi .; Chatarina Umbul Wahyuni; Candrajaya .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 573-579

Background:In 2017, East Java Province was ranked second in Indonesia to discover tuberculosis (TB) patients. The Southern Regional Health Center of Kediri City was ranked fifth out of 27 cases.
Objectives of the study: This study aims to analyze the problem and prioritize health issues of TB in the Southern Regional Health Center of Kediri in 2019.
Methods: The observation was carried out using performance assessment for the Southern Regional Health Center data in 2018 with the ultrasound and fishbone methods.
Results: It was noticed that all TB cases were found and treated, including the discovery of suspected TB cases and the successful treatment of all TB cases (Success Rate/SR). The main problems in the Southern Regional Health Center in 2019 were that the suspected tuberculosis sputum pot was not returned, the people’s lack of knowledge, and less active TB cadres.
Conclusion: Some of the problems found are the lack of knowledge regarding TB, less active TB cadres, lack of coordination among TB cadres, limitation of people who are willing to become TB cadres, and the time limitation of TB cadres.

Spatial Analysis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Gowa Regency, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

Andi Susilawaty; Nurdiyanah Syarifuddin; Muh. Saleh; Munawir Amansyah; Hidayat .; Zrimurti Mappau; Syahrul Basri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4531-4548

The number of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases in Indonesia is second ranks in the world. South Sulawesi contributes significantly to the increase of PTB cases in Indonesia. This study explored the spatial dynamics of PTB cases in the highlands and lowlands of Gowa regency, South Sulawesi. This study aimed to present spatial patterns of TB spread in highland and lowland areas in gowa district based on environmental health parameters that will assist in formulating prevention policies and regional-based control strategies.This study used quantitative with spatial analysis approach. The respondents of this study were all registered PTB patients on medical records in the PTB control unit at Health Center in the highlands and lowlands of Gowa regency. Total sample of this research was 156 respondents, derived from 57 in highland and 99 in lowland. Territorial analysis was applied to detect PTB spatial patterns in two regions with different elevation. The variables in this study focused on environmental characteristics in each region.PTB Prevalence in lowland was relatively higher than highland. Temperature and density of occupancy were the determinants of the high prevalence of PTB in the lowlands. At the highland, humidity factor, ventilation area, floor and wall condition were high contributing to PTB incidence (more than 60%). meanwhile, on the lowland, those factors were not significant.This study identified the PTB spatial distribution of highland and lowland by analyzing cases per 100,000 peoples and could be used to develop effective strategies for PTB prevention and control by exploring environmental health factors of public health.

Geographical Aspects Of The Study Of Global Pandemies

Komilova Nilufar Karshiboyevna; ,Turdimambetov Izimbet Rakhmetovich; Ravshanov Aliqul Xudoyberdiyevich; Mahmudova Manzura Juraevna; Payzieva Madina Ulug'bek qizi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 524-529

Mankind has struggled with many diseases throughout its history. Infectious diseases are especially prevalent among the population. According to its scope, such infectious diseases are called pandemics, epidemics. Among the population of Central Asia, a number of diseases, such as plague, plague, malaria, tuberculosis, and ringworm, have caused partial or mass extinction. The characteristics of the geographical distribution of these diseases largely depended on the natural and social geographical conditions of the regions, the lifestyle and traditions of the population.The effects of the Spanish flu pandemic, which has killed nearly 100 million people in the last hundred years among a wide range of diseases, have had a profound effect on the nosogeographic situation, especially in Europe and later in the Americas. Analyzes show that the deterioration of the environment, man's unlimited domination of nature, the deterioration of the ecological situation, as well as the spread of related diseases on earth pose new challenges to medical geography, which studies the causes and patterns. The rapid development of science and technology, the steady increase in human impact on nature and consequently, a number of negative changes in the natural environment have a significant impact on human health. The acceleration of the process of urbanization which in turn causes problems such: as air, water and soil pollution.

Analysis of tuberculosis prevention and control problems in an Indonesian community health center in 2019

Nilisrianggi .; Chatarina Umbul Wahyuni; Candrajaya .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 363-369

Background:In 2017, East Java Province was ranked second in Indonesia to discover tuberculosis (TB) patients. The Southern Regional Health Center of Kediri City was ranked fifth out of 27 cases.
Objectives of the study: This study aims to analyze the problem and prioritize health issues of TB in the Southern Regional Health Center of Kediri in 2019.
Methods: The observation was carried out using performance assessment for the Southern Regional Health Center data in 2018 with the ultrasound and fishbone methods.
Results: It was noticed that all TB cases were found and treated, including the discovery of suspected TB cases and the successful treatment of all TB cases (Success Rate/SR). The main problems in the Southern Regional Health Center in 2019 were that the suspected tuberculosis sputum pot was not returned, the people’s lack of knowledge, and less active TB cadres.
Conclusion: Some of the problems found are the lack of knowledge regarding TB, less active TB cadres, lack of coordination among TB cadres, limitation of people who are willing to become TB cadres, and the time limitation of TB cadres.

Bioinformatics And Tuberculosis Databases- A Systematic Review

Arnika, Garima Verma; Jaspreet Singh; Anish Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 4245-4253

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of those diseases which shows greater impact on public health. It causes serious infections inside the human body, if it is present in the active state. Its treatment is available in the form of vaccines, drugs etc. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This bacterium has the tendency to become drug-resistant by its characteristic mechanism. For better treatment on this disease, we need to collect and analyse data properly during the drug designing. Currently, many databases like Mycobacterial Database, TB Database, TubercuList, TBrowse etc are available which helps the researcher in collecting the required data. These databases play a major role in a successful research. CADD (computer aided drug design) has been utilized in creating, modifying, analysing or optimizing a design. This software is used to raise the production of designer, improve quality design, enhance communications through documenting and for the crfeation of a database to manufacture.by using CADD researchers can know about the drug molecule which have potential with the help of databases.

Deep Learning in Tuberculosis Diagnosis: A Survey

B. Sandhiya; Dr.R. Punniyamoorthy; Saravanan. B; Vijay Prabhu. R; Subhash. V

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 2736-2740

Tuberculosis is a contagious syndrome that leads to death Worldwide. In majority of the developing countries, the access to the diagnostic tool and the test usage is relatively poor. Now the recent advancement in the field of Artificial Intelligence may help them to fill this technology gap. Computer Aided Detection and Diagnosis helps in diagnosing the diseases through some clinical symptoms as well as X-ray images of the patients. Nowadays many strategies are formulated to increase the classification accuracy of tuberculosis diagnosis using AI and Deep Learning approaches. Our survey paper, focus to describe the wide AI and deep learning approaches employed in the diagnosis of tuberculosis.

A Comparative Study On Performance Of Pre-Trained Convolutional Neural Networks In Tuberculosis Detection

Ms.SweetyBakyarani. E; Dr. H. Srimathi; Dr. P.J. Arul Leena Rose

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 4852-4858

India accounts for 26% of the words Tuberculosis population. The WHO’s Global TB Program states that in India, the number of people newly diagnosed with TB increased by 74% when compared to other countries from 1.2 million to 2.2 million between 2013 and 2019. Tuberculosis was and still remains a disease that causes high death rates in the country. Many of these deaths can be easily prevented if diagnosed at an early stage. The easiest, cost-effective and non-invasive method of detecting tuberculosis is through a frontal chest x-ray (CXR). But this requires a radiologist to manually examine and analyse each of the X-ray, considering the heavy patient count this puts a great burden on the resources available. A computer aided diagnosis system can easily mitigate this problem and can greatly help in reducing the cost. In recent times deep learning has made great progress in the field of image classification and has produced remarkable outputs in terms of image classification in various domains. But there still remains a scope for improvements when it comes to Tuberculosis detection. The aim of this study is toapply three pre-trained convolutional neural networks that have proven record in image classification on to publically available CXR dataset and classify CXR’s that manifest tuberculosis and compare their performances. The CNN models that are used on our CXR images dataset as a part of this study are VGG-16 ,VGG-19,AlexNet ,Xception and ResNet-50. Also visualization techniques have been applied to help understand the features whose weights played a role in the classification process. With the help of this system, we can easily classify CXR’s that have active TB and even CXR’s that show mild abnormalities, thus ensuring that high risk patients get the help they require on time.

Implementation Of Active Case Finding Tuberculosis By TB-Worker In Community Health Center On Achievments Of New TB Case Findings In Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY)

Sri AriniWinartiRinawati; Wahyu Ratna, Induniasih

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2251-2260

Background
Tuberculosis (TB) is a problem in developing countries, because the rate of disease incidence is still high and included in the big 10 leading cause of death in the world. As TB prevalence cases increase, community participation in finding new TB cases is very important. The method that used by various countries is by community-based case finding or Active Case Finding in the community (Active Case Finding).
Purpose
Evaluating the program implementation in the discovery of new TB cases by TB careworker at the health center in an effort to control TB in DIY (Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, DIY).
Method
This type of research is a quantitative survey. The subjects are TB worker in Puskesmas Yogyakarta, as much 120 people. The instrument used was a questionnaire containing ways of case finding, knowledge, behavior, case finding constraints, types of activities, and main tasks. The analysis uses frequency distribution and is presented in tabular form.
Result
TB worker in Puskesmas DIY have taken several ways in carrying out new TB case finding; such as Active Case Finding, Pasive Case Finding, knock on the door, counseling, screening and screening. There are some obstacles in the implementation of the discovery of new TB cases; such as limited time and lack of personnel, lack of budget, multiple task burdens, and some areas that do not yet have cadres. The majority of TB careworker are nurses (90%). The aim of new TB cases found in DIY Province was only 48.3% from the target.

Influence Of Concurrent Pathology On The Clinical Course Of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Nargiza Parpiyeva; Talgat Galiulin; Irina Liverko; Elnora Abduganieva; Abduvahid Sadikov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 3920-3923

A total of 2105 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were examined, of which 19.5% of patients were found to have concomitant pathology. It was found that in patients with concomitant pathologies, tuberculosis is severe, with severe symptoms of intoxication and respiratory manifestations. Isolation of MBT and the presence of drug resistance were higher in the group of patients with concomitant pathology. The presence of concomitant pathology adversely affects the clinical course of pulmonary tuberculosis.