Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : patients

Study of Cardiac Abnormalities in HIV Patients and their Correlation with Cd4 Count

Atul Pundlik Ramteke; Vadiga Ramana Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 1946-1959

Background: HIV impacts all body systems. Cardiovascular illness is a prominent non-HIVrelated cause of death in HIV patients. Traditional risk factors, HIV-related inflammation, and antiretroviral medication metabolic effects contribute to cardiovascular disease in HIV patients. HIV infection is a cardiovascular risk factor. Recent investigations show a link between HIV and cardiac events. Methods: 100 HIV-positive patients >12 years old at Government Medical College - Hospital, Suryapet, Telangana, India. All study participants had CD4 counts, ECGs, and echocardiograms. HIV patients were divided into four stages based on their CD4 cell count: >500, 200-500, 50-200, and 50. Results: In advanced HIV illness, cardiovascular problems tend to increase in frequency. To conduct the study, 100 HIV patients (both newly diagnosed and those already on ART) at the ART clinic at Government Medical College -Hospital, Suryapet, Telangana, India were randomly assigned to one of four groups according on their CD4 level and WHO stage. In the study, over half (49%) of participants were between the ages of 21 and 40, and nearly as many (43%) were between the ages of 41 and 50. About 85% of the study population was on ART, and 15% were recent diagnoses. The gender ratio of the participants in the study was quite close to 50-50. The people in the study were subjected to electrocardiograms and echocardiograms. Conclusion: Cardiovascular problems are more frequent and predictable effects of advanced HIV infection. A study was conducted to highlight the various circulatory issues brought on by HIV infection. Higher rates of morbidity and mortality are associated with a number of these anomalies.

Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of bacterial agent in recurrent tonsillitis patients

Shakir Nasb Nhab

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 2231-2243

Tonsillitis is inflammation of the pharyngeal tonsils. The inflammation usually extends to the adenoid and the lingual tonsils; therefore, the term pharyngitis may also be used. Most cases of bacterial tonsillitis are caused by group A betahemolytic Streptococcus pyogenes (GABHS). Tonsillitis remains one of the common diseases in developing countries. Prompt and appropriate treatment based on the knowledge of the causative microbiota and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern will improve the treatment outcome and reduce time and resources spent on treatment. This study aims to the main organisms responsible for tonsillitis, their sensitivity and resistance to antibiotics, one hundred and forty five patients with Acute and chronic tonsillitis who presented to the (ENT) department in ENT in Al-Husain Teaching Hospital, Samawah city, from March 2021 to April 2022 were prospectively studied, The proportion of the cultures that were positive of significant growth, the proportion of these positive isolates that were Streptococcus spp. and varied sensitivity pattern obtained underpinned the important to advocate for culture isolates and susceptibility pattern guided treatment.

MRI Evaluation of Seizures in Pediatric Age Group Patients in a Tertiary Teaching Hospital

Mandepudi Geethika, K.Venkataramana Reddy, Subhashreddy Doni , Sandeep Madineni, MohdMohsin Khan, SamaVarsha, Kyatham Madhulatha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 4030-4042

Background: Seizures are a very common presentation in the emergency department. Seizures are characterised by involuntary impairments in motor, sensory, or autonomic functioning. They are brought on by abnormal, excessive neuronal activity that is triggered by paroxysmal electrical discharges from the brain. In children, seizure disorders are a prominent contributor to both morbidity and mortality. Mortality rates in neonates range from 21 to 24 percent, while morbidity rates range from 25 to 35 percent.
Material and Methods: The current study was a prospective hospital-based investigation carried out in the Radiology Division of S.V.S. Medical College and Hospital in Mahabubnagar, Telangana, India. The investigation was conducted between September 2019 and August 2022 in the department of Radiodiagnosis. 148 people made up the sample. Siemens Magnetom Area's 1.5 T MRI equipment was used to capture every image.

Study of Etiology, Clinical Profile and Prognosis in Acute Kidney Injury Patients of Guntur District

Uppalapati Ganga prasad, Gorijala Aparna, Pillarisetty Meroz

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 500-511

Background: Acute renal failure (ARF) is a generic term for an abrupt and sustained decrease in renal function resulting in retention of nitrogenous (urea and creatinine) and non-nitrogenous waste products. To determine the cause, prognosis and outcome in patients of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) admitted in a tertiary care hospital.
Materials and Methods: A Hospital based Prospective study was conducted in Department of Medicine, NRI Medical College for a 1 year period (From Septembet 2021 to Aug 2022). Universal Sampling Technique was used for selection of study subjects. All the patients coming to medicine department during the study period and fulfilling the xiii inclusion criteria were taken for study after taking prior informed consent. Final sample size was 138 subjects of Acute Kidney Injury of varied etiology.
Results: Mean of study subjects was 48.9 years (range from 19-87 years) with M:F ratio of 4.75:1. Most common etiology for AKI was Sepsis (14.5%) and Malaria infection (14.5%) followed by Dengue, AGI and Leptospirosis (11.6% each). Multi organ dysfunction (14.5%) was observed in patients of Sepsis and Lepto. Out of total patients, 92 (66.7% %) had stage II AKI, while 46 (33.3 %) had stage III AKI according to AKIN staging.A total of 11.6% patients were on dialysis. Two out of 46 patients of AKI stage III (8.7%) and one patient out of 92 (2.2%) belonging to AKI stage II died during the study.
Conclusion: AKI was observed at a relatively younger age in present study with male preponderance. Most common etiologies were Sepsis and Malaria. Most of the patient of Sepsis, MODS and Leptospirosis were having stage III AKI. Overall mortality observed was 4.34%.

Medical History Management

Mrs A Swathi, P Ganesh Yadav, P Bangaru Ganesh, Sk Ajay, B Srikanth, N Charan Teja A

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 10739-10747

This application can be used to store our past medical records so that we can use it in future. In this application we can save our past health problems, which medication we used, which treatment we got, who treated us, cost, bills, scans, statements that both patients and doctors were given for our disease etc. So that we won’t be able to forget anything in future. Now a days doctors are asking their patients that he had any medical History in the past so that they can continue their treatment at present based on their past medical records. Life has become too hard in order to get appointment in case of any medical issue or normal routine checkup. the main aim of this site is to make easy and comfortable for the patient who are taking appointment of a doctor in nearby location and to resolve various problem that a patient had to face while taking an appointment. The website act as a database containing doctor details, patients detail, and appointment details are maintained by server and this website also has future of finding doctor near you using GPS and location sensing. In this paper we will discuss a video appointment solution using web technologies. The solution proposed is taking advantage of the web technologies to handle the doctor appointment. If the doctor and patient decides, they can have a video consult instead of a normal visit at the physician office. The appointments are made based on on time slots interval available in a day. These time slots are defined by the physician or by a delegated person. Video appointments are made inside a web browser; no additional software is required. Direct shifts of a new start-up need an android application or web application to overcome their connectivity issues among their customers. This start-up faces difficulties in connecting the patients, doctors, and hospitals. To overcome this problem this start-up requests a project which connects patients, doctors, and hospitals. So to fix their connectivity issues this research work presents a mobile application.

Performance Of The Interferon Gamma Release Assays In Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients In An Urban Metropolis

Ms.Anusha Murali , Dr. Anand Thirupathi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 2915-2923

Interferon Gamma Release Assays (IGRAs) were developed for the indirect or immunologic diagnosis of tuberculosis infection; however, they have also been used to assist in difficult to diagnose cases of tuberculosis disease in adults, and to a lesser extent, in children, especially in those under 5 years old. Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA)-positive rates and false-positive rates among the five age groups examined. Both rates were significantly different among age groups (all p-values <0.001). p-values were obtained by chi-square tests for trend. Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA)-positive rates among the four anatomic types of uveitis and between patients with and without retinal vasculitis. The IGRA-positive rates were significantly different among the four anatomic groups (p = 0.001). Patients with retinal vasculitis had higher positive IGRA rate (p < 0.001) than those without retinal vasculitis. p-values were obtained using chi-square tests.

Need Assessment on Patients with Advanced Stage Cancer

Maria Komariah; Laili Rahayuwati; Nita fitria; Henny Yulianita; Valentina B.M. Lumbantobing

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 974-985

Need assessment is one of the important steps that should be conducted to be able to provide health care to patients with advance stage cancer because by understanding the needs of the patient, an appropriate and proper care can be provided. Inadequate efforts to\meet the needs of patients will affect their quality of life and their satisfaction towards health care. This descriptive study uses Needs Assessment for Advanced Cancer patients (NA-ACP) questionnaire to describe the patient needs based on seven main need domains of advanced cancer patients as well as several additional needs. The results of this study show that the three most needed domains (100%) by advanced cancer patients are medical  information and communication, psychological/emotional support and other needs. Meanwhile, the most frequently felt need, i.e. from moderate to high, (98%) is other needs. Based on those results, it is recommended that hospitals and health care workers should pay more attention to the advanced cancer patients, especially the need for medical information and communication, psychological/emotional needs, financial need, and other needs. To address the issue, training on communication can be provided to health care workers, health education can be given to patients through picture/video media, palliative care counseling unit and cancer support group can also be established. In addition, a clear information media on how to access financial support available for the patients should also be provided.

BKV infection in cancer patients presenting with cystitis

Vian Ibraheem Husain; Salah Mahdi Hassen; Amal Aziz Kareem

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1433-1439

Objectives: In this study we aimed to determine the incidence of BKV infection in patients undergoing chemotherapy for different types of cancer who present with cystitis. This study provides molecular evidence of a possible association between BKV and cystitis in cancer patient treated with chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on urine samples from 85 individuals (45 cancer patients during an episode of cystitis and compared with that detected in the urine of 20 cancer patients with no cystitis and 20 healthy individuals) in order to better evaluate the association of BK virus reactivation with cystitis. Detection of BKV in urine by real time PCR assay was done for all of the three groups. Results: Results on the detection of viral DNA from the urine samples demonstrated that 4 (8.89%) of cancer patients with cystitis, in 1 (5.00%) of cancer patients with no cystitis, while 3 (15.00%) of healthy controls, were positive. Recommendations:Our findings merit more studies to be done in a larger number of patients including multiple centers to help in establishing a causal association.

Evaluation study of C-reactive protein in patients of Ischemic stroke

Mohammed Shanan Dhair; Mustafa Makki Ajam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 9591-9598

Background & objective: Stroke is a dreadful health hazard all over the world as well as in our country and one of the leading causes of mortality & morbidity. The relationship between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level and post stroke outcome is not well studied especially in Iraq. We were interested to study this relationship in our country.
Methods: In this finding was a cross-sectional study, done from April-November/ 2021 consisting of 80 Iraqi stroke patients whose are selected randomly from neurological ward in AL-Hussein teaching hospital. Patients (confirmed by CT scan or MRI). Serum CRP & Lipid profile was determined by standard Methods.
Results: Mean serum CRP level was 8.71 mg/L that was higher than normal subjects. Correlation analysis between serums CRP level of stroke patients with post stroke outcome was found to be positively correlated (r = 0.452/p<0.01).
Conclusion: The current study identified elevation of CRP in acute stroke and a high CRP is clearly associated with more severe stroke and high mortality. The further periodic advance and follow up studies should be needed to sort out the possibility that stroke patients may be at greater risk of subsequent cardiovascular complications.



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 400-407

Lichen planus is an autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the body's skin and
multiple mucous membranes. In multicellular species, protein 53 and syndecan-1protein
play an significant role since they control the cell cycle and thus play a major role in
tumor suppression and cancer prevention. The p53 gene was therefore identified as a
"genome protector," referring to its role in preserving the integrity of genetic
information by preventing gene mutations. The purpose of this analysis was to study the
association between certain immune markers in lichen planus patients.
The aim of this study : Study correlation between some immune marker in patients with
lichen planus
Methods 'Thirty formalin-fixed , paraffin-embedded tissue pieces, diagnosed as Oral
Lichen planus(OLP), were included in the sample of this report.
Results: Evaluation of P53 Immunohistochemistry and Evaluation of syndecan-
1protein Immunohistochemistry Conclusion: the marker p53 expression is high in the
patient with Lichen Planus while the second studed marker syndecan-1 protein is less
than marker p53

Clinical And Functional Predictors Of The Development Of Acute Ischemic Stroke In Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction

Sidika K Shadmanova; Dilbar T. Khodjieva; Khaydarova D. Kadirovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5784-5787

The complexity of diagnosis in the case of a combination of myocardial infarction and stroke is associated with the prevalence of cerebral symptoms more often; success in this case depends on the rational use of modern diagnostic methods with stratification of risk factors, which allows choosing the optimal tactics for the treatment and prevention of cerebral and cardiac complications. Timely recognition of cases of a combination of stroke and myocardial infarction is extremely important, which underlines the need for further research

COVID-19 care options: Facts and Challenges

Dr.Nandhana Prashanth V; Dr.Ravikanth P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5694-5700

In December 2019, an outbreak due to extreme acute Coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cow-2) respiratory syndrome was first identified in Wuhan, China. The 2019 global coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in 2020 culminated in an extraordinarily strong risk for spreading. No medications in large-scale trials have been validated with substantial effectiveness of clinical care for COVID-19 patients considering the declining pattern of COVID-19. Remdesivir is deemed the most promising antiviral agent; it acts by inhibiting RNA-dependent polymerase RNA function (RdRp). No medications in large-scale trials have been validated with substantial effectiveness of clinical care for COVID-19 patients considering the declining pattern of COVID-19. Remdesivir is deemed the most promising antiviral agent; it acts by inhibiting RNA-dependent polymerase RNA function (RdRp). No medications in large-scale trials have been validated with substantial effectiveness of clinical care for COVID-19 patients considering the declining pattern of COVID-19. Remdesivir is deemed the most promising antiviral agent; it acts by inhibiting RNA-dependent polymerase RNA function (RdRp).


KhamrakulovaMukaddaskhon .; AdilovUtkir .; SadikovAskar .; NarkhojaevaShahnoza .; SaginbekovKadirjan .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2738-2746

Background: The broad development of the chemical industry, the use of
pesticides in agriculture has led to an increase in hepatitis. At the same time,
different substances in their structure can cause liver function failure.
Objective: The objective of this work was to assess the functional state of
the liver of animals poisoned with the pesticide Bagira, using in their diet dishes
made from local food and additional introduction of a complex of local herbal
medicines into the diet.
Methods: The study involved patients with toxic hepatitis who had
industrial contact with chemicals. The total number of patients was 80 males,
aged 35 to 78 years.
Results (Findings): Based on the results of our research, the antioxidant
phyto tea helps to eliminate cytolytic, cholestatic, inflammatory syndrome,
improve the protein-synthetic function of the liver, improve the functional
activity of the liver, remove toxins from the body, maintain the function of
organs and systems. It is a natural, safe, powerful antioxidant.
Conclusions: 1) Studies have shown that patients diagnosed with chronic
hepatitis have disorders of the functional state of the liver, as well as the
gastrointestinal and nervous systems.
2) Change of biochemical indicators indicates a violation of metabolic, proteinsynthetic,
biliary, antitoxic functions of the liver: increase of bilirubin fractions,
the activity of alanine transferase (ALT), AST, the level of alkaline phosphatase,
gamma-glutaminetranspeptidase (GGT) in serum.
3. The use of phyto tea "Antioxidant" in patients with toxic liver damage
contributed to the increase of liver functional activity.

The Influence Of Doctors And Patients’ Perception On The Drugs Availability In The Hospital During The Era Of National Health Insurance

Satibi Satibi; Pratiwi Ayu Dritani; Dwi Yufenita; Septimawanto Dwi Prasetyo

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 148-156

The drug availability is still a problem in the JKN (National Health Coverage) era in Indonesia, this is the role of pharmaceutical industry in support the drugs availability by implementing good supply chain management. The research aims to identify the factors of production planning, production capacity and procurement of raw material in the pharmaceutical industry in support the drugs availability in the JKN era. This research is descriptive study with qualitative methods. This research uses primary data form in-depth interviews with employees at four national pharmaceutical companies that won the e-Catalogue tender as a producer of generic drugs in Jakarta. The sampling in this research is by purposive sampling with 6 key informants on supply chain management. The data was analyzed by interview transcripts, interpretation data and checking the validity of the data by triangulation. Production planning, production capacity and procurement of raw material have an influence on pharmaceutical companies in support the drugs availability. Production planning, production capacity and procurement of raw material have an influence on pharmaceutical companies in supporting drugs availability, because the RKO (drug requirement planning) used as the basis for procurement of drugs in e-Catalogue is inaccurate so the pharmaceutical companies can’t make accurate production planning and quantity of public drugs aren’t right amount, time and aren’t available when needed and procurement of material still depends on imported raw material with lead time 1-3 months so it can be increase of potentially a public drug stock out.

Dance and Music as a Therapy to Heal Physical and Psychological Pain: An Analytical Study of COVID-19 Patients during Quarantine

A. Cineka; J.Michael Raj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 99-109

This paper delineates that involvement to dance and music is an active therapy that offers physical and psychological benefits for the people who affected with diseases. It is closely connected with human emotions which reduce the psychological pain and depression of people when they are getting involved with music and dance. Due to the outbreak of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), patients are totally under stress and fear for life and livelihood. To overcome this perilous situation, involvement to dance and music is suggested to be an apt therapy that fights against the psychological and emotional effects through its unique power. Involvement to dance and music serves as a useful vehicle of hope and positivity to patients who are under quarantine. Hence, this paper aims to study the collaborative understanding of COVID-19 patients’ perspectives on the involvement to dance and music and how it relieves their psychological pain and gains their physical strength while diverting them from fear to during quarantine. There are 215 COVID-19 patients taken as subjects from Tamilnadu, India. There were ten questionnaires used to collect the data through Google forms. The data was analyzed through ANOVA calculation. The major finding of the study indicates that involvement to dance and music brings immeasurable healing to body and mind. Furthermore, this study recommends dance and music to be used as a therapy for COVID-19patients all over the world to keep them healthy and positive.

Modern Approaches To Vitiligo Treatment

Mukhabbatkhon Yokubova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 1005-1007

This article discusses modern approaches to treating vitiligo and lists the methods of treating vitiligo.It was used to treat vitiligo in 28 patients. Most of them enjoyed of clinical condition. The preparation was well tolerated and produced no adverse effects.

HBV Genotyping distribution among Iraqi patients in Wasit Province

Sabreen Hadi Hanash; Kareem Hamed Ghali; Ahmed Darwish Jabbar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4263-4278

Hepatitis B viruses are one of the world's most important issues for public health. HBV production is driven by this high mutation rate which results in a high degree of genetic heterogeneity with a distinct geographic distribution of 10 resulting genotypes (A – J) .This study aimed to determination the HBV genotypes distribution among Iraqi hepatitis B virus patients.The study included 100 patientswith positive HBs Ag .Muliplex PCR results showed thatthe percentage of HBV genotypes distributed among patients was as follows: AE 1%, ACD 1% , ABCDEF 1% , ABCDFG 1% , B pure 30%, BC 9% , BD 1%, BE 3% , BF 1%, BCE 6% , BCDE 1%, BCDF 1%, BCEF 1%, C pure 16%, CD 13%, CE7%, CDE 2%, D pure 4%, E pure 1%, so the most common genotype is B pure genotype (30%) , and in the second rank C genotype (16%), however the C mixture genotype was (59%) was common followed by B genotype (55%) .Based on our knowledge this study is the first study in Iraq that documented genotype G in one sample.

Drug Resistance Patterns Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis From Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients In An Urban Metropolis

Ms.Anusha Murali , Dr. Anand Thirupathi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 6064-6074

Tuberculosis is a matter of concern for all countries. Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the major global health threats leading to morbidity and mortality. One in three persons across the world representing 2–3 billion individuals are known to be infected with Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (M. Tuberculosis) of which 5–15% are likely to develop active TB disease during their lifetime.Information of the pattern of drug resistant among the tuberculosis is crucial in developing countries. Therefore, this study aims to assess the drug resistance pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates and associated factors among the patients. This study selected 934 culture-positive sputum samples referred to the National Reference Laboratory of the Research Institute for Pulmonology in Thanjavur from January 2015 to January 2018 were analysed; 40% of these samples were obtained from Tb Sanatorium, Sengipattipatients (hospitalized in `Sengipatti) and 60% from other regions (hospitalized in Minsk and other regions) equal to patient’s population in the regions.All 934 cases were subjected to a drug-resistance test. The anti-microbial drug susceptibility tests (DST) were performed using the WHO standard conventional proportional method. The Preferable First Line Drugs were INH 1mcg/ml, RIF40 mcg/ml, Ethambutol (EMB) 2 mcg/ml, and Streptomycin (SM) 10 mcg/ml on slants with the H37Rv strain of MTB as the positive control. Furthermore, MDR isolates were tested for resistance to fluoroquinolones and three injectable drugs (Amikacin 8 mcg/ml, Kanamycin 30 mcg/ml, and Capreomycin 8mcg/ml) for detection of XDR isolates.


Umayal. S; Pradeep Kumar; R Smiline Girija. A.S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1827-1833

Dental fluorosis is a sign of prolonged high fluoride exposure. The aim of the study is to assess the severity of dental fluorosis among the patients visiting a Dental College in Chennai, Tamilnadu. A retrospective institution based study was conducted by evaluating and analysing 291 patient case records visiting a dental hospital from December(2019) to March(2020) who had signs of dental fluorosis. Data such as age, gender, type of dental fluorosis were documented from the online database of saveetha dental college - DIAS Dental Information Archiving Software. Ethical approval was obtained by the institutional ethical board at Saveetha University. The data was examined by two examiners. The data collected was reviewed and subjected to statistical analysis using IBM SPSS software version 20.0. The present study shows Females and middle aged patients with dental fluorosis visit dental hospitals more frequently.


Sabah Ali Alwahat, Ahmad Muhymeed Alqurashi, Maram Mofareh Alotaibi, Jamilah Hamid Almalky, Hussam saleh hassan heji Fouad Mohammed Alshehri, Adil Awad Mobark Allehyani, Talal Ghali Salman Alsehli, Yahya Ali Dosh, Eyad mohammed ali shelaiyah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 314-326

seasonal influenzavaccination is essential for population health. However, despite its strong recommendation, studies indicated a low rate of vaccine response. Influenza is a serious disease that can cause hospitalization, intubation, and death in high-risk groups. Influenza complications are due to changes in the immune, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. Patients  with an influenza infection are at increased risk of severe illness and complications and have a higher mortality and morbidity rate. Despite the significant role of seasonal influenza vaccination in preventing and minimizing the serious complications of influenza infection in patients, unsatisfactory compliance still exists for vaccination. Vaccination against influenza is the main way to reduce the substantial health burden that seasonal influenza causes, and is the primary tool to prevent influenza infection. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended that all people above age 6 months receive the influenza vaccination annually unless contraindicated
. Aim of the study:To explore knowledge and attitudes of patients attending in Primary Health Care about the seasonal influenza Immunization at  Makkah Al-Mokarramah 2019.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 participants from  health care centers in Makkah Al-Mokarramah city. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used. It includes questions on sociodemographic variables, knowledge, attitude, and vaccine response. during the September to December 2019.
 Results:the majority of participant (50.5%) have average of the knowledge towards seasonal influenza vaccination followed by (29.0%) of participant high while Range(3-9) and Mean ±SD(6.390±1.781), X225 P=0.001also shows the majority of participant (50.5%) have average of the knowledge towards seasonal influenza vaccination followed by (29.0%) of participant high while Range(3-9) and Mean ±SD(6.390±1.781), X225 P=0.001
Conclusion:The study showed poor knowledge and attitude toward seasonal influenza Immunization among patients and general population but a relatively accepted rate of vaccine response. Vaccination response was associated with knowledge, marital status, education, and age. This study recommends implementation of the health educational programs to increase the knowledge to the patients and general population.


Olfat fuad Qaffas, Bodour badr almotairi, Badreyah Mohammed Otaif, Sami Saad Alghamdi, Ayman Attia Al-Harbi, Fuzan Ali Almajnooni, Nawaf Ali Alshamrani Faker Hamed Alhassani, Ahmed Ali Alghamdi, Mohsen Mutlaq Saad Al Qurashi, Ghali Marzoog Almajnooni

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 501-512

     Physical activity (PA) is defined as any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscles that results in a substantial increase in caloric requirements over resting energy expenditure. According to the World Health Organization(WHO), physical inactivity is considered the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Physical inactivity is associated with excess weight and adverse health outcomes. In particular, office-based screening of activity levels and physical activity counseling coupled with regular follow-ups and community support and referrals for physical activity, have been proven effective in increasing physical activity levels. In addition, the cost of integrating physical activity counseling and referral schemes into primary health care teams has been found feasible and cost-effective Physical activity can be defined as any movement of the body that requires energy expenditure.
Aim of this study: To Assessment of the Prevalence of Physical Activity among Adult Patients attend primary health care centers in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia.
 Methodology: Cross sectional design has been adopted. The study has been conducted in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. The present study was conducted at primary health care centres in Makkah city. Systematic random sampling was being adopted to select persons during the March to June, 2019.The sample (300).
 Results: Exercise milieu these study results showed that Positive Exercise milieu proportions (62.0%), and Negative Exercise milieu proportions (38.0% ) while  the Range  (8-22)  Mean +SD (13.254±3.215) while Time expenditure the most of them negative were(69.0%)but positive (31.0%)while the Range (6-13) Mean +SD (10.812±2.77)
Conclusion: Physical inactivity among Arab adults and children/adolescents is high. Studies using harmonized approaches, rigorous analytic techniques and a deeper examination of context are needed to design appropriate interventions. Physical activity likely has a greater role in promoting health in disease populations than previously thought and may confer substantial reductions in disease burden Primary health care centers in Makkah should be active and able to provide health advice and behaviour to their patients. There will a strong intention to increase physical activity among physically inactive primary care physicians (PHCPs).

Assessment of Health Related Quality of Life among Patients Smoking attitudes attending Primary Health Care Centers in Makkah, Saudi Arabia (2019)

Saud Abdulhai Gari, Muhammed Musa Yahya Sufyani, Hisham Ali Abdo Ali, Amna Mahmoud Ibrahim Altakroni, Ahmed Abdul Rhman Ahmed ALQarni, Mazin Ibrahim Rasheedy, Ahmed Suwailem Saleem Almehmadi, Fatma Saleh Alharbi, Waleed Mohammed Omar Almahaily, Abdulrahman Saad Alsaedi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 274-287

Smoking is now well established as a recognized cause of cancer, lung disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke; it is considered the single most important avoidable cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the world. Additionally, epidemiological studies have reported positive associations between smoking and psychiatric disorders. Several studies have found high rates of smoking among selected populations of persons with mental illness, whereas general population surveys have demonstrated a significant association between current smoking and psychiatric symptoms.
     The World Health Organization has reported that more than 4 million annual deaths are attributed to tobacco consumption; this is projected to be10 million annually in 2030. Conversely, smoking cessation reduces health risks and improves quality of life. In particular, the cumulative risk of dying of cancer, cardiovascular and lung diseases can be drastically reduced if smokers quit, even at an advanced age.Objective: To assessment the health-related quality of life (HRQL) among Patients Smoking attitudes attending smoking clinics Primary Health Care Centers in Makkah. Aim of the study Aim of the study: The study aimed at assessing the health related quality of life among Patients smoking attitudes attending smoking clinics Primary Health Care Centers in Makkah. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive stud conducted from January, 2019 to December, 2019 in four Primary Healthcare Centers (PHC)in Makkah, the Sample size of Patients Smoking Attitudes attending PHC. Our total participants were (80). Results: the specific medical diseases significantly associated with smoking were Musculoskeletal disorders and  Central nervous system diseases  were (P < 0.001 and=0.033 ) and X2 25.481and 3.554 with the Negative in age (25-35) of the patients was (66.67% and 11.11% ) while in Positive age patients was (33.33% and 83.33%) while all anther medical diseases no significantly associated with smoking .Conclusion . the health related quality of life among Patients smoking attitudes  attending Primary Health Care Centers in Makkah smokers with smoking history show significant impairment in the physical and mental domains of HRQL in comparison to never-smokers. Postgraduate studies, workshops and training are indeed necessary to help PHCPs' to understand the significance of the role they play in implementing SCC for patients, individuals, family and the community effectively.


Ayman Ibrahim Mzjaji, Jalal Ibrahim Mzjaji, Hossam Hassan Esawi, Ahmad Huwaymid Alowfi, Sultan A. Alhazmi, Suhaib Talal Alsulimani, Salman Fudlaldeen Jan, Turki Moghli Alaslani, Fahad Salem Alsolami

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 150-161

Psychiatric disorders in Saudi Arabia, mainly depression are estimated to have high prevalence. More than 6 decades ago, the World Health Organization (WHO) defined health as “a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” Bircher, 2005 defined health as “a dynamic state of well-being characterized by a physical and mental potential, which satisfies the demands of life commensurate with age, culture, and personal responsibility”. Health has been defined by various authors, who have always emphasized its mental component.In recent years, there has been a sharp increase in the number of older persons worldwide. Globally, more than 350 million people of all ages suffer from depression. Elderly persons are more vulnerable to depression. By the year 2020 depression would be the second major cause of disability adjusted life years lost, as reported by the World Health Organization. depressive symptoms are common among older people and are associated with disability, morbidity and mortality. Depression is a mental illness which causes persistent low mood, a sense of despair, and has multiple risk factors.
 Aim of the study: To assessment the determinant and prevalence of depression among elderly attendees in primary health Care center in Makkah Al-Mukarramah.
Methods:Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among elderly patients attending to clinic in PHC at Makkah, Saudi Arabia, during the October to December, 2019, validated questionnaires concerning demographic data and knowledge scores on depression among elderly. Our total participants were (400). Results:show that the Family history of depression (70.0%) is the most common clinical variables also show that of the(45.0%) participants have negative depression , (23.0%) have moderate depression,  and the data ranged from(0to 16)by mean+ SD (7.254+2.88).
Conclusion:Depression is associated with a deficiency in the cognitive state, with familial partner risk being an influential factor that may be preventable. Depression constitutes a health problem among Saudi geriatrics in in Makkah Al-Mukarramah, especially among elderly, those having history of chronic diseases and those having sensory impairment. These results provide insight for all health care workers caring for the elderly, researchers in the field of Geriatrics, and health educators into the particular care needs of elderly patients in Makkah, KSA.

Assessment Of The Knowledge Diabetic Retinopathy Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes At Makkah, Saudi Arabia 2019. Cross-Sectional Study

Adel Saeed Ali Alzahrani, Nawaf Suhaim Al-Atiani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 543-556

1. Background
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a well-known complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) and a major cause of
vision loss. Increased knowledge of DR is crucial for the prevention and early diagnosis of the disease and
preservation of vision, diabetes mellitus is a disorder, characterized by an imbalance in blood glucose
levels. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing globally.The global diabetes prevalence in 2019 is
estimated to be 9.3% (463 million people), rising to 10.2% (578 million) by 2030 and 10.9% (700 million)
by 2045. Long term, continuous hyperglycemia leads to vasculature-related disorders, including those
affecting the eyes, such as retinopathy, diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease with chronic elevation in
blood glucose levels. If not managed, it can lead to multi-organ damage also diabetes mellitus is a
metabolic disease that is characterized by distortion in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and
proteins and involves hyperglycemia. Diabetes mellitus has different types. Several complications are
associated with diabetes including diabetic retinopathy.
This study aimed: This study aims to assess the knowledge of diabetic retinopathy and compliance with
diabetic retinopathy patients in Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
Methods: cross-sectional study was conducted among the diabetic population from May to September 2019
in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The patients were selected randomly from the general population visiting the
Makkah diabetic center and primary healthcare clinics in Makkah. A self-administered questionnaire was
distributed to assess the knowledge of diabetes and its complication diabetic retinopathy. Our total
participants were (300)
Results: Conclusion: The level of knowledge regarding diabetic retinopathy among participants with
diabetes type 2 in Makkah is relatively high. However, participants’ motivation to attend an ophthalmology
clinic for an eye assessment was poor in the study, thus delay early diagnosis and management.