Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : placenta

Ultrasonographic correlation of placental thickness in third trimester with fetal parameters, birth weight and fetal outcome

Dr. Nikhil Arora, Dr. Sahil Arora, Dr. Yashaswi Sharma, Dr. Navkiran Dhanota, Dr. Priyanka Arora, Dr. Sanjeev Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 72-77

Introduction: Despite careful antenatal surveillance involving scrupulous examination, an issue of
considerable disappointment is that a majority of low-birth-weight infants are not diagnosed until
delivery. Low birth weight infants are susceptible to hypoxia and fetal distress, long-term handicap, and
fetal death.
Objectives: The present study will be undertaken in our institution to study the correlation of placental
thickness, measured at the level of the umbilical cord insertion, with the ultrasonographic gestational age
in normal women and fetal weight and outcome.
Methods: Present study was a single centric, observational, cohort, follow up, hospital-based study in
which 100 pregnant women who will come for ultrasound in third trimester during the study period was
recruited in the study. The relationship between placental thickness with fetal parameters, birth weight
and fetal outcome at delivery was investigated in this study. Correlation between placental thickness with
the fetal parameters, average gestational age, gestation at delivery, neonatal birth weight & APGAR
score, and placental weight was investigated during this study.
Results: Significant positive correction of placenta thickness was found with the gestation age, estimated
and actual fetal birth weight, and placenta weight. APGAR score showed negative correlation with the
placenta thickness. Positive correlation of placenta thickness was also found with the Biparietal diameter
(BPD), Head Circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and Femur length (FL).
Conclusion: Ultrasonography serves a significant role in estimating foetal weight, which is a crucial
component of prenatal care. Because of its linear association, placental thickness evaluated at the level
of umbilical cord insertion can be utilised as a reliable sonographic indication in the evaluation of. As a
result, it can be utilised as a secondary sonographic method for determining foetal weight.

Risk factors of intrauterine growth restriction in term pregnancy

Dr. Sahana PR, Dr. Jeevitha H, Dr. Prajwal M, Dr. Chandrashekar K

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1620-1624

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a pathological condition in which a fetus has not achieved his genetic growth potential, regardless of fetal size (1) Worldwide FGR is observed in about 24% of newborns; approximately 30million infants suffer from FGR every year. The burden of FGR is concentrated mainly in Asia which accounts for nearly 75% of all affected infants. National neonatal perinatal database of India reported the incidence of FGR to be 9.65% among hospital born live birth infants. Study was conducted for all cases with clinical/ Sonological term FGR admitted under department of OBG. A detailed history as per questioner will be taken with general physical examination and investigations will be done as per requirement. The accumulated data was evaluated and statistically analyzed. In the present study 70 patients with term gestation with FGR were recruited. Maternal (74.28%) was the commonest cause followed by Idiopathic (11.43) and Placental (10%) and Fetal (4.29%) causes. Among Maternal causes Pre Eclampsia was found to be in 50% cases. Most of the patients (50.7%) required caesarean section. A total of 9 (12.86%) neonate had birth weight of <1.5 kg, 48.6% had Birth weight between 1.6 to 1.9kg, 38.5% had birth weight between 2-2.4kg and 95.8% had asymmetrical FGR, 4.2% were symmetrical. 26 (40%) neonates had morbidity with 17(24.3%) neonatal mortality with Respiratory distress syndrome (41.18%) being most common cause. No Maternal Mortality.

Placental Morphometry In Post-Partum Mother With Anemia Running title : Placental Morphometry

Sri Rejeki; Septiana Arum Nur Aifa; Wulandari Meikawati; Sandeep Poddar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 110-115

Title of the Article: Placental Morphometry in Post-Partum Mother with Anemia
Context: Anemia in pregnancy affects the abnormality of the placenta, thereby causing a decrease in placental function. Babies born with an abnormal placenta carry a risk of developing arterial blockage, heart failure, hypertension, and cancer in the future.
Aims: Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the correlation between anemia in the third trimester of pregnancy and placental morphometry.
Method: A total of 44 placentas from pregnant women with anemia and no anemia were selected by consecutive sampling techniques. The placentas were measured directly in weight, diameter, thickness, surface area, length of the umbilical cord, and the shape of the placenta. The measurement results were tested with Pearson correlation and Rank Spearman, while the placenta shape was tested by Chi-square.
Result: As many as 75% of pregnant women experience anemia in the third trimester, by most of the placenta has normal weight and thickness, the diameter and length of the umbilical cord are all normal, and the size is mostly oval. The weight of placenta (p = 0.000), thickness of the placenta (p = 0.023), surface area of the placenta (p = 0.000) and diameter of the placenta (p = 0.000) have a correlation with anemia in pregnant women. Umbilical cord length (p = 0.872) means that it has no correlation with anemia in pregnant women. All of them have a direction of the correlation (r) negative.
Statistical analysis used: The test is carried out at a significance level (α) of 95%. Placenta shape (p = 1.00) meaning that it has no correlation with anemia in pregnant women, OR = 0.939 (95%, CI = 0.861-1.024).
Conclusion: The condition of anemia in third-trimester pregnant women has correlation with the weight, thickness, surface area, and diameter of the placenta but has no correlation with the length of the umbilical cord and the shape of the placenta.

Histomorphological Changes In Hypertensive Placentas And Its Correlation With Foetal Outcome

Dr. Geetanjali U. Yadgire; Dr. Shobha S. Rawlani; Dr. Anupama Sawal; Dr. Deepali G. Vidhale

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 1938-1947

Placenta is an important organ which is necessary for the intrauterine growth of foetus.complications .due to Pregnancy like hypertension(PIH) affects the placenta and is the major factor to cause maternal & foetal death.
Objectives:1. To study the morphological and histological features of placenta in normal and hypertensive patients . 2.To Compare the two groups and study the correlation of their changes with the foetal outcome.
Material & Methods: 100 specimens of placentas of patients from normal as well as hypertensive group were collected from the labour room & operation theatre of Dept. of Obstetric & Gynaecology of Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Medical College and hospital, Amravati, Maharashtra .At first the gross features ( morphological features) of placentas were observed.. To study the histology , sections from each placenta of size 5mm were taken. This was fixed in in 10% formal saline and further histological processing of the tissue was carried out.
Observations & Results: The gross morphological features like weight, size, surface area, number of cotyledons were reduced and areas of infarction, retroplacental clot, calcification were increase in hypertensive placenta than normal placenta. (p<0.005) Similarly, the histological features like increased syncytial knots, intravillous and intervillous fibrin deposition, cytotrophoblastic proliferation, hyalinised villi, atherosis were observed in hypertensive placentas. These all changes were correlated with the foetal mortality and morbidity. And we observed that there was increase in foetal mortality and morbidity in hypertensive patients with the above histological changes in their placentas.