Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : CVD

Evaluation of prevelance of cardiac risk in diabetic patients: An original research

Dr. Amiya Kumar Nayak, Dr Manoj Kumar Gupta, Dr. Vasif Mayan MC, Dr. Rahul VC Tiwari, Dr. Taral Parikh, Silvya Grace Bombay

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 928-933

Aim: The purpose of the present research was to assess the prevalence of cardiac risk factors in case of diabetic patients.
Methodology: We conducted a cross-sectional study that included 800 patients with type 2 DM. We classified the participants into three groups according to the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. We assessed the prevalence of other cardiovascular risk factors and their association with HbA1c levels through a detailed history, full clinical examination, and laboratory tests.
Results: We found that 75% of the participants were males, 25.5% elderly, 60.25% had hypertension, 60.75% had dyslipidemia, 33.25% were overweight or obese, 19.75% had a family history of coronary artery disease (CAD), 55.75% had established CVD, 42.5% were smokers, and only 12.25% were physically inactive. We found that 84% of the participants had ≥ two cardiovascular risk factors other than DM. HbA1c level was ≥ 7% in 77% of patients. After multivariate regression analysis, we found a significant association of higher systolic blood pressure (BP), more elevated diastolic BP, higher body mass index (BMI), increased waist circumference, old age, long duration of DM, and an increase in the number of clustered CV risk factors with a higher HbA1c level. At the same time, insulin therapy was significantly associated with a lower HbA1c level.
Conclusion: All type 2 diabetic patients in Upper Egypt villages have other associated CV risk factors. The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors showed a significant association with higher HbA1c levels. These findings require the thought of associated CV risk factors in choosing medical treatments to optimize glycemic control and multifactorial intervention to improve CV risk

A Study on Serum Myeloperoxidase, Apolipoprotein B and Glycated Hemoglobin Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Ratna Rajesh Gogulamudi, Laxmi Narayana Sripuram, Sreevani Namani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 864-870

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia
due to absolute or relative deficiency of insulin. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) occurs due to a
progressive decline in the ability of the pancreas to secrete enough insulin as well as
insulin resistance in insulin target tissues. The pathophysiology of T2D is characterized
by excessive accumulation of ectopic fat in the liver, pancreas, and skeletal muscles,
eventually manifesting as insulin resistance in these tissues and pancreatic beta cell
dysfunction that ultimately leads to hyperglycemia.Metabolic abnormalities such as
dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, or insulin resistanceand obesity play key roles in the
induction and progression of type 2 diabetesmellitus (T2DM). Objectives: To estimate
the levels of serum myeloperoxidase, apolipoprotein B and glycated hemoglobin in type
2 diabetic patients and also in healthy controls, to observe the relationship between
serum MPO with apo B and glycated hemoglobin and also between glycated
haemoglobin with apo B in type 2 diabetic patients and healthy controls.
Materials and Methods: Case control study was done taking 30 cases of type 2 diabetes
mellitus and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls. In all the subjects, concentrations
of HbA1c, serum apo B and serum MPO were estimated. HbA1c was measured by
turbidimetric method and serum Apo B by immune turbidimetric method using semi
auto analyser CHEM 5 Plus. Serum MPO was measured by ELISA method using
ELISA reader.

Prospective and observational ultrasonographic evaluation of fatty liver disease and cardiovascular diseases in type 2 diabetic patients

Dr. Pratibha Gupta, Dr. Anchal Sharma, Dr. Ranchit Narang, Dr. Govind Khatri, Dr. Aastha Makkar, Dr. Sahil Chawla

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1103-1107

Aim: To evaluate fatty liver disease and cardiovascular diseases in type 2 diabetic patients
using ultrasonography.
Methodology: The prospective and observational study was conducted in the Department of
Radiology, Maharishi Markandeshwar Medical College and Hospital, Kumarhatti, Himachal
Pradesh for the period 9 months. 300 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and ultrasound
abdomen showing fatty changes in liver without any other co-morbidities were included.
Patients were divided in three groups according to the duration of the diagnosis of diabetes.
The distributions of different groups were GROUP A- less than 5 years, GROUP B-in
between 5 to 10 years and GROUP C-more than 10 years. A brief history was taken of the
patient’s complaints and then the patients Random blood sugar and BMI values, as mentioned
in the patient’s case paper were recorded and then ultrasonographic evaluation of the study
subjects was performed by a single radiologist and the following parameters were examined
after obtaining informed consent-Liver echogenicity, Portal Vein Doppler study, Mesenteric
fat pad thickness and Carotid Artery Doppler study. Study method was Interview schedule
questionnaire, OPD records, bedside tickets, physical examination and laboratory
Results: Out of the 300 patients, 145 (48.3%) were males, and 155 (51.7%) were females.
Majority (39%) of the patients belonged to 50-60 years of age group followed by 25.7%
patients in the age group of 40-50 years. 18.3% belonged to 60-70 tears of age, 10.7% were
less than 40 years, and 6.3% belonged to more than 70 years of age. Out of the 300 cases, 225
(75%) cases had fatty liver and 75 (25%) cases had non-fatty liver. Out of the included
patients, 33.4% (100) were in group A, 40% (120) were in group B, and 26.6% (80) were in
group C. Out of 300 patients, 70 (23.3%) cases had ischemic changes, but majority of patients
(230, 76.7%) did not have ischemic changes.
Conclusion: Liver ultrasound examination should be considered in every patient with newly
diagnosed type 2 diabetes because the prevalence of NAFLD is extremely high in this group
of patients. It can be said that there was an association between cardiovascular risk factors
and NAFLD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.