Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : culture

Incidence And Prevalence Of Perforation Peritonitis In A Tertiary Care Centre: An Original Research

Dr. Barinder Kumar, Dr. Gopal Sharma, Dr. Veenu Bharti .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 9, Pages 153-157

Aim: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the incidence as well as prevalence of perforation peritonitis in a tertiary care centre.
Methodology: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from 2021 to 2022 with a sample size of 30 patients. All details of the patients including clinical history, examination findings, laboratory and radiological investigations, intra-operative findings, and post-operative complications were studied.
Results: Perforation peritonitis had a male: female ratio of 3.29:1; and was more commonly seen between the age group of 21-30 years, whereas peptic ulcer perforation had a bimodal distribution (21-30 years and 51-60 years). Commonest aetiology was peptic ulcer perforation, followed by appendicitis and enteric fever. Majority of patients presented after 48 hours, in the stage of established generalised peritonitis. The diagnosis was possible by pneumoperitoneum on X-ray abdomen standing in 70% and only a few needed CT for diagnosis. Laparotomy followed by primary closure of perforation with or without live omental patch was the commonest procedure.
Conclusion: E. coli was the most common peritoneal contaminating organism followed by Klebsiella and Proteus mirabilis. The post-operative complication rate was 53.3% (wound infection 30%) and the mortality rate was 3.3%. Appendicectomy was done in appendicular perforation whereas occasionally, resection anastomosis of involved small bowel segment was required.

Association of Early-Rising Procalcitonin Level with Culture-Positive Bacterial Sepsis

Dr. Asif ur Rahman, Dr. Sabrina Momin, Dr. Muhammad Shamsul Arefin, Dr. Sanjida Anjum, Dr Md Mabiar Hossain, Dr.Arif Ur Rahman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 7393-7401

Introduction: Diagnosis and treatment of sepsis poses a challenge for health care providers at clinical setup. Identifying sepsis and making rational decision regarding the treatment plan is crucial to the overall survival and recovery of the affected patients. Serum procalcitonin (PCT) is an emerging biomarker for diagnosing sepsis worldwide. But serum PCT data for diagnosing sepsis from our country perspective is scarce. Present study aims to evaluate the relation between serum PCT level and the clinical state of the sepsis among Bangladeshi patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 61 clinically diagnosed patients with sepsis admitted at Dhaka Medical College Hospital and Apollo Hospital Dhaka aged 18 years or older. Data were collected from the respondents using a semi-structured questionnaire through a face to face interview. Results: Blood culture positive sepsis was found among 37.7% of the respondents. Escherichia Coli was the most commonly found organisms in blood culture. Meropenem was found to be sensitive antibiotics in most cases. Among the respondents around 2/3rd had serum PCT level ≥10 ng/ml and diagnosed as patients in septic shock. Mean serum procalcitonin level for respondents with culture positive bacterial sepsis was 22.60 ng/ml and for respondents without culture positive bacterial sepsis was 8.47 ng/ml and this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The present study indicates that serum PCT level rises more among culture positive bacterial sepsis patients than patients without culture positive bacterial sepsis. In primary health care setup, serum PCT can be used as a tool for early diagnosing culture positive sepsis. A large scale, multicenter study should be under taken to further evaluate the viability and feasibility of using serum PCT as a biomarker for diagnosing culture positive sepsis.

Assessment of clinical and microbiological profile of pathogens in febrile neutropenia in haematological malignancies

Dr.Amit Gupta, Dr.Abha Gupta, Dr Pooja Katiyar, Dr.Akhilesh Tomar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 3775-3779

Background: Febrile neutropenia is a medical emergency. The present study was conducted to assess clinical and microbiological profile of pathogens in febrile neutropenia in haematological malignancies.
Materials & Methods: 70 patients of haematological malignancies who developed neutropenia (<500/mm3) and fever ≥ 1000 F were selected. Microbiological culture of urine and blood was carried out. Clinical profile and sensitivity pattern of isolated microorganisms was recorded.
Results: Out of 70 patients, males were 40 and females were 30. Clinical features were fever in 56, GI symptoms in 34, bleeding in 15, vertigo in 2, infection in 7, splenomegaly in 5 and hepatomegaly in 17. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). Haematological disorders found to be ALL in 20, AML in 15, aplastic anemia in 10, lymphoma in 6, CML in 4, APML in 3 and other in 2 patients. Gram positive organism  found were MRSA in 2, MSSA in 3, Strep. spp. In 4, and enterococcus 3 cases. Gram negative organism found were E. coli in 24, K. pneumoniae in 16, Klebsiella 8, pseudomonas 6 and P. aeruginosa in 2 cases. In maximum cases antibiotic sensitivity was found against PIP/TAZO, CEFO/SAL and CEFTAZI.
Conclusion: Gram negative bacteria found to be the causative agent in maximum cases. In maximum cases antibiotic sensitivity was found against PIP/TAZO, CEFO/SAL and CEFTAZI.

Study of culture and sensitivity of renal stone culture

Dr. Kavitha H

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 2910-2914

Renal stones are quiet commonly encountered in this part of the world and are also associated
with complications. The tremendous loss of work hours by this disease is seriously impairing
the work hours as working young population is often hit with this disease. The demography is
never recorded in India but the demography of the western world is available. It is understood
that the stones that are encountered are the tombstones of the bacterias in majority of times.
Million Dollar question is whether the infection preseeds the stone formation or is a
consequence of the same. A number of reasons contribute for the stone formation as
previously recorded by different authors. Approximately 10% of people will have a urinary
stone during their lifetime. This study puts in an effort to find the culture and sensitivity of
renal stone.


Harikumar Pallathadka; Laxmi Kirana Pallathadka

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 8257-8268

Barack Obama, former president of the United States, had once revealed that Indian epics
Mahabharata and Ramayana have a special place in his heart. He wrote in his book titled The
Promised Land that "India always held a special place in my imagination. Maybe it was because I had
spent a part of my childhood in Indonesia listening to the epic Hindu tales of the Ramayana and the
Mahabharata…” Mahabharata is one of the incredible epics where several world administrators beget
wisdom from it. This paper assesses a critical view of our nation India through Mahabharata. The
paper also analyses the epic as a perfect piece of literature, picturing Indian culture's origin in
Mahabharata's canvas. Sage Vaisampayana, the disciple of Vyasa, recites Mahabharata for the first
time to King Janamejaya at his sarpasatra in Takshasila, modern Pakistan. Later at Naimisaranya, on
the Gomti river banks near Lucknow, it was narrated by Ugrasravas, showing how the epic was stored,
memorized, and transmitted orally during different historical periods. During a conclave of sages
headed by Saunaka, at Naimisaranya, Ugrasrava Sauti, son of Lomaharsana, again narrates the


Bhaskar Bhuyan; Bitu Borah; Rupam Gogoi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2240-2249

The recent Outbreak of the Covid-19 from the Wuhan region of China has brought the critical situation and crisis to human species around the world. The issue of ‘Human Security’ has brought about the global crisis. It is now under discussion. There are new challenges around the world in the field of disease and treatment. The development of a health sector rather than military power can first protect the citizens of a country or nation. The same has been taught to the People of this generation. Basically, as a biological disaster, the disease has hit the socio-cultural and economic infrastructure of the world. ‘Vasant roga’ was recognized as a former world outbreak. The overall environment of the Concomitant outbreak after polio, plague, Spanish flu has caused a long-term crisis in the international economy, politics and health. The SARS-CoV-2 or the COVID-19 that affect more than 195 countries around the world at the same time are also challenges the scientific development of the world's advanced capitalist countries. 2 The overall contribution of education technology and the discovery have been questioned. Out of the 195 countries around the world 84 countries have to be on the lock down. This is the first time in human civilization that so many countries are under lockdown. In this terrible situation every nation is moving towards economic slowdown. International communication, imports and exports have been stopped. There is a terrible danger to every government, private sector associated with labour and farmer class as well as the other professions. How will the future of a developing nation like India and a developing state like Assam be in this situation? How will this affect the society, literature and culture of Assam? The proposed issue is being researched for an academic discussion on the same.

Multifarious Faces Of Diaspora In The Works Jhumpa Lahiri

Mathivadhana P; Sinduja B

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2178-2182

Diaspora is a term that encompasses cultural and emotional conflicts. Nationality and nativity contradict each other in the diasporic context. Nativity is an innate emotional bonding that creates a sense of belongingness, while nationality limits itself to the physical presence. Diasporic writings record the immigrants ‘strivings to feel the warmth of native land in a foreign nation across the boundaries. Adaptation in a foreign country is highly influenced by the socio-cultural factors and in other words, these are the crucial factors in determining the immigrant life of an individual. Diasporic literature focuses on reflecting the realistic experiences of the people away from their homeland and also in breaking the myths surrounding their lives. Though India within itself has multicultural shades, Indian immigrants in other countries are still encountering the disillusionment and struggle to cope up with the different environment. The British colonialism in India plays a pivotal role in the migration of Indians to various countries, especially, England and America. Most of the Indian diasporic writings deal with the immigrants’ social and psychological confrontations in these two countries and the effects are greater upon the women due to their social status. Jhumpa Lahiri had written vintage diasporic novels and stories in which she takes the readers across the nations to visualize the life of a migrant from a developing nation to a developed nation. As a woman writer, her representations of women characters are highly realistic and deeply moving. Her famous short story collection, Interpreter of Maladies includes nine short stories and each story projects the different dimensions of diaspora through the various characters sketched in the story. The paper attempts to decode the myriad diasporic elements in Jhumpa Lahiri’s short stories and also to study the impact of diasporic experiences over the ages.

Study on Trichomonas vaginalis infection in women with type-2 diabetes mellitus and vaginal discharge in Thi-Qar Government

Huda Kaduim Kareem; Mushreq Mezaal Hamad; Mohammed A. Hasan; Methaq A. Abd alsammed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 4471-4478

There is a wide variation in the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in Iraqi women. There are no data on prevalence in Iraq women with diabetes, a known risk factor for increased genital infection. We wished to ascertain the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in diabetic women with vaginal discharge in Thi-Qar, Iraq. A cross-sectional study was performed at one specialized polyclinic between November 2019 and December 2020. One hundred and ten pregnant and non-pregnant diabetic women aged 17-52 years who complain of vaginal discharge were interviewed and high vaginal swabs were taken and tested with wet mount and culture to detect Trichomonas vaginalis, candida and bacteria. Random blood glucose levels and VDRL tests were also done for all patients. Twenty seven out of 110 vaginal swabs (24.5%) were positive for Trichomonas vaginalis. The age of the patient, color and smell of the vaginal discharge significantly concurred with the Trichomonas vaginalis infection status. Highest rate of infection (50%) observed in diabetic women over 40 years of age. Non-pregnant diabetic women had a slightly higher prevalence (27.7%) than pregnant diabetic women (22.2 %). Eighteen of all vaginal discharge (16.4%) were positive for Candida albicans. Bacterial vaginosis was mostly due to Staphylococcus spp (100%). Additionally, 4 patients (3.6%) had a positive VDRL test.
Conclusion: Nearly quarter of women with type 2 diabetes mellitus presenting with vaginal discharge in Thi-Qar had Trichomonas vaginalis infection. This is markedly higher than previously reported rates in the general female population of the city.

Co relating shopping through Experience’: An Experiential marketing investigation at Prasad’s Multiplex Hyderabad.

Prashant Pogul; A. Udaya Shankar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 977-983

shopping will be improvised through experience and experience is one of the most dynamic factor, shoppers when go for shopping and experience and explore themselves in a mall naturally every human being tries to co relate his desires, needs ,expectations, towards his shopping needs also aspires to shop any product or service etc due to influence of surroundings , people, friends, relatives, celebrity etc or to any instinct or any past experience hence this association to relate can be in micro & macro context micro can be individual like personal experience standpoint & macro can be from social, cultural, economic & society standpoint hence this article is focusing upon experiential marketing ,investigating the role of the term ‘Relate’ or “co relate with experiential marketing impacts shoppers shopping decisions during visit at shopping mall.

Uzbekistan As A "Showcase Of The Soviet East" In Issues Of Foreign Policy And International Relations

NuriddinovErkinZuhriddinovich .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 1011-1023

The article examines the issue of Uzbekistan's place in matters of foreign policy and diplomatic activity in the system of the totalitarian Soviet state. The fact is substantiated that, in spite of the constitutional foundations given to the sovereign republics the right to independently conduct foreign policy activities, in practice they were limited. The reason for this was that an ideologized, command-administrative system of government dominated in the Union State, concentrated in the hands of the central body of the Communist Party.
The situation has changed somewhat since the second half of the 40s of the 20th century. After the end of World War II, in connection with the change in the international situation in the world, some softening was made in relation to the representation of foreign policy on the part of the Union republics. On this basis, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs was established in Uzbekistan. However, the activities of this ministry were limited in the rights to conduct an independent foreign policy and participate in international relations. This is what the article proves that Uzbekistan, like other republics of the Union State, was given only the role of unquestioning executors of foreign policy guidelines imposed "from above". And in front of the world community, Uzbekistan was presented by the Union Center as a "showcase of the Soviet East", allegedly involved in full participation in international activities.
But, in spite of all the harshness of the totalitarian regime, the Uzbek people, proceeding from the intellectual, economic, spiritual and moral potential of the republic, made every effort to represent Uzbekistan on the world stage, even on behalf of the USSR. In this regard, the article highlights the role of representatives of the Uzbek people who showed their talent in the diplomatic field on behalf of the Soviet state. Based on the agrarian-industrial, scientific and cultural-spiritual potential, the contribution of Uzbekistan to the development of the export potential of the Union State is revealed.

Intake Of Nutritive Food From Prospective Of French And Indian Community

Dr. Amrik Singh; Dr. Sanjeev Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 2955-2964

This paper deals with the comparison of two cuisines with different nutritive value aspects of two countries. The analyses of this paper comprise the both countries have different culture, tradition and food culture along with their nutrient content. The French cuisine is one of the most ancient and well known cuisines of world wide. On the other side Indian cuisine is one of the world‘s most diversified cuisine. In the French cuisine people focus on the strict diet with full of nutritive value while Indian food full of spices and herbs based. The food intake by the various infants either adults or elders in the both countries studied in this paper and their eating habits. Both the countries have different geographical locations in terms of their living standards, cost of living, geographical location and celebration of various fairs and festivals. In Indian cuisine focused on basic ingredients lentil, vegetables, milk, paneer, ghee, curd and various gravies. French cuisine is most versatile which includes the basic ingredients saffron, mushroom, lamb, wheat, chicory, beef and pate’s. This paper would present a new dimension to the cuisines in both the places with different cultures, values and backgrounds along with geographical locations.

Cultural Encounter in Jhabvala’s “The Nature of Passion”

Saranya Devi. P; Ramya D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2159-2163

The Indian culture and tradition, Indian value patterns has gone through many stages as the younger generation people wanted to go behind western culture. The joint family is breaking down under various economic, social and industrial powers. Even the urban Indian society wanted to retain its togetherness of family ties. The tradition and the environment become incompatible. The socio-economic cultural contrast is sustained between the Indian and western culture. The social and the cultural freedom should not go beyond the traditional values followed in the family.

Translatology As A Science, Its Main Directions, Problems And Solutions

Bazarov Zokir Mekhrikulovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5230-5234

Any science gains independence if it has its own object, subject and terminology. While translation remains a field of linguistics, the problems it considers do not go beyond the comparative study of two languages. Translation studies in its current state includes all areas of research that study translation as a process and as a result.

Spirit Of Ethnicity In Saul Bellow's Humboldt's Gift

Harikumar Pallathadka

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 4608-4612

The Jewish- American novelist Saul Bellow has written most of his novels full of Jewish
ethnicity, views, and characters. However, he always had an opposing attitude to what he
calls the parochial pigeonholing tendency. Even though he has dealt with specific Jewish
ethnicity, he tries to picture it as emblematic of human beings in general. Bellow has made
a name for himself as a humanistic and ethical writer. Critics have a dispute in their
opinion that "Humboldt's Gift," Saul Bellow wrote the novel in 1975, which received the
Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1976, is a work of Scholenhauerian pessimism that favors
asceticism. There might be ideological controversy among the critics, but the characters of
Humboldt's Gift show the typical way of Jewish life. The metaphysical problem between
life and death, portrayed in the novel, is closely connected to Jewish Philosophy. The
protagonists of Saul Bellow are the epitome of humanitarianism who abide by the qualities
like humanity, dignity, and responsibility. These qualities consist of the optimistic ethical
thoughts which are evolved in Jewish ethnicity. Bellow’s characters try to find out the way
to establish the supreme of humanism. This research paper inspects how far this
humanism is interrelated with his Jewish themes and how far his vignette sketches upon
the Jewish heritage.