Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Botulinum toxin

Use of Botulinum Toxin in Treatment of Acne Vulgaris

Asmaa Osama Al Azazy, Amany Nassar,Khaled Gharib

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1312-1319

Background:Acne vulgaris is a common inflammatory disorder involving the pilosebaceous unit. The
pathogenesis is multifactorial, involving four key factors with interrelated mechanisms: increased
sebum production, hyperkeratinization of the follicular infundibulum, inflammation, and
Cutibacterium acnes. Botulinum toxin (BoNT)is a potent neurotoxin protein derived from the
clostridium botulinum bacterium. It exerts its effect at the neuromuscular junction by inhibiting the
release of acetylcholine, which causes temporary chemical denervation. At the cellular level,
botulinum toxin functions by cleaving a synaptic protein (synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDA
[SNAP-25]) on the internal surface of neuronal membranes, thereby inhibiting vesicle fusion and
release of acetylcholine.

Updated Management of Forehead Wrinkles: An Overview

Rehab Magdy Saad Eldin,Amany Abdelrahman Nassar, Hagar Awad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 4264-4275

The upper face is a complex and dynamic part of the face, which conveys facial expression and
emotion. As one age, youthful dynamic facial lines on the forehead and glabella change to static
wrinkles, which remain on the face at rest. These permanent wrinkles can lead to the appearance
of fatigue and negative facial expressions such as anger, which may influence psychological
wellbeing, social confidence, and self-esteem. Forehead wrinkles are due to a combination of
genetic and environmental factors, especially damage ultraviolet light. The contributions of both
must be analysed when patients attend for treatment. Make sure too that they do not expect the
ablation of furrows as this requires carbon dioxide laser resurfacing for maximum effect.
Botulinum toxin is widely known to be an excellent treatment for smoothing out both vertical and
horizontal forehead lines. Patients often ask for it to be used to treat their vertical (glabellar) frown
or their horizontal lines or put in a general request for improvement.


Arandz Ruttu, Marlyanti NurRahmah , Ratih Natasha Maharani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 4707-4709

Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is the precise drug to cause temporary paralysis of extraocular muscles and change ocular alignment with few side effects. Congenital esotropia is an ocular misalignment characterized by a convergent non-accommodative ocular deviation which develops at approximately six months of age. Botulinum toxin type A has been used in congenital esotropia as an alternative treatment to surgery.In this study, we report three cases of large angle congenital esotropiamore than 45 prismdiopter (PD)underwent BTX-A injection simultaneously on both medial rectus muscles. The procedure was done under total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with upright position. A unit of BTX-A in 0.1 mililiter was injected through the intact conjunctiva into the medial rectus muscle. Two weeks after injection, two patients developed exotropiaand one patient developed ptosis. Four months after injection, all the cases showed improvement in ocular alignment (less than 35 PD) with no other complication. Botulinum toxin type Ainjection represents a secure alternative procedurein case of congenital esotropia and reduce the angle of deviation before surgical interventions were planned.