Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Lymphocytes

Role of C-Reactive Protein and Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio in Predicting Severity of Acute Appendicitis

Puli Vineela, N.Ashok Vardhan Kumar, MdShadab Jaseem, J. Parthasarathi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2435-2442

Background:The aim of this study is to analyse the role of c- reactive protein and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio accuracy in diagnosis of acute appendicitis and perforated appendicitis.
Materials and Methods: The present study is ROLE OF C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AND NEUTROPHIL LYMPHOCYTE RATIO IN PREDICTING SEVERITY OF ACUTE APPENDICITIS done at Kamineni Institute of Medical Sciences, Narketpally from October 2018 to September 2020.
Results: 100 cases of acute appendicitis which were admitted in kamineni institute of medical sciences were studied. The statistical data and analysis of the cases studied during this period are presented in this study out of 100 cases 14 were managed conservatively and 86 were subjected to surgery, 4 had no inflammatory changes on histopathology and 82 had histopathological features confirming acute appendicitis. Acute appendicitis more common in males than females with a ratio of 2.22:1 with complications also being more common in males. Incidence of acute appendicitis was highest in age group ranging from 20-30 years , with complicated appendicitis being more common in the age distribution of 35.87 +/-18.31 years. Most patients present with pain predominantly in right iliac fossa (100%) followed by nausea/vomiting in 82% and fever in 78% cases. Total leucocyte count was found to be elevated in 86% of individuals with elevations in range of 15825+/-4575 in patients with complicated appendicitis. Neutrophil lymphocyte ratio was found to be elevated in 86% of individuals with elevation in range of 10.6+/-5.49 in patients with complicated appendicitis. CRP values were found to be elevated in 68% of cases. In patients with uncomplicated appendicitis 52% showed elevation of CRP levels whereas in patients with complicated appendicitis 87% showed elevation of CRP levels.
Conclusion: CRP and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio were found to be elevated in cases of acute appendicitis with complications. Elevation in neutrophil lymphocyte ration and c - reactive protein levels can be used to anticipate severity and complications in patients of acute appendicitis.


Huldani .; Ahmad Husairi; Asnawati .; Dwi Setyohadi; Afiif Eko Wibowo; Gandhi Mahesa Priambodo; Aminuddin Prahatama Putra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1517-1524

This study aims to explain the VO2 max value in adolescents and the differences in lymphocytes and eosinophil
levels after moderate aerobic exercise. The study was conducted with a post-test only control group design on 15
basketball player students and 15 non-basketball player students at SMAN 1 Banjarbaru. The sampling
technique was carried out by using purposive sampling method. Measurement of VO2 max value was executed
on the first day with MFT (Multistage Fitness Tes / Bleep Test) and measurement of lymphocytes and eosinophil
levels was executed on the third day by trained medical personnel after the subject did the moderate aerobic
exercise. Data analysis used was the Mann-Whitney test for VO2 max value and Saphiro-Wilk test for
lymphocytes and the Mann-Whitney test for eosinophil levels. The results of the data analysis is the VO2 max
value between groups were significantly different (p = 0.000) and there were no difference in lymphocytes (p >
0.05) and eosinophil (p > 0.05) count between groups after the moderate aerobic exercise. We conclude that
basketball players student have a better VO2 max value than non-basketball players and moderate aerobic
exercise were unable to make any significant difference between the groups in the number of lymphocytes and

Classification of Leukemia Using Convolution Neural Network

Dr. T. C. Kalaiselvi; D.Santhosh Kumar; K.S. Subhashri; S.M. Siddharth

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 1286-1293

The death caused by Leukemia has been ranked in the top ten most dangerous mortality cause for the human being. There are numerous reasons and causes, in spite of the causes and reasons the profound problem is the slow decision-making process which delays the time required to proceed with medical treatment for the patients. That’s why the enhanced medical support process has become necessary for the classification of leukemia. The four different types of Leukemia are as follows Myeloid Leukemia where we have acute and chronic subcategories and in the same way, it goes for the myeloid type as well, these affect various cells and systems such as the blood cells, bone marrow, lymphatic system and which causes the death of patients. The proposed method improves the CML, CLL, AML and ALL characteristic accuracy by scanning color and textural features from the blood image using image processing and to aid in the grouping of CML, CLL, AML and ALL. The following technique proposes a quantitative microscopic approach toward the grouping of blood sample images. A model using Modified Convolution Neural Network (CNN) architecture is used to optimize the classification process. Based on optimized feature space, a CNN model with various kernel functions (filters) used to abstract the features from the pixel values. The proposed method is tested using nearly 10000 microscopic blood images. The outcome confirmed that the accuracy of the classification using blood sampled images which was up to 98%.


Rohatoy Takhirova; Shakhnoza Abzalova; Gulchehra Pirnazarova; Kamola Yakubova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2307-2313

Abstract. Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic inflammatory progressive disease of the
connective tissue with a predominant lesion of small joints of the type of erosive-destructive
polyarthritis of unknown etiology with complex autoimmune pathogenesis, which often
leads to combined pathology of the body and disability of children and adults. The disease
is characterized by a rather early manifestation of high disability (70%). The main causes
of death from the disease are infectious complications and renal failure. Treatment focuses
mainly on pain relief, slowing the progression of the disease and repairing injuries
through surgery. Early detection of the disease using modern means can significantly
reduce the damage that can be done to joints and other tissues. The first cases of
manifestation can be recorded after severe physical exertion, emotional shock, fatigue,
during hormonal adjustment, exposure to adverse factors or infection. With all this, it is
necessary to study the intersystemic relationships of this disease. In this regard, the goal of
our research is to study the relationship of immunological parameters and indicators of the
endocrine system in rheumatoid arthritis in children. We examined 98 children, 58 of
which were girls (59%) and 40 boys (41%) aged 7 to 17 years with the JRA. The duration
of the JRA ranged from 6 months to 7 years. Among the patients examined by us, about
half were children with a disease period of 1-3 years. The articular form of the disease was
observed in 66 children (the maximum activity of the disease was in 19, moderate in 27,
minimal in 20), articular-visceral in 32. The control group consisted of 20 healthy children
of the same age. The results of our studies showed that with rheumatoid arthritis,
depending on the form of the disease in children, there was a high level of TSH and ACTH
and a low content of T3, T4 and cortisol. With prolonged exposure to stress, the excretion
of hormones by the effector glands decreases and the level of pituitary hormones increases
according to the principle of negative feedback. A similar type of endocrine system
functioning has been identified in children with rheumatoid arthritis. There are also
significant changes in the immune status: the content of T-lymphocytes in the blood
decreases and the activity of the B-system of immunity increases. Depending on the severity
and form of the disease, the closeness of correlations was also revealed. Based on this, our
observations of children with articular rheumatoid arthritis over three years showed that
changes in the parameters of the immune and endocrine systems persist. The inclusion of
glucocorticoid hormones in therapy in patients with articular-visceral form of rheumatoid
arthritis showed a positive dynamics of indicators, the state of the immune, as well as the

Development and Activation of T cell subsets– An Overview from a Periodontal Perspective

Saranya Balaji; Priyanka K Cholan; Dhayanand John Victor; Devapriya Appukuttan; Venkatesh Thangarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 4489-4501

Innate immunity and adaptive immunity form the two main components of human immune system. Unlike the innate immunity, adaptive immune response is specific and more complex which may be cell-mediated or humoral-mediated. T lymphocytes, the effectors of cell-mediated immunity (delayed hypersensitivity) are immune cells derived from bone marrow and develop in the thymus. The diversity of the T cell receptor enables recognition of wide variety of specific antigens expressed by antigen presenting cells (APC) in the Major Histocompatibility (MHC) context. Following complete activation, T cells differentiate into any of the subtypes depending on the cytokine milieu. Plasticity among T helper subsets have also been noted. Knowledge of how the immune-inflammatory mechanisms are regulated is essential for understanding the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases like periodontitis where the complex interplay between microbial flora and the host immune mechanisms govern the balance between tissue homeostasis and disease progression. This review highlights on the processes of development, subsequent activation of T cells, and differentiation into various subtypes, briefly summarizing their role in periodontal disease.