Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Anaemia

Analysis of Hematological Abnormalities associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients at a Tertiary Care Centre

Manish Mittal; Deepak Verma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 5, Pages 489-493

Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disorder associated with significant proportion of haematological abnormalities. The present study was undertaken for assessing the haematological abnormalities among rheumatoid arthritis patients. The main aim of the study is to study the prevalence of haematological manifestations in patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis.


Dr. Manish Jakhar, Dr. Manoj Mali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 1049-1052

The present study was conducted to assess risk factors for enteric perforation in cases of typhoid fever.
Materials & Methods: 58 cases of typhoid fever of both genders were included. Group I had typhoid fever patients having enteric perforation and group II had typhoid fever patients with no enteric perforation. Symptoms, signs and laboratory findings were recorded.
Results: Out of 58 patients, males were 32 and females were 26. Symptoms were diarrhea seen in 65% and 34%, vomiting in 70% and 52%, abdominal pain in 86% and 47%, constipation in 38% and 13% in group I and group II respectively. Signs were high fever (>38.3°C) in 94% and 90%, abdominal distention in 45% and 32%, hepatosplenomegaly in 86% and 36%, abdominal rigidity in 50%, confusion in 52% and rebound tenderness in 100%. Laboratory findings were anemia        in 15% and 12%, leukopenia in 54% and 22%, gas under diaphragm was 75%, thrombocytopenia in 65% and 22% and elevated transaminase in 58% and 43% respectively. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). Risk factors for enteric perforation was male gender, age >40 years and leukopenia (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Authors found that risk factors for enteric perforation were male gender, age >40 years and leukopenia. Typhoid fever and its complications remain an important cause of morbidity in resource-poor countries.


Ankush Kimmatkar, Olanrewaju Adeniran, Aishwarya Ashok Kimmatkar, Rasha Al-Hashimi, Ngumimi Peace Kpughur-tule, Sagimaie Somasundaram, Vivian Samuel Hana, Taha Sajjad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 3023-3028

Background: The present study was undertaken for assessing the haematological disorders among patients presenting with rheumatoid arthritis.
Materials & methods: 100 consecutive rheumatoid arthritis patients were enrolled. Only patients aged 18 years or more willing to participate in the study were included. Also; inclusion criteria included patients having joint pains, signs of inflammation, involving mono or polyarticular joints. A detailed history of the patient was taken and through clinical examination was done according to predesigned and pretested proforma. All patients were subjected to investigations like: Complete Haemogram, ESR, RBS, Blood Urea, Serum Creatinine, Electrocardiogram, Echocardiography and Radiography of Affected Joints. The descriptive and analytical statistics was done
Results: Anaemia was found to be present in 67 percent of the patients. Leucocytosis and thrombocytosis were found to be present in 21 percent and 33 percent of the patients respectively. Raised ESR and raised CRP were found to be present in 94 and 95 percent of the patients.  Anti-CPP was found to be present in 100 percent of the patients.
Conclusion: Specific results may help to target patient education, increase physician awareness of the profile of the disease and suggest the need for social and rehabilitative services, and help monitor responses to therapy.

Anaemia and Its Associated Factors Among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Eastern India: A Cross Sectional Study

Shaibal Guha, Amit Kumar Das

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5591-5598

Background: Anaemia is a common diabetes mellitus (DM) consequence that has a
negative impact on the progression and development of other diabetes-related
problems. Despite this, little is known about the prevalence of anaemia and its
associated variables in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. As a result, the
purpose of this study was to look at the prevalence of anaemia and its associated
variables in T2DM patients.
Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out on 249 T2DM patients
who were chosen by a systematic random sample procedure. Face-to-face interviews,
anthropometric measurements, and laboratory testing such as haemoglobin
measurements, red blood indices, and serum creatinine analysis were used to collect
data. The data were coded and entered into Epi-data management version before
being analysed using SPSS version 22. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression
analysis were used to discover the determinants of anaemia. P-values less than 0.05 were
considered statistically significant.
Results: According to the findings of the study, 20.1 percent of the individuals were
anaemic. Age >60 years (AOR=3.06, 95 percent CI: 1.32–7.11), poor glycemic control
(AOR=2.95, 95 percent CI: 1.22–7.15), eGFR 60–89.9 mL/min/1.73m2 (AOR=2.91, 95
percent CI: 1.15–7.37), eGFR 10 years (AOR=2.75, 95 percent CI: 1.17–6.48), and
experiencing diabetic complications (AOR=3.81, 95% CI: 1.65–8.81) were significantly
associated with anaemia.

The Clinical Profile of Anaemiaand Factors Associated with Anaemia Among Adolescent (13-19 Yrs) Girls

Guruprasad Hosamani, Rashmi M. B, Rashmi Ullagaddi, Sushrit A. Neelopant

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 353-361

Background: The worldwide prevalence of anaemia among adolescents is high and even
higher in developing countries. The burden of anaemia is a major contributor for low
birth weight, lowered resistance to infection, poor cognitive and motor development,
weakness, fatigue, difficulty in concentrating and lower productivity. India had
reported high prevalence of anaemia among adolescent girls, which is apparently higher
when compared with the other developing nations. Objectives: To study the clinical
profile of anaemia among Adolescent (13-19 years) girl students and to determine the
factors associated with anaemia in Adolescent girl students like socio – demographic
factors, prevalence of anaemia and clinical profile.
Materials and Methods: Single centre, cross sectional study, sociodemographic and
clinical details were collected and analyzed. Blood test was done to estimate anaemia
and to classify type of anaemia. Prevalence of anaemia was compared with
sociodemographic and other details to look for association.
Results: The prevalence of anaemia in the present study was 25%, 78 (39%) girls
belonged to class IV. Students not wearing footwear, not washing hand, not consuming
jaggery, history of recurrent infections, passing worms, irregular cycle were anemic.
Majority of cases had microcytic hypochromic anaemia.
Conclusion: 25% prevalence is noted in our study which is of moderate magnitude.
Most commonly microcytic hypochromic anaemia 60% was noted followed by
normocytic normochromic 30%. High risk factors were students belonging to low socio
– economic groups, with Low BMI, not using foot wear, and present of menstrual
abnormalities like polymenorrhoea.

Use of IV iron in iron deficiency anemia in CKD with raised serum ferritin

Dr. NS Sengar, Dr. Rambabu Singh, Dr. Preeti Gupta, Dr. Patel Jivabhai Girish Kumar, Dr. Hardeep Jogi, Dr. Nitin Gupta .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1274-1279

Background: Many newer tests are now available to diagnose iron deficiency in CKD but these tests are not widely used in India as these tests are expensive and patients cannot afford these tests. Hence the traditional tests serum ferritin and transferrin saturation are needed to be studied more thoroughly to infuse IV iron to patients with iron deficiency anemia in CKD as many cannot afford ESAs and blood. Ferritin is an important indicator of iron overload as well as an acute phase reactant which increases in inflammatory conditions. Serum ferritin getting raised both in iron deficiency anemia and inflammatory states complicates our diagnosis. In this scenario TSAT plays important role in ruling out iron overload and inflammation is ruled out by inflammatory markers.
Objective: To study the effect of IV iron in patients with serum ferritin >1000ng/ml and TSAT <20%.
Methodology: This study was conducted at Department of Medicine, M.L.B. Medical College; Jhansi from March 2020 to November 2021, after seeking clearance from ethical committee and obtaining written informed consent from patient.
Result: It was seen than 18 patients showed improvement and had increase in Hb by 1g/dl. 1 patient had a reaction and transfusion was stopped immediately and 1 patient was lost to follow up.
Conclusion: Against the popular belief that infusion of iron in patients with raised serum ferritin should not be given, this study showed that after ruling out other causes of raised serum ferritin and iron overload by calculating TSAT, IV iron can be given to patients with raised serum ferritin as it shows improvement in anemia.

Study of prevalence of specific medical conditions revealed on routine preoperative evaluation in scheduled surgical procedure

Bibhudatta Dash, Ramdas Dahiphale, Parag Mahankar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1235-1243

Background: Preoperative evaluation allows for comprehensive assessment, additional evaluation and optimization of the patient’s condition without delaying surgery and has the potential to reduce the number of late operating room cancellations due to newly discovered co-morbidity. Present study was aimed to study the prevalence of specific medical conditions which were revealed on the preoperative evaluation, assess their risk for surgery and provide medical recommendations for the same.
Material and Methods: Present study was hospital based, observational study, conducted in children up to 18 years of age referred for medical evaluation prior to elective surgery.
Results: Out of 300 patients, maximum number of patients were between 2 and 5 years of age (34%) and110 patients (36.7 %) had one or more previously undiagnosed medical condition. Previously undiagnosed medical conditions were seen to be more prevalent in the female patients (46.3%) than in male patients (33%). 72 patients (24%) had a past history of surgery, 10 patients (3.3%) had history of worms, 2 patients (0.6%) had history of pica, 1 patient (0.3%) had history of haematemesis and 1 patient (0.3%) had history of factor VIII deficiency. Out of 300 patients studied, 82 patients (27.3%) were anaemic, 18 patients (6%) had eosinophilia on differential leucocyte count, 10 patients (3.3%) had worms in stool, 8 patients (2.6%) were suspected to have thalassemia trait/ minor. Majority of patients were diagnosed on the basis of clinical examination and investigation (76.3%), by routine investigations (25.4%)and on clinical examination only (20.9%).Common interventions in present study were iron and folic acid supplements (25.6%), antihelminthic medication (7.6%), steroids in the perioperative period (2.6%), advised thalassemia screening (2.6%), suggested tooth extraction (2.6%).
Conclusion: Anaemia was seen to be the most common previously undiagnosed medical condition followed by eosinophilia and the third being worms in stool.


Dr Apurva Tiwari, Dr.Sangeeta Patre

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 2367-2372

Background: There exists a high prevalence of anaemia in pregnant females owing to
multiparity, close birth spacing, lack of appropriate antenatal care, low socioeconomic status,
ignorance, and illiteracy.
Objectives: The present study was conducted to assess the incidence of severe anaemia with
having hemoglobin of less than7gm% in pregnant females and to assess the fetal outcomes
following delivery in females having severe anaemia.
Methodology: A total of 1000 pregnant subjects were screened for anaemia. The pregnant
femaleshavingHb% of <7g% in labor were included and feto-maternal outcomes in these
females were evaluated.
Results: Puerperal complications seen were wound gaping, episiotomy, lactation failure, sub
involution, sepsis, and pyrexia in 2.46% (n=2), 2.46% (n=2), 8.64% (n=7), 7.40% (n=6),
2.46% (n=2), and 7.40% (n=6) subjects respectively in severe anaemia group, and in 12.12%
(n=4), 3.03% (n=1), 15.15% (n=5), 18.18% (n=6), 6.06% (n=2), and 9.09% (n=3) subjects
respectively with very severe anaemia. Mortality was seen in 3.03% (n=1) subject with very
severe anaemia. Morbidity was seen in 27.16% (n=22) subjects with severe anaemia and in
45.45% (n=15) subjects with very severe anaemia. The fetal outcomes were also evaluated in
the study subjects. Low birth weight was seen in 7.40% (n=6) subjects with severe anaemia
and in 6.06% (n=2) subjects with very severe anaemia. Neonatal mortality and morbidity was
seen in 1.23% (n=1) and 13.58% (n=11) subjects respectively with severe anaemia, and in
6.06% (n=2) and 24.24% (n=8) subjects respectively with very severe anaemia. Fetal
complications seen in the present study were birthaplasia in 1.23% (n=1) and 3.03% (n=1)
subject with severe and very severe anaemia respectively, sepsis in 1.23% (n=1) and 3.03%
(n=1) subject with severe and very severe anaemia respectively, and IUGR in 1.23% (n=1)
subject with severe anaemia.

Assessment of Prevalence and Determinants of Anaemia among Infants attending well-baby clinic at Primary Health Care Centers, Makkah Al-Mokarramah, 2021

Mohammed mansour alqurashi, Aliaa Lutfe Hennawe, Mohammad Ali Siddiq

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 3325-3344

Anemia is defined as a hemoglobin concentration of less than 11 g/dL in children. Anemia was found to be prevalent in 56.6 percent of the population. The significant prevalence of anemia shows that it might be a contributing factor in hospitalization, especially given the short length of stay and the likelihood that the patient was anemic at the time of enrollment. According to the World Health Organization, Iron Deficiency Anemia is a global dietary problem. At least one third of the population has been anemic at some point in their lives. Since children are more susceptible to anemia, this is particularly crucial. It could be attributed to the patients' poor overall dietary condition, including their microelement intake. Increased penetration of supplements and fortifying programs, as well as other measures aimed at preventing and controlling anemia, are strongly advised.  Anemia is a global problem that can affect the neurodevelopment and behaviour of infants. A study shows that 52% of infants attending well-baby clinics in Saudi Arabia had iron deficiency anaemia. Aim of the study: To assessment of Prevalence and Determinants of Anaemia among Infants attending well-baby clinic at Primary Health Care Centres, Makkah Al-Mokarramah, 2021.Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Makkah Al-Mokarramah primary healthcare centers (Al-Ka’akyah) in January, 2021. Infants who visited the well-baby clinic for vaccination/routine follow-up were selected through convenience sampling technique. A questionnaire filled out by the researcher through an interview with the mother of infants was utilized for data collection. Results. Ninety-nine ( 1 year old) infants have included in the study wherein males represent 54.5% of them . All were of Saudi- nationality and majority of them (94.9%) live with both parents. Slightly more than one-quarter of them (27.3%) were first birth order. More than three-fourth (83.8%) had weight of >3 kg. For their respective mothers, all (99%) except one were Saudis, having the age to range between 23 and 45 years with a mean of 28.8 years (SD=3.7). Conclusion. This study provides evidence of a gap in assessment to anaemia is a common problem among infants aged one year in Makkah Al-Mokarramah as it affects almost one-quarter of them also iron deficiency anemia(IDA) is still the most prevalent type of anemia; however, it was found in only 6.3% participants

Assessment of effect of Anaemia on recovery in surgical patients: An observational study

Dr. Tarun Kumar, Dr.Seema Solanki, Dr.Manav Vadhera, Dr. Jessica Kaushal, Dr Neeeaj Joshi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 8903-8907

Background: Anaemic patients frequently proceed to surgery without considered
assessment and management of this risk factor for adverse outcome. Hence; the present
study was conducted with the aim of assessing the effect of Anaemia on recovery in
surgical patients.
Materials & methods: 100 anaemic patients were randomly enrolled in the present study.
Complete demographic and clinical details of all the patients were obtained. Thorough
history of all the patients was recorded. The line of treatment was also recorded.
Haemoglobin estimation was done by Acid haematin method and according to
haemoglobin patients were divided in mild, moderate and severe. Recovery profile of all the
patients was assessed.
Results: Mean hospital stay among patients with haemoglobin levels of Less the 6 gm%
was 29.4 days while among patients with haemoglobin levels between 6 to 8.99 gm%, mean
hospital stay was 21.8 days. Mean hospital stay among patients with haemoglobin level s
between 9 to 10.99 gm% and between 11 to 12.5 gm% was 12.3 days and 8.5 days
respectively. Significantly longer hospital stay days were associated with patients with
more severe degree of anaemia.
Conclusion: Severity of Anaemia affects the recovery profile in surgical patients

Type of article- Review article Title of the article- Oral manifestation of haematological disorder- A short review

Dr. N.Aravindha Babu; Dr. Ryhanath Gulshan. F; Dr. K.M.K. Masthan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 1462-1465

Haematological abnormalities are variable in nature which manifests in the oral cavity. The symptoms are non specific representing the initial sign of the underlying disease. The importance of understanding the oral manifestations lies in the fact that signs and symptoms may be the first clinical presentation that alerts the dentist/hematologist to an underlying hematological disorder


Sharwini Baskar; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Preetha. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 748-763

Pregnancy has some physiological changes which complicate the process of diagnosis and treatment. Over 200 million people suffer from anaemia especially among women of reproductive age. Anaemia is a major health problem among pregnant and non-pregnant women. Anaemia during pregnancy is considered as a public health problem especially in developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) defined anaemia during pregnancy as a haemoglobin concentration of less than 11g/dl. In severe anaemia, the haemoglobin level is 6g/dl. Anaemia threatens both mother and foetus. The causes may be multifactorial, such as nutrient deficiency, parasitic infections or chronic infections. It may also be due to acute blood loss. It may also depend on geographical location and economic status. The effects of anaemia on mothers are tiredness, weakness, dizziness and affects the immune system. In children, it may cause preterm delivery, low birth weight. On both the mother and the fetus it can cause mortality and morbidity. Intake of balanced diet and awareness programmes on anaemia is a measure to prevent anaemia. This study is to evaluate the awareness and prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted containing a set of self-developed questionnaires. The data was collected and analysed using SPSS software. The results are analysed and tabulated. The result was gained as follows, 25% of the participated population‟s haemoglobin level is less than 11, 75.89% of the population participated are aware that anaemia can affect pregnant women, 66.07% of the population agree that haemoglobin level less than 11 can cause anaemia. From the study, it is obvious that there is an awareness between the effects of anaemia during pregnancy.