Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : squamous cell carcinoma


Dr. Amber Kumar, Dr. Dipti Srivastava, Dr. Abhishek Singh, Dr. Manoj Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 810-816

In India, oral cancer is one of the leading cancer today. Its incidence is 12.6 per 1,00,000 population. The premalignant lesion is a disease or syndrome if left untreated have significantly increased risk to develop cancer.   Aim and Objective of the study:  The objective of this study is to evaluate clinicopathological spectrum of oral cavity lesions at our tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: A detailed history-taking including age, sex, complaints and duration of symptoms, site, side etc. and with thorough clinical examination relevant investigations for consistency, diagnosis, benign or malignant was done and appropriate management has been done for these patients. All relevant investigations were done. Biopsy were taken, detailed histopathological features were noted. The tissue sections were stained with H and E stain. Results: We evaluated all the subjects for oral cavity lesions with diagnostic biopsy and subjected for HPE. Among these subjects 21.9% had non-neoplastic lesion, 18.8% had benign lesion, 10.7% had pre-malignant and 48.4% had malignant lesions. The most common pre-malignant lesion was leucoplakia (64.2%), followed by oral lichen planus (16.6%), oral sub mucous fibrosis (11.9%), actinic cheilitis (7.14%) respectively and none had eryhthoplakia. Out of 48.4% malignant lesions 94.7% of the subjects had squamous cell carcinoma followed by other cancers. The most common site of oral cavity lesions was buccal mucosa (41.8%) followed by tounge (17.3%) and lower gingivobuccal region (17%). We also evaluated tobacco habits among these subjects, we found that 76.7% had only tobacco chewing habits, 3.06% had both smoking and tobacco chewing habits, 14.2% had tobacco chewing and 5.86% had no habbits. Discussion and Conclusion: In our study, we observed various premalignant oral lesions which include leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, lichen planus, actinic cheilitis and erythroplakia. Oral leukoplakia was most common lesion in the present study. Buccal mucosa was the most common site. Tobacco chewing habit was common risk factor observed. Early detection of premalignant oral lesion is of utmost importance to prevent further progress to oral cancer. This study reported that the most common oral cavity lesion was malignancy with a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma variant. Buccal mucosa involvement was the most common in oral cavity lesions and malignant lesions.


Ninder Kumar, Manmeet Kaur, Mohanvir Kaur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1744-1752

Background: Cancer of uterine cervix is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries including India due to lack of proper screening, especially in the rural and suburban areas. This may be due to dearth of awareness amongst the women of developing countries. Cervical carcinoma is the fourth most common cancer in the world. Developing countries accounted to about 80% of the global burden. This retrospective study was conducted to highlight the importance of Pap smear examination as screening test in differentiating inflammatory, premalignant and malignant lesions.
Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted among 1000 cervical pap smears of women with age group 20 to 75 years coming to the obstetrics and gynaecology department and cytology section of pathology, Government Medical College and Rajindra Hospiatal Patiala. All the smears were reported as per the 2014 Bethesda system.
Results: In Our study, we found 12.1% inadequate smear for reporting, 35% cases NILM including inflammatory smear, 1.7% atrophic, 4.4% ASCUS, 1.5% ASC-H, 0.7% LSIL, 1.4% HSIL and 0.4% cases of squamous cell carcinoma. Although 0.4% is a small fraction, PAP smear is a cost effective, non-invasive screening test for cervical lesions.
Conclusion: Cervical cytology by Pap smear is an important tool for early detection of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervix. Regular Pap smear screening should be conducted in vulnerable age group.


S Shameem Begum, Vishal Parekar, Swetha Koshika

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 2908-2925

Background: Cervical cancer is the most common type of carcinoma in Indian women, and it develops after years of morphologically defined precancerous lesions. The diagnostic criteria for intraepithelial neoplasia and microinvasion vary greatly. In addition, in cases of frank malignancy, histomorphological studies aid in lesion typing, establishing stages of development and determining the extent of involvement, this is critical for prognosis and clinical management. The present study is undertaken to examine the histomorphological characteristics of premalignant and malignant lesions of the uterine cervix and to characterize them based on microscopy.
Materials and Methods: The present study was a prospective study done from June 2021 to May 2022. All histologically verified premalignant and malignant epithelial lesions of the uterine cervix received at the Department of Pathology at Kamineni Institute of Medical Sciences Narketpally were studied and classifed them using the WHO classification, examined accompanying morphological changes, and graded these lesions.
Results: There were 30 premalignant and 35 malignant uterine cervix lesions. The most common premalignant lesion was high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) constituting 16(53.34%) cases followed by 14 (46.66%) cases of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). IHC analysis reveals p16 positivity in 7 (23.3%) cases of premalignant condition and 6 (20%) cases showed koilocytic change. Among the 35 malignant tumors, all were epithelial carcinomas. 30(85.72%) cases were Squamous Cell carcinoma, 3 (8.58%) were Adenocarcinoma and 1 (2.85%) each were neuroendocrine carcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma.
Conclusion: Cervical cancer remains the most frequent malignancy in women in underdeveloped countries. Most of the factors associated with invasive cervical cancer in previous epidemiological studies were discovered to be connected to carcinoma in situ and dysplasia of the cervix, such as early age at first intercourse, multiple sexual partners, and pregnancy outside marriage. Histopathological examination is considered the gold standard for the identification of intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, and it should be undertaken as early as possible to provide a better prognosis, treatment, and protection against invasive cervical carcinoma.

A study of risk stratification in head and neck carcinomas in a tertiary care hospital

Dr. Aswathappa Dasappa, Dr. Purushotham Chavan, Dr. Ravi Arjunan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 488-494

Introduction: Head and neck cancer is a common disease worldwide. The prevalence varies among different regions of the world and mirrors the occurrence of risk factors for head and neck cancers. The chronic exposure of risk factors of head and neck cancer to upper aerodigestive tract mucosa leads to cancer or less commonly to field cancerisation, a process of premalignant dysplastic lesions that are at high risk of progression to cancer. Aims: To evaluate the influence of vital pre-treatment variables employed in evaluation and treatment of head and neck carcinomas in predicting prognosis. To assess the feasibility of stratifying head and neck cancer patients into risk groups based on significant variables affecting survival endpoints.
Material and Methods: This is a prospective study conducted in the Department of Surgical oncology at Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology over a period of 1 year. Patients attending the cancer OPD were assessed for inclusion in the study. The eligibility criteria were set as given below: Biopsy proven non-metastatic carcinomas of oral cavity, pharynx and larynx, Squamous cell carcinoma-Histology.The protocols included primary chemo RT for the pharyngeal cancers followed by surgery for salvage. For early oral cavity cancers surgery alone or surgery followed by adjuvant CRT and for locally advanced disease surgery followed by CRT was administered.
Result: Regarding site specificity oral cavity cancers were the commonest (59.4%), followed by hypopharynx (20%), oropharynx (11.6 %), and larynx (8.8%)Overall majority of the patients had locally advanced cancers with stage IV (49.5%) and stage III (23.3%) disease. Early head and neck cancers constituted about 27.1% of the study with stage I and stage II cancers contributing 9.4% and 17.7% respectively. Most of the lesions were moderately differentiated carcinomas (63.3%), while poorly differentiated tumors and well differentiated tumors comprised of 9.4% and 27.2% respectively.
Conclusion: Risk stratification of head and neck cancer patients using certain patient, tumor and treatment related variables is feasible. Tumor stage, degree of tumor differentiation, ECOG performance status, treatment related weight loss and treatment interruption are proven prognostic factors affecting survival outcomes.


Dr. Swati Chaturvedi; Dr. Dilber Pareed K; Dr. Pranoti Hiralkar; Dr. Sai Subramanian; Dr. I Nalini Sailaja; Dr. Vikesh Kumar R Shah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 7300-7307

Introduction: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)s specifically of the tongue usually is seen in the senile population with a long standing tobacco habit. But recently the trend has changed to incidence of TSCC in younger adults with no risk factors. Hence we aim to conduct a systemic review and metanalyse to assess the prevalence and risk factors of tongue carcinoma in the younger group of patients. Materials and methods: We conducted the search for the data from the online sources like the “EMBASE”, “Pubmed”, “Scopus” and other sources. Only human studies were collected. Terms searched were CBCT, microtomography, permanent teeth, and root canal morphology. The data extraction and meta-analysis were based on the PRISMA guidelines. Out of the 109 articles, only 23 were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. For the assessment of the risk factors and the variables the statistical analysi s was done keeping p<0.05 as significant. Results: we observed that most of the subjects were at ages 30-50 years. The majority of reports were <40 years of age. Almost equal gender distribution was seen. No association between the habits was seen in the younger adults.

Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma Hard Palate: Palatectomy and Reconstruction of Palate V/SNeoadjuvant Radiotherapy- A Case Study

Dr. Jay Pittman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 7179-7183

Squamous cell Carcinoma of hard palate is rare. Recurrent SCC of hard palate treated with neoadjuvant external beam radiotherapy has high mortality and morbidity. We received 10 patients over a period of 4 years. New technique was applied in all cases

Type of article : Review article Title of the article : ROLE OF BETA CAROTENE IN ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA - A REVIEW

Dr. N. Aravindha Babu; Dr. G. Nishanth; Dr. K.M.K. Masthan; Dr. E. Rajesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 1476-1478

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most well-known malignant growth of the head and neck. It represents over 90% of all malignancies which happen in the head and neck region. The high frequency and mortality rate of oral cancer energizing continuation of exploration on finding new indicative diagnostic tools or markers for it. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the 6th most common threat in the world. It is brought about by an assortment of elements, among which, oxidants, the results of typical digestion, rank high as a significant culprit in the development of the disease


Yandeti Srinivasulu; Abdul Wahab; Senthil Murugan.P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1006-1015

Oral cancer is one of the most common major debilitating diseases affecting the world community.It is one the most commonest form of cancer in south asia especially countries like India,pakistan,bangladesh are most affected.This occurs mainly due to habits like smoking,gutkha and paan chewing and areca nut.most of people affected were between age groups third and sixth decades,so they are also prone for the systemic diseases.this will further complicate both the treatment plan,treatment.added to this, their postoperative complications and prognosis all depends on comorbid conditions like systemic the aim of the study is identify the prevalence and risk factors associated with oral cancer .This is an Retrospective study.In this study a total 86000 patients records were analysed and after fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria,a total of 53 patients from Department of Oral Oncology , Saveetha Dental College, who were diagnosed as oral cancer were considered for this study.Subjective and objective observations are recorded that includes age, gender, habits and systemic diseases of oral cancer patients. Period of study is from June 2019 to March 2020.All the datas of the patients were reviewed by an external reviewer and were tabulated.Statistics done with Chi Square test using SPSS.The results obtained in this study indicates that habits 39% and systemic diseases 45% were associated with oral cancer.Habits and systemic diseases are strongly correlated with oral cancer, these are risk factors for prevalence of oral cancer. Within the limitations of the study there are significant risk factors like habits and systemic diseases that are associated with the causation of oral cancer which has direct implications on the severity of disease and this will also enable us to pave the way for providing better comprehensive treatment for oral cancer.