Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : biomarker


Dr. M. Mamatha, Dr. Swarnalatha Sripathi, Dr. Rama Devi Pyla, Dr. Jostna Devi Akarapu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 5, Pages 334-360

Background: Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men and the fourth most common cancer overall. 1.4 million new cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in 2020. PSA and Gleason's score (GS) before treatment are important diagnostic and therapeutic indicators. According to studies, GS degrades tumors while PSA is not cancer-specific. The current study studies the relationship between Ki67, GS, and PSA, which is used to grade tumors and predict patient prognosis. Objectives: 1. To study the histopathology of prostate carcinoma and its variants and assign them a Gleason score as per the Gleason grading system. 2.To study Ki-67 immuno expressing in prostate carcinoma. 3. To correlate Ki-67 expression, Gleason scoring, and serum prostate-specific antigen levels in prostate carcinoma, Methods: A retrospective study enrolled 80 prostate cancer patients from Malla reddy Medical College, Hyderabad from November 2019 to April 2021.Each instance received a Gleason score and Ki67 immunohistochemistry. Ki67 expression and Gleason score were found to be related. Results: All 80 patients were diagnosed with acinar/normal adenocarcinoma-WHO. There were 36 patients with moderately-differentiated tumors (45%) , 28 with high grades (35 percent), and 16 with intermediate grades. PSA levels rose as a result of GS. GS and serum PSA levels increased in direct proportion to Ki6l abeling. Conclusion: Ki67 is a novel biomarker linked to tumor grade and pretreatment PSA levels. It can be used as a diagnostic parameter or to replace prognostic factors.

Serum Kallistatin - A Novel Biomarker for Alcoholic Liver Disease

B. Sheshu Kumar, P Harshavardhan, Mohammed Rafi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 11700-11715

Background:Kallistatin is a glycoprotein found in human plasma. Kallistatin is mostly generated by the liver, with minor quantities made by the kidney, pancreas, heart, lung, and colon. In the tissue kallikrein – kinin system, kallistatin acts as a balancing agent. Kinins, kininogens, and kallikrein, kallistatin, and bradykinin receptors are all part of this system. When compensated disease sets in, kallistatin can be employed as a critical biomarker in detecting alcoholic liver disease early. In the early stages of liver disease, it is normally quiet and asymptomatic, but as it progresses to the symptomatic decompensated stage, it can cause serious consequences. The patient's prognosis is dismal, with portosystemic encephalopathy, variceael haemorrhage, and hepatocellular cancer. The  current study was done  to evaluate the use of Kallistatin  as a non-invasive marker in the diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), and to compare serum Kallistatin  levels in alcoholic liver disease patients and healthy controls.
Materials and Methods: This study includes sixty patients with alcoholic liver disease (divided into two groups based on compensated and decompensated features) and thirty healthy controls. Total and direct bilirubin, AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, albumin, and serum Kallistatin concentrations were determined using a regular automated analyzer and Kallistatin  levels were analyzed using an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The t-test, Pearson Spearman rank correlation, Anova, and Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) Curve have been used to examine the data (SPSS version 16.0 software).
Results: ThemeanserumKallistatin levelswere(25.22 ±3.62µg/mL   ),(15.2 ±3.8 µg/mL )and(13± 3.3µg/mL  ) in Control group,compensatedgroup and decompensatedgroup .A statistically significant p value (p value 0.001) was obtained. As liver damage progresses, Kallistatin  levels decrease. In alcoholic liver disease patients, serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and GGT were increased, while albumin levels decreased, which was statistically significant. SerumKallistatin and albumin levels have a significant positive correlation (p= 0.05), while Serum Kallistatin and GGT levels have a significant negative correlation (p= 0.05). For Kallistatin , ANOVA revealed a statistically significant p value of 0.001 and a ROC with optimal cut off value of 0.922.
Conclusion: SerumKallistatin levelscanplay avitalandprotectivevariableinpreventingalcoholicliverdisease. This study leads a pathway for therapeuticinterventionto be started earlieron the basisofserumKalli statinlevels.Estimationofserum Kallistatin levelscanbeaddedinroutineinvestigationsforliverfunctiontestsin patientswithalcoholicliverdisease

Predictive Value Of 14-3-3 Eta Protein as A Novel Biomarker in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (Oligoarticular Type): Relation to Activity and Severity of The Disease

Amany Abo Elsoud, Nahla I. Elattar, Dina A. Abd Elhafeezc, Ibrahim T. Abdelal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 4543-4551

Background: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a term that encompasses all forms of
arthritis that begin before a patient is aged 16 years that persist for more than 6 weeks and
are of unknown origin. It is the most common childhood chronic rheumatic disease and
causes much disability. We investigated the relation of serum 14-3-3 η (eta) protein in
oligoarticular JIA (OJIA) and; the disease activity and severity.
Methods: This study is a case control study including 14 JIA patients and 14 control
group. Patients were (6 males and 8 females).14-3-3η was measured for all patients and
control volunteers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. ANA was
measured by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) technique. Disease activity was assessed
by the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score27 (JADAS-27). Functional ability was
assessed by childhood health assessment questionnaire (CHAQ), and disease severity was
assessed by juvenile arthritis damage index (JADI). Radiological damage was assessed by
Poznanski score.
Results: Elevated 14-3-3 η levels were detected in 5/14 (35.7%) patients. Positivity for 14-
3-3 η was significantly related to disease activity, severity and ANA. Positivity for 14-3-3 η
had no significant correlation with CHAQ or Posnanski score.
Conclusion: Serum 14-3-3 η can be detected in oligoarticular JIA patients, and appears to
correlate with disease activity, severity and (ANA). But no correlation with CHAQ or
Poznanski score.


Mahin Gholipour; Javad Mikaeli; Seyed Javad Mowla; Marie Saghaeian Jazi; Narges Fazlollahi; Masoud Khoshnia; Abdolvahab Moradi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3102-3108

The use of a low-risk and convenient diagnostic method is important in the early diagnosis of achalasia and could prevent the side effect of delay in initiation of treatment. According to our previous NGS study, two miRNAs, hsa-miR-217 and hsa-miR-143-3p were differentially expressed in achalasia esophageal tissue. The present study aimed to assess two microRNAs, hsa-miR-217 and hsa-miR-143-3p as serum biomarkers for early detection of achalasia. Serum was collected from patients with achalasia and non-achalasia participants. The relative expression of hsa-miR-217 and hsa-miR-143-3p were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of hsa-miR-217 was different in the serum of patients with achalasia and controls, but this difference was not significant (p-value = 0.572). Besides, the results showed that the serum expression of miRNA-143-3p was not significantly different between the patients with achalasia and the control group (p-value = 0.366). Our findings could not support serum miRNA-217 and miRNA-143-3p as potential diagnostic biomarkers for achalasia.

The Role of Pharmacists in Optimizing Molecular Testing with Evolving Biomarkers and Treatment for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Ashique Ahmed; Alakesh Bharali; Arindam Dutta; Abhinab Chetia; Arzoo Newar; Bedanta Bhattacharjee; Bhargab Deka; Bonti Sonowal; Bharjil Bingari; Dhunusmita Barman; Dibyojyoti Sarmah; Farida Pegu; Farak Ali; Gargi Das; Himangshu Sarma; Nikita Dey; Nayanika Neog; Pinkan Sadhukan; Rofiqul Islam; Richa Sonowal; Shahnaz Alom; Shamima Nasreen Ahmed; Taslima Akhter Rohman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2240-2259
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.08.03.203

Molecular testing and the development of targeted therapies have revolutionized the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite the advantages of molecular testing in patients with NSCLC and guideline recommendations, there is no specific standard testing method, resulting in variable testing practices based on institution protocol and access. Pharmacists can help to improve coordination of care around appropriate testing as results are important in determining the most appropriate targeted treatment course. The majority of patients with NSCLC are tested for PD-L1, EGFR, ALK, ROS1, and BRAF mutations. These biomarkers and their corresponding targeted therapies are more understood than the remaining biomarkers, such as KRAS, RET, MET exon 14 (METex14), and NTRK. Multiple new and emerging therapies target these latter biomarkers, and this article will focus on these lesser-known biomarkers. As the treatment of NSCLC becomes increasingly biomarker-driven and more therapies are added to the armamentarium for the management of NSCLC, pharmacists will be called upon to assist the oncology care team to optimize NSCLC treatment to improve patient outcomes.

Type of article : Review article Title of the article : ROLE OF BETA CAROTENE IN ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA - A REVIEW

Dr. N. Aravindha Babu; Dr. G. Nishanth; Dr. K.M.K. Masthan; Dr. E. Rajesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 1476-1478

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most well-known malignant growth of the head and neck. It represents over 90% of all malignancies which happen in the head and neck region. The high frequency and mortality rate of oral cancer energizing continuation of exploration on finding new indicative diagnostic tools or markers for it. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the 6th most common threat in the world. It is brought about by an assortment of elements, among which, oxidants, the results of typical digestion, rank high as a significant culprit in the development of the disease

Recent advances in MXene-based electrochemical sensors

Chirag Verma; Kamal Kishor Thakur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 4429-4450

MXene is another two dimensional material which is as of late found in 2011, it
incorporates transition metal nitride and metal carbide. Mxene show different applications
in fields like catalysis, detecting, clean energy, power devices, super capacitors and
electronics. This review focuses on the research done on the electrochemical detecting
properties of Titanium carbide MXene from year 2015- 2020, we have examined the
electrochemical sensors fabricated by using Ti3C2Tx for biomedical application,
biomolecule detection and environmental monitoring.