Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Spinal Anaesthesia


Mamta Damor, Rajendra Verma, Hemant Jingar, Rekha Roat

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1659-1665

Introduction: Cholecystectomy is performed either as an open or a laparoscopic route. Despite of a number of peri-operative and post-operative benefits of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the traditional and invasive open cholecystectomy is still in frequent practice for various reasons. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of SA for open cholecystectomy versus GA with respect to reducing post operative pain, analgesia requirement, respiratory complications and length of hospital stay.
Materials and Methodology: One hundred and forty patients were allocated randomly into two groups—SA group (spinal anaesthesia group, n = 70) and GA group (general anaesthesia group, n =70). And the two groups were divided as SA group underwent open cholecystectomy under spinal anaesthesia whereas GA group had undergone it under general anaesthesia.
Results: Out of all the 140 patients, 70 patients were allotted in each group, there were 120 females (85.85%) and 20 males (14.17%). Their age mostly ranged between 18 – 70 years, with a mean of 42.35 ± 12.66 years. There was no statistically significant difference between both the study groups with respect to age, sex distribution, body mass index (BMI) and ASA physical status. Intra-operatively, bradycardia and hypotension were more common in the SA group. Bradycardia less than 50/ min in 12 patients (16.66%) were treated by atropine 0.6mg IV. Bradycardia was the only side effect noted in both groups.
Conclusion: Since the conventional use of general anaesthesia in open cholecystectomy, this study displays that spinal anaesthesia is also a recommended alternative. It is therefore safe and more effective than general anaesthesia in providing prolonged post-operative pain-free interval, less analgesic/ opioid requirement and no reported respiratory problems.

A Comparative Study of Intrathecal Dexmedetomidine with Buprenorphine as Adjuvant to Bupivacaine in Spinal Anaesthesia

Boini Chiranjeevi, Sarpatwar Sailesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 4738-4748

Background:Aim: To evaluate and compare the following factors in two groups –
intrathecal dexmedetomidine and intrathecal buprenorphine as an adjuvant to 0.5%
hyperbaric bupivacaine for lower abdominal surgeries and lower limb surgeries.
Materials and Methods: A clinical study was undertaken to compare the effects of
intrathecal Buprenorphine and dexmedetomidine as additives to 0.5 % hyperbaric
bupivacaine for spinal anaesthesia. This prospective, randomized, Double blind study
was conducted on 60 adult patients of ASA physical status 1 and 2 in the age group of
18 to 60 years, posted for elective lower abdominal surgeries at Osmania Medical
college Hospital, Hyderabad from the period 2017 – 2020. Patients were randomly
allocated into two groups namely, Group BB and Group BD of 30 each. Patients in
Group BB received 60mcg of Buprenorphine with 0.5% bupivacaine 15mg
intrathecally. Patients in Group BD received 5mcg of Dexmedetomidine with 0.5%
bupivacaine 15mg intrathecally. After connecting monitors, the required preloading
done to all patients. Subarachnoid block was carried out under aseptic precautions.
Pulse rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure and oxygen saturation were
recorded at 0, 2, 5 minutes and thereafter every 10 minutes up to 90 minutes
Results: The following parameters were observed - onset and duration of sensory block
and motor block, time for sensory regression to S1, degree of sedation, hemodynamic
stability and any side effects associated with these drugs. Collected data were analysed
using appropriate statistics. Demographic datas were not statistically significant. The
onsets of sensory and motor blockades were not statistically significant. The duration of
sensory blockade was prolonged in dexmedetomidine group (51%) compared to
buprenorphine group. The Motor blockade, sensory regression to S1 were also got
prolonged in Dexmedetomidine group Hemodynamic parameters were comparable
between the groups. In our study The onsets of sensory and motor blockades were not
statistically significance between the groups. The duration of both sensory and motor
blockades were prolonged in dexmedetomidine group compared to buprenorphine
group with the best statistical significance. Both groups had stable and comparable
hemo dynamics during the study. Compared to buprenorphine, intrathecal
administration of dexmedetomidine as additive to hyperbaric bupivacaine was
associated with fewer side effects.
Conclusion: Our study concludes that dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to intrathecal
bupivacaine prolongs both sensory and motor block duration with fewer side effects
compared to buprenophine.

Comparative study of intrathecal fentanyl and dexmedetomidine as adjuvant with bupivacaine in elective lower abdominal surgeries

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1704-1711

Introduction: Spinal anesthesia is most commonly used for lower abdominal surgeries due to its low cost and ease of administration as well as rapid onset of anaesthesia. Adjuvants like Fentanyl and dexmedetomidine are used to accelerate and prolong the anaesthetic effect depending on the purpose. This study was done to compare the effects of intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine with fentanyl and bupivacaine with dexmedetomidine for lower abdominal surgeries.

Hospital based study to know the effectiveness of ondansetron over spinal anesthesia induced hypotension & bradycardia

Dr. Naga Satya Suryanarayana Ruttala, Dr. Padmalatha Seelam, Dr. Nalli Venkata Krishna Mallik, Dr. Vengamamba Thummala

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1869-1878

Introduction: Spinal anaesthesia is simple, rapid and most reliable anaesthetic technique. It is the most common regional anaesthesia technique, practiced worldwide. It is an efficient technique, which is easy to perform. However, associated with side effects like hypotension, bradycardia and also post-operative nausea, vomiting and chills. Decrease in vascular resistance caused by sympathetic blockade leads to drop in arterial pressure. Bradycardia is caused due to parasympathetic over activity, increase in baroreceptor activity and Bezold Jarish reflex (BJR). Ondansetron is a well-tolerated drug with 5HT3 antagonising effects which is used most commonly for peri-operative nausea and vomiting with minor side effects. Ondansetron poorly penetrates the blood brain barrier with minimal influence on central serotogenic mechanisms. Hence has less chances of causing cognitive side effects like headache, agitation and confusion. The objectives of this study is to assess the effect of intravenous ondansetron on spinal anaesthesia induced hypotension and bradycardia and the effect of ondansetron on Peri-operative nausea, vomiting and chills.

Comparison of Hyperbaric Bupivacaine Alone and Combination of Hyperbaric Bupivacaine with Clonidine in Cesarean Section: A Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial

Aman Malawat, Sudhir Sachdev, Sakshi Kanoji, Mangilal Deganwa, Durga Jethava

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 10480-10489

Introduction: Spinal anaesthesia using hyperbaric bupivacaine with adjuvants such as
clonidine is now the routine and preferred technique for majority of the surgical cases.
Aim: to compare various block characteristics alongwith materno-fetal outcome in
patients scheduled for caesarean section under subarachnoid block (SAB), following
administration of hyperbaric bupivacaine alone and in combination with clonidine
Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 90 patients undergoing elective cesarean
section were randomly allocated to two groups. The patients of Group A received
intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric Bupivacaine (10 mg) + 0.2 mL of normal saline and Group
B received intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric Bupivacaine (10 mg) + 0.2 mL of clonidine (30
μg). Various block characteristics and materno-fetal outcome were compared between
the groups.
Results: Group B had quicker sensory onset (3.17 ± 1.05 min vs. 3.50 ± 0.94 min), longer
duration of sensory and motor block (209.73 ± 30.70 min and 147.50 ± 23.00 min),
longer time for rescue analgesia demand (298.83 ± 44.68 min) in comparison to Group
Conclusion: Intrathecal clonidine provided better block characteristics and outcome
measures in terms of prolonged sensory as well as motor blockade, longer duration of
analgesia, greater intraoperative relaxation and minimal or no adverse incidences.

A comparative study of intrathecal bupivacaine 0.5% heavy with fentanyl versus intrathecal bupivacaine 0.5% heavy with buprenorphine in lower limb and lower abdominal surgeries

Dr. Mrunalini Alugolu, Dr.Padmavathi Bodiga, Dr. Pratiksha Chitta, Dr Praveena Thaduri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 2342-2352

Aims: The aim of the study is to compare the anaesthetic efficacy of intrathecal
hyperbaric 0.5% Bupivacaine with 25mcg Fentanyl and intrathecal hyperbaric 0.5%
Bupivacaine with 60mcg Buprenorphine for lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries
Materials and methods: The present study was undertaken in Sixty patients (of either
sex belonging to ASA I and II physical status) posted for elective lower abdominal and
lower limb surgeries (under Spinal Anesthesia) were selected and were randomly
allocated into two groups; Buprenorphine (Group B), and Fentanyl (Group F).
Results: The demographic profile with regard to age ,gender, ASA grading, average
duration of surgery were comparable in all the groups. The onset of block , mean time
for onset of motor blockade,mean time for sensory regression, mean time for regression
to bromage ‘1’ , mean duration of analgesia was the difference between the groups was
statistically significant.Intraoperative heart rates were comparable among the two
groups (p<0.005). isolated incidents of Bradycardia were noticed – but were neither
statistically significant nor clinically significant. There was gradual fall in the SBP and
DBP towards 30 minutes into surgery followed by a stable state .Both the groups were
comparable (p>0.05) with regard to their MAP, although hypotension was noticed in
both the categories of patients.All the adverse events were mild in nature which
required no intervention. No episodes of respiratory depression, dry mouth, PDPH were
noted in any of the subject in both the groups.
Conclusions: Intrathecal Buprenorphine (60mcg) is superior over intrathecal Fentanyl
(25mcg) as an adjuvant to Intrathecal hyperbaric 0.5% Bupivacaine when prolongation
of spinal anaesthesia is desired.

Spinal Anaesthesia Versus Epidural Anaesthesia for Inguinal Hernioplasty: A Comparative Study

Dr. Venkatesh Subramanyam, Dr. Azmatulla Shaik

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 118-125

Introduction: Spinal anaesthesia (or spinal anesthesia), also called spinal
block, subarachnoid block, intradural block and intrathecal block is a form of
neuraxial regional anaesthesia involving the injection of a local anaesthetic or opioid
into the subarachnoid space, generally through a fine needle, usually 9 cm (3.5 in) long.
Epidural anesthesia is a technique that may be used as a primary surgical anesthetic or
as a resource for postoperative pain management. It is safe and relatively easy to learn
and perform.A hernia is reducible if it occurs intermittently (such as on straining or
standing) and can be pushed back into the.
Material and methods: This is a prospective, comparative and randomized study was
conducted in the anaesthesia department of a tertiary medical Hospital. All patients
were male, age between 18 to 70 years. The present study included male patients of
uncomplicated inguinal hernia with American society of anaesthesiologist (ASA) grade
1 and 2. All patients were admitted for planned surgery; they were examined and
preanesthetic check-up done. All patients were explained about the techniques of
anaesthesia for hernioplasty and where randomized into two groups. They were
operated for inguinal hernioplasty according to recognised surgical guidelines.
Results: Total time taken for performing the procedure was significantly longer with
Epidural Anaesthesia than that of Spinal Anaesthesia (8.03±0.84 Vs 3.65±0.23 minutes,
p<0.001) but onset of action was comparable in both the groups (6.84±1.08 in Spinal Vs
11.23±1.21min in Epidural p<0.001 Significant). Intraoperative fluid requirement was
statistically higher in Spinal than Epidural (1612.43±163.3 ml vs 1102.54±94.53 ml)
(p<0.0001). Duration of Surgery was significantly shorter in Spinal as compared to
Epidural (91.43±8.64 vs 114.53±11.64 mins.) (p=0.021).
Conclusion: The spinal block induces a faster and more effective analgesia as well as a
more severe motor blockage than epidural block. In Spinal Anaesthesia, the
haemodynamic fluctuations and adverse effects are larger than in Epidural
Anaesthesia. As a result, both spinal and epidural anaesthesia may be utilised safely
during day surgery.

Comparison of efficacy of subhypnotic dose of midazolam and propofol in decreasing nausea and vomiting in caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia

Dr. Ramyashree MH, Dr. Nisarga R, Dr. Gayatri CK, Dr. Ajith Kumar Shetty

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 497-503

Background: Midazolam and propofol by virtue of their antiemetic effect were found
individually to reduce the incidence of intraoperative nausea and vomiting. This study
compares the effects of midazolam and propofol in decreasing the incidence of nausea and
vomiting in pregnant women undergoing lower segment caesarean section (LSCS) under
spinal anaesthesia. It also assesses maternal sedation, neonatal outcome and other side effects.
Aim: To compare the effects of subhypnotic dose of midazolam and propofol in prevention
of intraoperative nausea and vomiting in lower segment caesarean section under subarachnoid
Methods: With ethical committee permission the 60 pregnant women were randomly
allocated into 2 groups after taking informed consent. Group M received 0.03mg/kg
midazolam immediately after cord is clamped, Group P received 10 mg propofol immediately
after cord is clamped. Incidence of nausea and vomiting was not according to Bellville
scoring system (0-novomiting, 1-Nausea, 2-Retching, 3_vomiting). The degree of sedation,
hemodynamic changes were noted baseline, after induction, after drug administration, 30
mins after drug administration, 60 mins after drug administration, neonatal out come and side
effects were recorded.
Results: Statistically significant decrease in intraoperative nausea and vomiting in patients
undergoing LSCS under spinal anaesthesia with 10 mg propofol compared to 0.03 mg
midazolam is observed. Degree of sedation, respiratory rate, mean mephentermine
consumption were comparable between two groups and no difference found.
Conclusion: Propofol significantly decreases incidence of intraoperative nausea and
vomiting inches are in section under spinal anaesthesia as compared to midazolam.

Clinical Efficacy of Dexmedetomidine Versus Fentanyl Added to Intrathecal Levobupivacaine for Orthopedic Surgery

V. Sreelatha, Padmaja, Sudheer Kumar Gowd, Divya Manogna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 892-913

Background: The present aim of the study is to compare the clinical efficacy of
dexmedetomidine versus fentanyl added to intrathecal levobupivacaine for orthopedic
surgeries on the lower limb.
Materials and Methods: The current study was a prospective randomized double-blind
comparative study. This study was done in 90 ASA grade I & II patients. The patients
were aged between 18 to 60 years scheduled for elective orthopedic surgeries under
spinal anaesthesia at Government General Hospital, Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh.
The patients were distributed into three groups (30 patients each). Namely., Group-C
[Study group LN:15mg of 0.5% of Levobupivacaine + 0.5 ml of normal saline]-Total-
3.5ml, Group-D [Study group LD:15mg of 0.5% of Levobupivacaine + 5 mcg (0.05ml=2
units from insulin syringe) of dexmedetomidine+0.45 ml of normal saline]-Total-3.5ml
and, Group-F [Study group LF: 15 mg of 0.5% of Levobupivacaine + 25 mcg of
fentanyl]- Total =3.5 ml.

Comparison of Adjuvant Intrathecal Dexmedetomidine or Fentanyl to Hyperbaric Bupivacaine for Postoperative Analgesia - A Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Study

Nishigandha Mahajan, Shilpa Sharda, Krishan Gopal Jangir, Swati Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1145-1153

Background: Various adjuvants have been used with local anaesthetics in spinal
anaesthesia to prolong postoperative analgesia. Dexmedetomidine, the new highly
selective α2-agonist drug, is now being used as a neuraxial adjuvant. The aim of this
study was to evaluate the onset and duration of sensory and motor block, hemodynamic
effect, postoperative analgesia, and adverse effects of dexmedetomidine, or fentanyl
when given intrathecally with hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine.
Materials and Methods: Ninety patients classified in American Society of
Anaesthesiologists classes I and II scheduled for lower abdominal surgeries requiring
spinal anaesthesia were studied. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either 12.5
mg hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 10 μg dexmedetomidine (group D, n=30) or 12.5 mg
hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 25 μg fentanyl (group F, n=30) intrathecal. The control
group received 12.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine intrathecally (n=30).
Results: Patients in the dexmedetomidine group (D) had a significantly longer sensory
and motor block time than patients in the fentanyl group (F) and control group (B).
VAS score at rescue analgesia was significantly higher in the control group. Duration of
analgesia was significantly more in the dexmedetomidine, and fentanyl group as
compared to control. The total duration of analgesia was longer with dexmedetomidine
than fentanyl. Sedation scores were significantly higher in the Dexmedetomidine group.
No hemodynamic changes were noted in any group.
Conclusion: Intrathecal dexmedetomidine and fentanyl as adjuvants to hyperbaric
bupivacaine prolong sensory and motor block with minimal hemodynamic instability
and reduced demand for rescue analgesia. Intrathecal dexmedetomidine has a longer
duration of analgesia than fentanyl.

Comparison of Effectiveness of 0.5% Bupivacaine with Neostigmine and 0.5% Bupivacaine Alone in Spinal Anaesthesia for Infra Umbilical Surgeries at a Tertiary Care Hospital

Akhilesh Mishra, Vineet Mishra, Vrushali Moharil, Abha Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5719-5723

Introduction: Pain is the fifth vital sign and a critical focus of the anaesthesiologist. Pain
is perhaps elaborated as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated
with actual or potential tissue damage. Acute post operative pain is a complex
physiological reaction to tissue-injury, visceral distension or disease. It is manifested by
autonomic, psychological and behavioural responses that result in patient specific
unpleasant, unwanted sensory and subjective emotional experience. Postoperative pain
leads to delayed mobilization and its associated complications. With the development of
an expanding awareness of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of pain, more
attention is focused on the multimodal management of pain to improve the quality of
pain relief, augment functionality, leading to early mobilization, and reduce
physiological and emotional morbidity. Hence the present study was done at our
tertiary care centre to compare the effectiveness of intrathecal neostigmine (50 mcg)
combined with 0.5 % bupivacaine (Hyperbaric) with 0.5 % bupivacaine (Hyperbaric)
alone in spinal anaesthesia for infra umbilical surgeries.

Assessment of Post-Operative Pain after Spinal Anaesthesia with 0.5% Bupivacaine Combined with Neostigmine and 0.5% Bupivacaine alone in Infra Umbilical Surgeries

Vineet Mishra, Akhilesh Mishra, Abha Singh, Vrushali Moharil

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5812-5817

Introduction: Stress factors in the operation room and block level mismatch with
surgical area may contribute to discomfort, anxiety and restlessness in patients under
spinal anaesthesia. Sedation is a valuable tool to provide general comfort for the patient.
It usually provides freedom from specific discomfort and can impose some amount of
amnesia for the block procedure and surgical procedure. Thus, legal use of sedation can
make these surgeries under spinal anaesthesia more comfortable for the patient, the
surgeon and the anaesthetist. Therefore, it can enhance the patient's acceptance of
regional anaesthetic technique. Spinal anaesthesia itself can impart some sedative
effects.Spinal subarachnoid block is one of the most versatile regional anaesthetic
techniques available these days. Regional anaesthesia usually offers several advantages
over general anaesthesia—blunts stress response to surgery, decreases intraoperative
blood loss, lowers the incidence of postoperative thromboembolic events and provides
analgesia in early postoperative period. Subarachnoid block provides profound
anaesthesia for patients undergoing infraumbilical surgery.

Comparison of the Effect of Adding Dexmedetomidine versus Midazolam to Intrathecal Bupivacaine on the Post-Operative Analgesia

Dr Ravi Shrivastav, Dr Sachin Kumbhare, Dr Arpit Khandelwal, Dr. Hemant Vanjare

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1225-1232

Background: Dexmedetomidine and midazolam both affects duration of spinal
analgesia by different mechanisms, and yet, no studies are available to compare them
for postoperative analgesia after neuraxial administration. We investigated the addition
of dexmedetomidine or midazolam to intrathecal bupivacaine on the duration of
effective analgesia.
Materials and Methods: The patient posted for elective procedure under spinal
anaesthesia were randomly allocated in to three group of 20 patient and each group.
Group D- Patient in the group receiving 3 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric Bupivacaine with
5mcg Dexmedetomidine the total volume is 3.5ml. Group M - Patient in the group
receiving 3 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric Bupivacaine with 1mg of Midazolam, the total
volume is 3.5 ml. Group B-: Patient in the group receiving 3 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric
Bupivacaine with 0.5 ml of normal saline, the total volume is 3.5 ml. The groups were
compared to the regression time of sensory block, duration of effective sedation score,
and side effects.
Results: The mean duration of sensory and motor block was quite prolonged in group D
patients The results were, statistically highly significant (P<0.0l) There
is significant difference between all the three groups in group D the sensory duration
block is 226 minutes while in group M is 158.7 minutes, In group B this Is 134.8 minutes
which is much less than the above groups. The motor block in group D 202.35 minutes,
in group M is 110.5 minutes and in group B is 96.8 minutes.
Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine (5mcg) when used as an adjunct to 3 ml of 0.5%
hyperbaric bupivacaine and prolongs the duration of effective analgesia in the
immediate postoperative period without any significant hemodynamic instability in
comparison to 1 mg midazolam.

Evaluate the spectrums of spinal anaesthesia on perioperative hyperglycemia in diabetic patients undergoing lower limb surgeries

Dr. Harsh Kasliwal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 2535-2541

Background: Sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis constitute the efferent pathway of the perioperative stress response. Surgical tissue trauma and stress results in activation of hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, thereby causing release of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) by hypothalamus. Surgery evokes stress response resulting in increased secretion of counter-regulatory hormones (catecholamines, cortisol, glucagon, and growth hormone) and excessive release of inflammatory cytokines, a state of functional insulin deficiency occurs. Hence, diabetic patients undergoing surgery further develop hyperglycemia in the intra-operative and postoperative period. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the spectrums of spinal anaesthesia on perioperative hyperglycemia in diabetic patients undergoing lower limb surgeries. Materialand Methods: In this study, 62 diabetic (D) patients having preoperative blood glucose between 80 to 120mg/dl, undergoing lower limb orthopaedic surgery, under spinal anesthesia were included. During surgery, blood sugar was measured in capillary blood, using glucometer 10 minutes before initiation of anaesthesia, at time of surgical incision (SI), 30 min after incision and thereafter 1hourly till 4th hour after surgical incision. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 17.0 software. Results and Observations: In our study Blood glucose (BG) value decreases till 1hr after surgical incision (SI), and then increases till 4th hour after SI. This change in blood glucose values is statistically significant at SI, 2nd hour after SI, 3rd hour after SI and 4thhour after SI. Conclusion: Therefore, hyperglycaemia is very common in surgical patients. Our study demonstrates a linkage between elevated BG and a risk of perioperative complications in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Spinal anaesthesia blunts surgical stress response and hence, at SI, BG values decrease. But, BG values increase at other times in perioperative period owing to the regression of sensory analgesia.


Dr. Fantin Joel Calingarayar, Dr. Namita Arora,Dr. Hema

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1647-1660

Introduction - The emergence of ultrasound imaging in regional anaesthesiahas
visualization of structures, avoid accidental vessel or nerve injuries and hence providehigh
hence reduced the risk of local anaesthetictoxicity.
allocated into two groups such as group S (Unilateral Spinal Anaesthesia) and groupP
techniques. PVB provides better postoperative analgesia as time to first rescue analgesiawas
significantly higher and total rescue analgesia consumption was significantly less in groupP.
No significant difference was found in adverse effects in bothtechniques

A Comparative Study Of Bolus Phenylephrine, Ephedrine And Mephentermine For Maintenance Of Arterial Pressure During Spinal Anaesthesia In Caesarean Section

Dr. Hemant Sharma, Dr. VinodKumar Singh Senger, Dr. Sachin Gajbhiye

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1744-1752

Introduction: Obstetric anaesthesia and analgesia are associated with many unique and different problems for the anaesthesiologists.Arterial hypotension in pregnant women following  spinal anaesthesia continue to be a matter of concern to the anaesthetist.
Objective: The study was carried out to compare the efficacy ofIVbolusPhenylephrine, Ephedrine and Mephentermine for maintenance of arterial pressure during spinal anaesthesia in caesarean section. To monitor and record side effects, if any.
Subjects and methods: The present study was undertaken on 90 subjects with American society of anaesthesiologist (ASA) type I and II who underwent lower segment caesarean sections under spinal anaesthesia and developedhypotension were selected. Cases were drawn from  obstetrics and gynaecology department of NSCB Medicalcollege and Hospital, in whom the decision was taken to perform caesarean section.The subjects are divided into 3 groups of 30 each to receive Group I -Phenylephrine 100ug, Group II - Ephedrine 6mg and GroupIII-Mephentermine  6mg IV bolus.
Results: The ANOVA test was used to compare the group among the study groups.In group I (Phenylephrine) it was observed that the peak effect was seen between 1-2 minutes,in group II (Ephedrine) between 3-5 minutes.and in group III(Mephentermine) it was seen between 5-6 minutes 
Conclusion- It was concluded that Phenylephrine,Ephedrine and Mephentermine all could be used for maintenance of arterial pressure during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section.Phenylephrine had an immediate peak,so it may be beneficial for initial control of hypotension. It also shows some advantage over others with regard to reduction in heart rate.