Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Diabetic

To determine the outcome of cataract surgery in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals

Dr Anil Kumar Chouhan, Dr. Twinkle Garg, Dr. Preeti Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 4273-4278

Aim: To determine the outcome of cataract surgery in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals.
Methods and Materials: 100 diabetic and 100 age-matched non-diabetic people were studied. The current research included all diabetes patients who had cataract surgery. This research comprised diabetic individuals aged 30 to 60 years. Subjects in the non-diabetic group were of similar age and gender who underwent cataract extraction within the same time period. Diabetes was diagnosed based on fasting sugar readings of higher than 120 mg/dl.
Results: The study group consisted of 100 diabetes patients, whereas the control group consisted of 100 non-diabetic individuals. At 10 days, the incidence of post-surgical visual acuity in the diabetes and non-diabetic groups was 0.17 and 0.24, respectively. After three months, the incidence of post-surgical visual acuity in the diabetes and non-diabetic groups was 0.33 and 0.40, respectively. When comparing the means, the findings were non-significant. The difference in post-operative visual acuity between the two research groups at various time intervals. Striate keratopathy was the most prevalent post-surgical complication in both the diabetes and non-diabetic groups (15% vs 9%) respectively. Posterior capsular opacity 13(13%) and 7(7%), and Posterior capsular rent 12% and 9% in diabetic and non-diabetic patients, respectively, were followed by Pigment dispersion 11% and 8% in diabetic and non-diabetic patients.
Conclusion: We conclude that diabetic patients should not be refused for cataract surgeries. However, there is need for taking extra- precautions as diabetic subjects might be more prone for surgical associated complications.


Ali Hanif Bhatti, Muhammad Faraz Shamshad, Dr Shiny Teja Kolli, Dr Praveen Kumar Komminni, Usman Ismail, Dr Amit Bhalla, Dr Immanuel Raju Tullimalli

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 40-44

Background: The present study was undertaken for evaluating serum vitamin D levels and its relation to diabetic peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients.
Materials & methods: A total of 100 type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled in the present study. Complete demographic and clinical details of all the patients was obtained. Clinical examination was carried out in all the patients and data was recorded. assessment of peripheral neuropathy was done by neuropathy disability score (NDS) and nerve conduction studies. The NDS was established by bilateral examination of the pin–prick sensation, temperature sensation, vibration test, and Achilles tendon reflex. Serum levels were obtained and vitamin D levels were evaluated using auto-analyser. Correlation of vitamin D levels was done using auto-analyser. All the results were recorded and analysed using SPSS software.
Results: DPN was present in 56 percent of the patients. Mean vitamin D levels among the patients with and without DPN was 19.12 ng/ml and 32.95 ng/ml respectively. While analysing and comparing statistically, significant results were obtained.
Conclusion: Significant correlation exists between DPN and serum vitamin D levels among type 2 diabetic patients.

Assessment of correlation between HbA1cand microalbuminuria among diabetics

Jaikirat Singh Gugnani, Abhishek, Harkamalpreet Kaur, Yooghetha Mookaiyan Sundaramurthy, Mansour Shirzai, Mahum Ali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 1012-1016

Background: Diabetes is an important metabolic disorder worldwide and is characterized by a variable degree of insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion, and increased glucose production. The present study was conducted to assess the correlation between HbA1cand microalbuminuria among diabetics.
Materials & Methods:
Results: Group I had 20 males and 20 females and group II had 18 males and 22 females. In group I and group II, mean HbA1c (%) was 7.9 and 5.2, fasting blood sugar (FBS) (mg/dL) was 174.2 and 86.2, postprandial blood sugar (PPBS) (mg/dL) was 258.6 and 124.8, blood urea (mg/dL) was 28.4 and 14.2, serum sodium (mEq/L) was 127.2 and 138.9, serum potassium (mEq/L) was 2.7 and 3.8, serum creatinine (mg/dL) was 1.5 and 0.84 and microalbuminuria (mg/L) was 43.6 and 10.6. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). There was positive correlation of microalbuminuria and duration of DM (r- 0.521, p- 0.03), microalbuminuria and FBS (r- 0.316, p-0.05), microalbuminuria and PPBS (r- 0.412, p- 0.02) and microalbuminuria and HbA1c (r- 0.833, p-0.01).
Conclusion: The prevalence of microalbuminuria in diabetic patientswas found to be high. There was a correlation between glycated hemoglobin and microalbuminuria among diabetics.


Dr Taranjot Kaur, Dr. Dinesh Sharma, Dr.Vishav Yadav, Dr.Sachiv Garg

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 3316-3323

Background: Diabetes is fast gaining the status of a potential epidemic in India with more than 62 million diabetic individuals currently diagnosed with the disease. Conventional audiometric tests are not sensitive to detect the initial phase of sensory loss. A comparative study of Hearing evaluation of paediatric patients with IDDM between 6-17 yr and age and sex matched controls was done for evaluating the correlation between presence of type1 DM and auditory dysfunction, glycemic control and effect of duration of disease on hearing loss in IDDM conducted in Department of ENT in Rajindra hospital, Patiala.
Materials & methods: The present cross sectional observational study included 50 patients between age group of 6-17 years with confirmed diagnosis of Type 1 DM and an average disease duration of more than 1 year and 50 age and sex matched healthy controls. The patients were diagnosed as diabetic as per diagnostic criteria of The American Diabetes Association. The onset of diabetes was noted on the day of commencement of insulin therapy. A Performa was made where data recorded will include age, sex, duration of diabetes, insulin dose, BMI, frequency of acute complications like diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), and severe hypoglycemia. This was followed by audiological testing, which will include pure tone audiometry (PTA) and Otoacoustic emission (OAE). Audiological assessment was done in a sound proof room in out - patient clinic of ENT Department, Rajindra hospital, Patiala. Hearing thresholds were tested using a commercially available AL Advanced digital audiometer AD21OOPS with headphones for speech frequencies and higher frequencies audiometry. The limitof normality was defined as a maximum intensity of 25 decibels for all frequencies.classic symptoms of hyperglycemia or hyperglycemic crisis.
Results: High frequency hearing loss was found to be present in 8 percent of the patients (4 patients) of the study group while it was absent in control group. While correlating the occurrence of high frequency SNHL with age-wise and gender-wise distribution of patients in the study group, non-significant results were obtained.While correlating the occurrence of high frequency SNHL with duration of diabetes in the study group, non-significant results were obtained. Significant results were obtained while comparing the mean RBS levels and HbA1c levels among the patients with and without high frequency SNHL.
Conclusion: Early detection is important in affected children and a range of intervention options (such as remotemicrophone listening systems) are available, and have proven beneficial in ameliorating the real-world listening effects of auditory neuropathy.

Study to Assess the Efficacy of Collagen Dressing in Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patients

Sadhna Tiwari, Sana Tiwari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 10929-10935

Introduction: Diabetic foot has become the common indication for hospital admissions
among diabetics. The diabetic foot commonly begins as an ulcer. So rapid and extensive
is the underlying damage that approximately 20% of these patients end up with
amputation. The present study has been performed to compare the efficacy of collagen
dressing with that of conventional dressing materials like silver sulfadiazine,
nadifloxacin, povidone iodine.
Materials and Methods: Fifty patients (40 males and 10 females) were procured to be
included to experimental group who were treated using collagen dressing and they form
the study group. Control treatment was performed on 25 patients (21 males and 4
females) at the same period. All the quantitative values were noted as mean± standard
Results: 1. The final ulcer sizes (by the 3-week measurement) ranged between 0.2 and
4.2 cm2 (mean, 1.11 ± 1.19 cm2) in the experimental group, and ranged between 0.1 and
12.8 cm2 (mean, 2.52 ± 2.61 cm2) in the control group. It was found that all of 25
patients of the experimental group were reported with shrinkage of wound area and
depth over 30% at the third week regardless of wound location, duration, and grade. In
contrast, the improvement of only 5 ulcers in area over 30% at the third week was
observed, and 6 in depth.
Conclusion: Collagen dressing also might also provide supplementary advantages of
patients’ comfort and compliance as well as maintenance of ideal healing environment.
In order to confirm the usefulness and wound healing potential of collagen dressing in
the management of diabetic foot ulcers, future research with longer follow-up periods
should be conducted.

Assessment of lipid profiles of young diabetic and nondiabetic stroke patients: A teaching hospital based study

Dr. Gautam Gupta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 986-992

Background:Lipid profile in patients with cerebrovascular disease and to determine
significant correlation between them. To ascertain the effect of age and sex on serum lipid
profile.The diagnosis of diabetes in a stroke patient would change the initial management of
that patient, specifically with respect to other risk factors like lipid and blood pressure
Aims and Objectives: To study lipid profile in diabetic and non-diabetic newly diagnosed
young stroke patients.
Materials and Methods: A total of 138 patients were admitted during study period were
selected by simple random sampling with acute stroke in the study. Fasting total cholesterol,
triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein
cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured from venous blood samples.
Results and Observations: The mean HbA1c for group D and group ND were 9.04±1.02
and 4.85±0.45 respectively. This difference in HbA1c among patients in two groups was
statistically significant. The mean values of LDL, VLDL, total cholesterol and triglycerides
showed significant association between two groups. Levels of HDL were significantly lower
in Group D as compared to Group ND.
Conclusion: The lipid profile of LDL, VLDL, total cholesterol and triglycerides showed
significant higher range in diabetic patients as compared to non-diabetics while HDL was
lower in diabetic patients as compared to non-diabetics.


Raghad Jameel Alhajaji, Atef Mohammad Raffa, Turki Abdulqader Dawaji, Asmah Ali Miswak, Haneen Mohammad Alshanqity, Abdulrahman Ahmad Alshamrani Wael Abdulqader Gamloo, Juman Maid Albajaly, Fahad Abdulmukrem Alsulami, Raeed Mustafa Rommani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 394-405

      Influenza is a seasonal epidemic with main symptoms that include fever, cough and muscle aches. Fever is a big distinguishing component between a cold and influenza. Some other common symptoms which may or may not be seen with a cold as well are headache, chills, loss of appetite, fatigue and sore throat. diabetes, influenza is a significant burden on the healthcare systems. A significant issue and a significant big health concern happen every year is looking how we could mitigate and manage it and obviously take the burden off the health care system. Diabetic patients, as other chronic diseases patients, could catch the influenza infection, which is a respiratory infection caused primarily by influenza A and Influenza B. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a major health problem worldwide. It is a number of metabolic disturbances that is characterized and identified by the presence of hyperglycemia in the absence of treatment.
Aim of the study: to assessment of the Prevalence of Influenza Immunization among Diabetic Patients attending Primary Health Care Center In Makkah Al-Mokarramah,2019.
 Methods: A Cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in the city of Makkah among diabetic patients attending  Primary Health Care Center during  the October to December 2019, the Sample size patients participants.  Our total participants were (300).
Results: shows the majority of participant (39.5%) have average level of total attitude of diabetic patients towards seasonal influenza vaccination followed by (29.5%) of participant weak while Range(7-19) and Mean ±SD(13.065±3.822), X211.59 P=0.003.Conclusion: Undermining the effect of influenza and misconceptions on the effectiveness of the vaccine could much be improved by increasing awareness and knowledge, seasonal vaccination among diabetics in KSA is low. Level of knowledge and perception are the main barriers to vaccination. Health care provider’s advice may be an important key predictor of previous influenza vaccination and they should continue to educate and encourage all diabetics to get vaccinated for influenza at least once yearly.

Assessment Of The Knowledge Diabetic Retinopathy Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes At Makkah, Saudi Arabia 2019. Cross-Sectional Study

Adel Saeed Ali Alzahrani, Nawaf Suhaim Al-Atiani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 543-556

1. Background
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a well-known complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) and a major cause of
vision loss. Increased knowledge of DR is crucial for the prevention and early diagnosis of the disease and
preservation of vision, diabetes mellitus is a disorder, characterized by an imbalance in blood glucose
levels. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing globally.The global diabetes prevalence in 2019 is
estimated to be 9.3% (463 million people), rising to 10.2% (578 million) by 2030 and 10.9% (700 million)
by 2045. Long term, continuous hyperglycemia leads to vasculature-related disorders, including those
affecting the eyes, such as retinopathy, diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease with chronic elevation in
blood glucose levels. If not managed, it can lead to multi-organ damage also diabetes mellitus is a
metabolic disease that is characterized by distortion in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and
proteins and involves hyperglycemia. Diabetes mellitus has different types. Several complications are
associated with diabetes including diabetic retinopathy.
This study aimed: This study aims to assess the knowledge of diabetic retinopathy and compliance with
diabetic retinopathy patients in Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
Methods: cross-sectional study was conducted among the diabetic population from May to September 2019
in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The patients were selected randomly from the general population visiting the
Makkah diabetic center and primary healthcare clinics in Makkah. A self-administered questionnaire was
distributed to assess the knowledge of diabetes and its complication diabetic retinopathy. Our total
participants were (300)
Results: Conclusion: The level of knowledge regarding diabetic retinopathy among participants with
diabetes type 2 in Makkah is relatively high. However, participants’ motivation to attend an ophthalmology
clinic for an eye assessment was poor in the study, thus delay early diagnosis and management.