Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : anatomical variations


Padmalochini Sudharsan; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 348-355

Introduction: Sphenoid bone is an individual bone in the cranium which is unpaired. Its shape resembles a butterfly or bat shaped containing a central body. Sphenoidal tubercle is the bony projection present within the anterior aspect of the infratemporal crest. The purpose of this research work is to bring out the morphometrical variations of sphenoidal tubercle in dry sphenoid bone and its anatomical deviations.
Materials and Methods: The osteometric study was did in 42 dry processed cranial cavity of unidentified gender. Also skulls having large breakage and developmental defects were rejected. Good selected bones were collected from Department of Anatomy, Basic Medical Science, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals for estimation. Statistical analysis was performed in the SPSS, using a paired sample ‘t’ test.
Results: Morphological analysis shows that sphenoidal tubercle represent a different morphology and measurements. Morphometrical analysis shows that the average of right sphenoidal tubercle and left sphenoidal tubercle is 3.901 and 3.394.
Conclusion: Since the groove for maxillary artery and groove for maxillary nerve are situated nearer to the sphenoidal tubercle, it is a remarkable landmark in anatomical structures. This key landmark could be regarded as a criterion for the surgical methodology to the infratemporal fossa.


M.Sathya Kumar; Yuvaraj Babu.K

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 365-371

In the cranial cavity, the anterior clinoid process (ACP) is a small a bony projection in the lesser wing of Sphenoid in its posterior border. Surgically removing this is an important procedure for the proper treatment of any aneurysms related to the internal carotid artery (ICA) and for tumours in that region. Very few studies have reported dimensions, various surgical approaches and anatomical variations of this.
The aim of the study is to make morphometric measurements of ACP in the dry cranial cavity of South Indian adult skulls.
The study was conducted on 23 dry adult South Indian skulls of unknown age and sex. Basal width, length and thickness of ACP were measured using Vernier caliper. The data were tabulated and related samples Wilcoxon signed rank test was done using SPSS software.


S Pragya; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 433-442

Introduction: The hamate carpal bone is a three-sided designed bone which forms the portion of the distal carpal row of the wrist. It has a hook-like process called the hook of hamate. The hamate bone has a large articular surface which contributes to the incomplete ball and socket type of joint allowing some movements. The aim of the study was to analyse the morphological and morphometric properties of the hook of hamate bones among the South Indian population.
Materials and Methods: Total of 24 dry processed hamate bones procured at the Department of Anatomy, Basic Medical Science, Saveetha Dental College was used to carry out the study. The length, breadth and the diagonal length of right and left hamate bone was taken measurement with a digital sliding vernier caliper. The values obtained were tabulated, evaluated using statistical analysis. The data was interpreted for any structural variations between right and left sides.
Results: Right diameter of hook of hamate was greater than the left, right diagonal length was greater than left diagonal of hook of hamate and right width greater than left width of hook of hamate bone. All the three pairs were statistically significant indicating p value less than 0.05.
Conclusion: Morphometric knowledge of the hook of hamate is utmost important for surgical approach on those regions. Apart from that it will also help in other fields such as orthopaedic surgery, evolutionary studies etc.


Dr. Anjali Raj Ladia, Dr. Yashwant Kulkarni, Dr. Surekha Wamanrao Meshram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 2454-2460

Background: The rapid evolution and increasing complexity of liver-directed therapies have forced the medical community to further advance its understanding of hepatic arterial anatomy. The anatomy of the hepatic arterial bed has been demonstrated to have a high degree of variation. Objectives of this study:  The objective of the study is to explore the variations of in HEPATIC ARTERIES in Cadavers of Anatomy Dissection. Materials and Methods:  Dissection method was employed for this study. The dissection of hepatic artery was carried out in 60 cadavers which were embalmed using 10% formalin. Each cadaver was kept in supine position and its sex was noted. Each cadaver was dissected according to guidelines of “Cunningham’s manual of practical anatomyvolume two, fifteenth edition. Variations of hepatic artery were noted in terms of origin, diameter and length.  Discussion & Conclusion: The findings of our study conclude that, the most common branching pattern of hepatic arterial system is type-I (80%) as per Michel’s classification, incidence of variation in branching pattern of hepatic artery is 20%, incidence of replaced right and left hepatic arteries is same (8.33%) whereas replaced common hepatic artery is 3.33% and Variation of hepatic artery between male and female were not significant. No gender predilection for hepatic artery variation is seen in present study.

The frequency of anatomical variations of paranasal sinuses on computed tomography

Dr. Pavan Kumar B,Dr. Mohan Kumar,Dr. M Ramya,Dr. Manohar Kumar KR

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 2421-2427

Paranasal sinuses are the group of air-filled spaces developed as an expansion of the nasal
cavities. These air filled cavities mostly shows the complex design and also shares relations
with the adjacentstructures.Ventilation and drainage are the two most important factors in the
maintenance of normal physiology of paranasal sinuses and their mucous membranes. During
the study period, a total of 100 cases were evaluated who were referred from Department of
ENT to the Department of radio diagnosis to evaluate the paranasal sinuses by computed
tomography. The cases in acute phase of the disease were treated conservatively with a
course of antibiotics, topical and oral decongestants and the cases referred after persistent
symptoms and signs were counselled regarding imaging of nose and PNS by CT scan,
Written informed consent was taken and data regarding the patient was collected in a case
proforma. The intersphenoid septum was left sided in majority of cases i.e. 43 (43%). It was
right sided in 38(38%) and in 43(%) of cases it was in central

Relationship between various anatomical variations and maxillary sinusitis by using computed tomography scan

Dr. Sravan Kumar K, Dr. M Ramya,Dr. Pavan Kumar B, Dr. Manohar Kumar KR

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 2428-2433

Identifying the predisposing factors is therefore important in understanding the
pathophysiology of chronic rhino sinusitis. Main etiology of respiratory CRS includes
structural anatomical obstruction, recurrent upper airway infections,common allergies,
biofilm formation and less commonly mucosal ciliary dyskinesia, MPS
(mucopolysaccharidosis) and cystic fibrosis. These etiological factors which impairs the
mucociliary clearance and causes stasis of secretions which constitutes the primary
pathophysiology for the chronic rhino sinusitis. CT scan was done for these 100 cases with
THOSHIBA Multi detector 16 slice CT machine. 0.5mmhigh resolution with 1mm
reconstruction, coronal,sagittal and axial sections were reviewed. The presence of anatomical
variations and sites of involved sinuses based on CT findings were investigated. Maxillary
sinusitis was seen in 63 cases out of which, 34 cases of maxillary sinusitis were associated
with anatomical variations.Ethmoid bulla in 2 cases.Uncinate process pathologies noted in2