Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Thyroid stimulating hormone

Study of Serum Calcium, Magnesium and Phosphorous Levels in Hypothyroidism

Bonala Sharat Babu, Azmatulla Shaik, Md. Siddique Ahmed Khan, Naveed Altaf

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1286-1292

Background: Thyroid disorders are the most common endocrine abnormality in the
world secondary to diabetes mellitus. Thyroid hormones are essential for growth,
neuronal development, reproduction and regulation of energy metabolism. It influences
the metabolism of all substrates including minerals. Many studies have shown that
mineral metabolism is frequently disturbed in thyroid disorders.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on sixty newly confirmed
hypothyroid cases based on the thyroid profile and sixty euthyroid cases were recruited
as controls. Blood samples were collected from all the patients for the estimation of
serum T3, T4, FT3, FT4, TSH, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium by auto analyzer
method. Modified spectrophotometric micro-method was used to measure Serum
copper using Bathocuprine Disulphonate Disodium Salt (BCDS) and Guanidine
hydrochloride salt. The Statistical software namely SPSS 18.0, and R environment
ver.3.2.2 were used for the analysis of the data.
Results: It was found that the levels of serum sodium, potassium and calcium were
significantly decreased in cases than the controls. Serum magnesium and phosphorus
were significantly elevated in cases than controls.
Conclusion: Serum calcium, magnesium and phosphorous levels are significantly
altered in patients having hypothyroidism. Thyroid diseases have wide spread systemic
manifestations including their effects on bone and mineral metabolism. Also thyroid
hormone affects the glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, tubular reabsorption
and excretion of minerals which have direct effect on Calcium, Magnesium and
phosphorous level. Thus monitoring of these minerals in hypothyroid patient will be of
great benefit in improving clinical manifestation and can be treated appropriately.

Association of Visceral Fat with Pulmonary Function in Hypothyroidism Patients

Harminder Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2393-2398

Background:Hypothyroidism is divided in primary, caused by failure of thyroid function and secondary (central) due to the failure of adequate thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion from the pituitary gland or thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus. Secondary hypothyroidism can be differentiated in pituitary and hypothalamic by the use of TRH test. In some cases, failure of hormone action in peripheral tissues can be recognized. Primary hypothyroidism may be clinical, where free T4 (FT4) is decreased and TSH is increased or subclinical where FT4 is normal and TSH is increased. In secondary hypothyroidism FT4 is decreased and TSH is normal or decreased. Primary hypothyroidism is most commonly caused by chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, less common causes being radioiodine treatment and thyroidectomy.
Material and Methods:This is a case control study conducted in the Department of General Medicine, NC Medical College & Hospital, Israna, Panipat over a period of 1 year. A total of 120 patients with age between 18 to 60 years were included in the study. The study included 2 groups, group 1 consisted of 60 newly detected hypothyroids and group 2 with 60 controls who were age, sex matched and from similar environment as that of cases. Group 1 hypothyroid patients include both clinical (TSH >5 milli units/L with clinical features of hypothyroidism or low Free thyroxine (FT4)) and subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH>5 with no clinical features of hypothyroidism or normal FT4). Results:In this study, there is no significant difference in age and BMI in cases and controls. TSH was significantly higher while FT3 and FT4 were significantly lower in cases compared to controls. FVC between cases and controls did not show statistical significance, although the mean FVC was found to be lower in cases (1.73) as compared to controls (2.23). Furthermore, observed that there was no significant correlation between TSH or FT4 with FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC as seen in (Table 3 and 4). Conclusion:FT3 level and FT4 level was each significantly associated with fat volume and BMI. Thyroid hormone levels can affect cardiovascular risk through regulation of pericardial fat deposition, in addition to other known mechanisms. In hypothyroidism, there is significant reduction in the dynamic lung functions as compared with controls.

Diagnosis and Pathology Characterization of Thyroid Gland Using Different Radiological Techniques

Mohamad Nour M.Nael Ammaneh, Hussameddin Hasan Alali, Fisal Haritani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 284-294

The normal endocrine function is primarily for the quality of life of people, irrespective of
age, sex, and race. Detrimental thyroid function leads to multiple disorders, including
cardiovascular, renal, neurologic, foetal development, and sexual drive. Moreover, if left
untreated may aggravate the formation of thyroid nodules and subsequently to cancer.
Therefore, periodic assessment of thyroid glandfunction may eliminate these complications
and improve the patients' quality of life. In this review, we have discussed the different
thyroid disorders, their complications, radiological techniques, and invasive procedures for
assessing the thyroid gland.

Higher anti-TPO antibody titers are associated with greater thyroid-related symptomatology

Dr.TousiefIrshadAhmed, Dr.Summaiya Irshad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 663-670

The thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is a 105 kDa glycoprotein enzyme and the main antigen of the
thyroid microsomal fraction. It catalyses iodine oxidation and thyroglobulin tyrosyl iodination
reactions in the thyroid gland. Anti-TPO antibodies activate complement and are thought to be
significantly involved in thyroid dysfunction and the pathogenesis of hypothyroidism. These
antibodies are significantly present in patientsof Hashimoto's thyroiditis,Gravesdisease and
even in non-thyroidal conditions such as diabetes. In sub-clinical hypothyroidism (SCH),
presence of these antibodies is associated with increased risk of developing overt
hypothyroidism (OH). In the present study, anti-TPO antibodies were tested on 33 individuals,
all of whom reported thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels > 6μIU/mL. These included
18 with SCH and 15 with OH.Anti-TPO ab positivity (levels > 28.4 IU/ml) was observed in 17
patients (51.5%) which included 5 with SCH and 12 with OH. There was greater prevalence of
positivity in OH compared to SCH (80% vs 27.8%). 8 of 33 subjects (24%) had significantly
raised anti-TPO ab (>200 IU/ml). The Billewicz scoring system was used for assessment of
clinical features of hypothyroidism with value ≥25 strongly suggestive of OH. 9 of 33 subjects
had scores ≥25 and out of these, 7 had positive anti-TPO ab.Pearson correlation revealed the
serum TSH and anti-TPO levels to be strongly positively correlated, r(32) =
.7902, p <0.0001.The Billewicz diagnostic score was also correlated with anti-TPO levels, r(32)
= .4107 which was significant at p<0.05.Our results show that higher anti-TPO ab and
TSHlevels are associated with higher symptom scores, indicating underlying
pathophysiological and immunological processes and we suggest that antibodies against TPO
should be routinely assessed in patients presenting with either elevated TSH levels or with
symptoms suggestive of thyroid dysfunction.