Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : envenomation


Dr. Pramit Kumar Maji, Dr. Subhashis Chakraborty Dr. Biva Bhakat, Dr. Prantik Bhattacharya Dr. Debarshi Jana

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 773-781

There are approximately 3000 species of snakes existing in Earth, of which only 600 species are poisonous. Snake population, venom composition and related human health hazards are variable in geographic areas and seasons.
Aims: To work out predictive factors of requirement of Invasive and Non-Invasive Ventilation in Neurotoxic snake envenomation.
Materials and Methods: The present study was a Prospective, observational and analytical study. This Study was conducted for one year at N.R.S. Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata
Result: In our study, Krait bite was responsible for maximum no. of envenomation in the study population (69%) followed by unknown snake bite (21.5%), whereas cobra bite was least among study population (9.5%) and Maximum no. of patients presented to Health Centre within 6 hours, where they were given initial 10 vials of ASV (69%).
Conclusion: Presence of dysphagia, pain abdomen, ophthalmoplegia, hypotension and others (neck weakness, limb weakness and unconsciousness) were found to be statistically associated with development of respiratory paralysis


Km. Shiva; Aakanksha Kaushik; Mohd Irshad; Gunjan Sharma; Siddharth Dhaka; Suraj Mandal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 4147-4151

ABSTRACT: Spiders belong to the phylum Arthropoda and the class Arachnida, respectively. Over 34,000 species are found in each of the 100 families. Every spider poses a threat. But just a few species have venom that is harmful to people. A spider's biting apparatus consists of two chelicerae and venom sacs, which are where the poison is stored. Frequently, the venom is a clear liquid with a little greasy feel. The spider bites by spinning two punctures into the victim's body with its sharp, fang-like fangs. Spider venom appears to have a complex chemical make-up and to have both neurotoxic and hemotoxic effects. Local symptoms such as a scorching, throbbing, and painful sensation, numbness, stiffness, and maybe a very minor swelling at the site of punctures are frequently present after a bite. Most of the time, this symptom only lasts a short while—a few minutes to a few hours. Some poisons contain hemotoxins, which cause necrosis and gangrene by destroying the cells in the area. Cytotoxic, hemotoxic, and neurotoxic are the three types of toxicity. Black widow spiders (Latrodectusmactans), brown spiders, and tarantulas are among the spider species that can severely poison humans (lycosa species). Neurotoxic venom is produced by black widow spiders.

A Hospital Based Prospective Study to Assess the Outcome of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) in Snake Bite Patients at Newly Established Medical College

Dr.Hanuman Ram Choudhary, Dr.Anil Kumar Sethiya, Dr.Motilal Godara

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 2673-2678

Background: Snake envenomation is a serious medical crisis, wherein the spectrum of
injury can vary from local tissue damage to involvement of almost all vital organs of the
body. Hence, the need to recommend the most effective first aid to the victims bitten by
snakes and to recommend effective steps in the management of this problem. The aim of
this study to find out the incidence of acute kidney injury in snakebite patients.
Materials and Methods: This is a hospital-based prospective observational study in 50
consecutive patients, with history of poisonous snakebite, admitted to Government
Medical College & Hospital, Barmer, newly established tertiary referral centre in
western Rajasthan, India during one-year period. Snakebite and species identification
was confirmed by a reliable history from patients, patient's relatives, specimen brought
and presence of fang marks and signs of local and systemic envenomation. All patients
were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire to maintain a record of patient's
history relevant to snakebite envenomation. All these analyses were performed using a
commercially available software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 21
version on personal computer.
Results: In our study, mean age group of AKI was 40.7 ± 13.21 years, incidence of AKI
was 60% in male and 40% in female and it was found to be 94% in rural population
and 6% in urban population. Only in 4% of cases, snakes were identified. Incidence of
AKI was found to be 30%.33.33% (N=1/3) of the patients with AKI had neurotoxicity
(p>0.05). Thus, not significant. None of the patients with AKI had brown or black
coloured urine. 75 % of patients with AKI had whole blood clotting time more than
20min (p-0.000), thus highly significant. AKI developed in 62.5% patients with bite to
ASV interval <= 2hours and 37.5% with interval >2 hours (p>0.05), thus not significant.
Conclusion: Snakebites are still a common medical emergency encountered, especially
in rural areas. Timely treatment is the mainstay for reduction of morbidity and
mortality. Recognition of predictor signs is essential for clinical management and early
referral which could lead to a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality. Further
long-term studies might help to assess predictors of renal failure in snake bite