Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : intrathecal

Efficacy of 0.8 mg Nalbuphine and 20mcg Fentanyl as adjuvants in Subarachnoid Block for lower limb orthopaedic surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Jayesh Jagannath Bawa; Shubhada Rajendra Deshmukh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 1882-1891

Background: In lower limb orthopedic surgeries there is significant postoperative pain, which is difficult to treat with oral or intravenous analgesics resulting in adverse endocrine, metabolic and inflammatory responses. Morphine, Pethidine, Fentanyl, and other opioids fall under the Narcotics Act whereas nalbuphine does not. So, the accessibility of Nalbuphine is not as major a concern in several hospitals in India as that of morphine and other such opioids. Present study was aimed to compare the effectiveness of 0.8mg nalbuphine with 20 mcg fentanyl as an adjuvant to hyperbaric bupivacaine in lower limb orthopedic surgeries. Material and Methods: Present study was single-center, prospective, comparative study, conducted in patients of either gender, age group of 18-60 years, belonging to ASA CLASS 1 and 2, With BMI < 30, undergoing elective orthopedic lower limb surgery. Patients were allocated in Group N- Received intrathecal 0.8 mg Nalbuphine & 3 ml 0.5 % H bupivacaine & Group F- Received intrathecal 20 mcg Fentanyl & 3 ml 0.5 % H bupivacaine.

Comparison of Adjuvant Intrathecal Dexmedetomidine or Fentanyl to Hyperbaric Bupivacaine for Postoperative Analgesia - A Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Study

Nishigandha Mahajan, Shilpa Sharda, Krishan Gopal Jangir, Swati Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1145-1153

Background: Various adjuvants have been used with local anaesthetics in spinal
anaesthesia to prolong postoperative analgesia. Dexmedetomidine, the new highly
selective α2-agonist drug, is now being used as a neuraxial adjuvant. The aim of this
study was to evaluate the onset and duration of sensory and motor block, hemodynamic
effect, postoperative analgesia, and adverse effects of dexmedetomidine, or fentanyl
when given intrathecally with hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine.
Materials and Methods: Ninety patients classified in American Society of
Anaesthesiologists classes I and II scheduled for lower abdominal surgeries requiring
spinal anaesthesia were studied. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either 12.5
mg hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 10 μg dexmedetomidine (group D, n=30) or 12.5 mg
hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 25 μg fentanyl (group F, n=30) intrathecal. The control
group received 12.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine intrathecally (n=30).
Results: Patients in the dexmedetomidine group (D) had a significantly longer sensory
and motor block time than patients in the fentanyl group (F) and control group (B).
VAS score at rescue analgesia was significantly higher in the control group. Duration of
analgesia was significantly more in the dexmedetomidine, and fentanyl group as
compared to control. The total duration of analgesia was longer with dexmedetomidine
than fentanyl. Sedation scores were significantly higher in the Dexmedetomidine group.
No hemodynamic changes were noted in any group.
Conclusion: Intrathecal dexmedetomidine and fentanyl as adjuvants to hyperbaric
bupivacaine prolong sensory and motor block with minimal hemodynamic instability
and reduced demand for rescue analgesia. Intrathecal dexmedetomidine has a longer
duration of analgesia than fentanyl.

A study to compare the effects of low dose intrathecal fentanyl and low dose intrathecal tramodol combined with 0.5% bupivacaine heavy in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgeries

Dr. P. Anand Vijaya Bhasker, Dr Priyanka Priyadarshini.C, Dr Pasham Abbaiah, Dr Ramakrishna Shatagopam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 4804-4813

Background: Various adjuvants have been used with local anesthetics in spinal
anesthesia to avoid intraoperative visceral and somatic pain and to provide prolonged
postoperative analgesia.
Aims: To compare the intraoperative effects of a single low dose of intrathecal tramadol
and intrathecal fentanyl with hyperbaric bupivacaine hydrochloride.
Materials and methods: Fifty patients undergoing Orthopaedic Surgery were randomly
allocated to two groups to be given the following agents by intrathecal route: Group A:
0.5% Bupivacaine 3.0 ml and 25 micro grams fentanyl and Group B: received 0.5%
Bupivacaine 3.0 ml and 25 milligrams tramadol. Intraoperative hemodynamics, pain
scores (assessed using a visual analogue scale), post-operative pain relief and side effects
in both groups was evaluated clinically.
Results: Intraoperatively no significant differences in BP, pulse rate and respiratory
rate were noted. Time to full motor recovery was not delayed in any of the patients in
both the groups. The mean duration of analgesia did not differ in both groups. Mean
duration of analgesia in Group A was 562 minutes and in Group B was 551.2 min. Time
for two segment regression did not differ in both the groups. The patients in both the
groups showed minimal side effects, like nausea, vomiting and pruritis. The incidence of
side effects were statistically in significant.
Conclusions: Both intrathecal tramadol and intrathecal fentanyl act synergistically to
potentiate bupivacaine induced sensory spinal block. Excellent surgical anesthesia and
an extended analgesia was observed in post-operative period with minimum side effects
were observed in both groups.

Comparison of Analgesic Effect of Fentanyl and Clonidine Added Intrathecally with Bupivacaine in LSCS

Firasath, Abhinaya, Raja Shekar Reddy Motkar, Khaja Layeeq Ur Rahman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 6094-6103

Background:Hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% (l0mg) with fentanyl 15mcg(0.3ml) and (2)
Hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% (10mg) with clonidine 45mcg. Objectives: The study
compared the onset and duration of action of intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5
percent and fentanyl 15mcg (group-I) to intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5 percent
and clonidine 45 mcg (group-II) in spinal anaesthesia in LSCS. The combination of
bupivacaine with fentanyl or clonidine assists anesthesiologists in alleviating
intraoperative discomfort by delivering superior analgesia to patients without extending
Materials and Methods: The study included 80 female patients with ASA grade I (n=40
in each group). The time of onset of sensory and motor block, duration of analgesia, 2-
segment regression, intraoperative discomfort, hemodynamic stability, time to
micturition, visual analogue score, and postoperative analgesic requirements were all
Results: In group II, the onset of sensory and motor block was substantially later than
in group I (p0.001). Hemodynamic alterations did not differ between groups (p>0.05).
Intraoperatively, 1 patient reported pruritis, and 2 patients had postoperative urinary
II78.506.12min and groupII-—121.284.09 min) and regression of sensory level to L2
dermatome (group-I - 142.206.73 min and group II 166.405.79 min) were significantly
longer in group II (p0.001). The duration of analgesia in group II was 210.186.79
minutes, whereas in group II it was 323.5610.53 minutes, which is significant (p0.001).
The VAS scores in group II were considerably lower after 3 hours (p0.05), 6 hours
(p0.001), and 12hours (p0.001).
Conclusion: The addition of intrathecal clonidine 45 mcg to hyperbaric bupivacaine in
spinal anaesthesia gives greater analgesia with less perioperative discomfort, a longer
duration of analgesia, and a reduction in postoperative analgesic requirements.

Comparison of the Effect of Adding Dexmedetomidine versus Midazolam to Intrathecal Bupivacaine on the Post-Operative Analgesia

Dr Ravi Shrivastav, Dr Sachin Kumbhare, Dr Arpit Khandelwal, Dr. Hemant Vanjare

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1225-1232

Background: Dexmedetomidine and midazolam both affects duration of spinal
analgesia by different mechanisms, and yet, no studies are available to compare them
for postoperative analgesia after neuraxial administration. We investigated the addition
of dexmedetomidine or midazolam to intrathecal bupivacaine on the duration of
effective analgesia.
Materials and Methods: The patient posted for elective procedure under spinal
anaesthesia were randomly allocated in to three group of 20 patient and each group.
Group D- Patient in the group receiving 3 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric Bupivacaine with
5mcg Dexmedetomidine the total volume is 3.5ml. Group M - Patient in the group
receiving 3 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric Bupivacaine with 1mg of Midazolam, the total
volume is 3.5 ml. Group B-: Patient in the group receiving 3 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric
Bupivacaine with 0.5 ml of normal saline, the total volume is 3.5 ml. The groups were
compared to the regression time of sensory block, duration of effective sedation score,
and side effects.
Results: The mean duration of sensory and motor block was quite prolonged in group D
patients The results were, statistically highly significant (P<0.0l) There
is significant difference between all the three groups in group D the sensory duration
block is 226 minutes while in group M is 158.7 minutes, In group B this Is 134.8 minutes
which is much less than the above groups. The motor block in group D 202.35 minutes,
in group M is 110.5 minutes and in group B is 96.8 minutes.
Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine (5mcg) when used as an adjunct to 3 ml of 0.5%
hyperbaric bupivacaine and prolongs the duration of effective analgesia in the
immediate postoperative period without any significant hemodynamic instability in
comparison to 1 mg midazolam.