Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Hypertrophy


A cadaveric study on the difference in thickness between the right ventricle and the left ventricle of the adult human heart in the Eastern Indian population

Soni Kumari, Md. Zahid Hussain, Sigraf Tarannum, Rashmi Prasad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 161-166

Aim and objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the thickness difference
between the adult human heart's right and left ventricles, as well as their clinical importance
in the eastern Indian population, and compare it to the incidence in other races throughout the
world.
Introduction: Heart is a muscular motor that supplies blood to all parts of the body so that it
provides oxygen and nutrients to all the body parts. As we all know that this heart muscle
consists of four chambers viz., right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium and left ventricle. The
right ventricle receives from the right atrium and pumps the deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
The left ventricle directly pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body parts. The left
ventricle is usually narrower and longer than the right ventricle which extends from its base
of the atrio-ventricular groove to the cardiac apex. Moreover, the left ventricle walls are three
times thicker (8 – 12 mm) than those of the right ventricle which is relatively thin measuring
3 – 5 mm and the ration of the thickness between left to right ventricle is 3:1. There are four
borders of the heart. The right border is completely formed by the right atrium. The inferior
border is formed by the left & right ventricle. The left border is being formed by left ventricle
and little contribution from left atrium. Finally, the superior border is formed by right and left
atrium with the great vessels.

Retrospective Evaluation of Hypertrophy of Salpingopharyngeal Fold in OSA at a Tertiary Care Hospital

Jitendra Pratap Singh Chauhan, Raveendra Singh Rajpoot, Ajai Kumar, Somendra Pal Singh, Sunil Kumar Singh Bhadouria

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5769-5774

Introduction: The most common cause of sleep disordered breathing is reported to be
the obstructive sleep apnoea. It could possibly lead to serious physiological, social and
few neurocognitive disorders. Since the reported prevalence rate is higher, OSA has
often been misdiagnosed and unnoticed.
Materials and Methodology: This study was designed as a retrospective analysis of
patients reported with the polysomnographic confirmation of obstructive sleep apnoea.
Those patients included in this study had undergone Drug Induced Sleep Endoscopy
(DISE) using flexible video rhino-laryngoscope under BISTM monitoring which is
reported to be a valid bi-spectral index monitor in measuring the depth of sedation.
Drugs like dexmedetomidine and midazolam was initially used in titrating doses in
order to maintain BISTM score in the range of 60–80. The DISE video data of 189
patients was assessed by two ENT surgeons individually. Each of them was instructed to
grade the hypertrophy of the salpingopharyngeal fold as Grade 0 having normal
anatomy, Grade 1 being hypertrophy causing partial obstruction and Grade 2 being
hypertrophy which is reportedly responsible for complete obstruction of lateral
pharyngeal wall. Data of 160 patients of the 189 had 100% agreement between the two
expert surgeons while grading the hypertrophy. Thus, the data of 160 patients was
included in the study for further comparison and analyses. The patient’s data was
divided into two groups. Group 1 included 110 patients who had isolated palatal level
obstruction whereas group 2 constituted 50 patients affected with sleep apnoea due to
obstruction at multiple levels BMI of the patient was calculated. There was no
significant difference between the two groups for age (p<0.05), AHI (p <0.05) and BMI
(p<0.05) Shapiro Wilks test of Normality was applied to check for the distribution of the
data, non-normal distribution the data was subjected to non-parametric analyses.