Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Antibiogram


Antibiogram of Enterococcus species among Diabetic foot ulcer Patients

Dr. Rohit Kumar, Sapre Rohit Rajendra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 609-615

Introduction: Enterococci are normal flora of oral cavity, gut, and female genital tract
of humans and are known to cause nosocomial infections. E. faecalis is responsible for
80-90 percent and E. faecium 5-10 percent of the human enterococcal infections. Most
frequent infections caused by Enterococcus spp. are urinary tract infections followed by
intra-abdominal abscesses and bloodstream infections.
Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, descriptive and observational study
conducted in the Department of Microbiology, Index Medical College, Hospital and
Research center Indore from January 2019 December 2021. All isolates of Enterococcus
species during the study period will be included. All patients over 18 years of age having
chronic diabetic foot ulcers where ulcer duration is greater than three months were
included in the study
Results: A total number of 72 isolates of E. faecalis, 42 (58.33%) were isolated from
males whereas 30 (41.66%) from female patients of diabetic foot ulcers. In case of E.
faecium, 34 (68%) were isolated from males and 16 (32%) isolated from females. In our
study, Among E. faecalis organism, few strains were 100% sensitive to Amikacin,
Lenizolid and Teicoplanin respectively. Rate of resistance to Penicillin G 57 (79.16%),
Tetracycline 62 (86.11%), Gentamycin 53 (73.61%), Clindamycin 48(66.66%), Amoxyclav
48 (66.66%), Cefoxitin 43(59.72%) and Ciprofloxacin 57 (79.16%). Moreover,
Among E. faecium isolates shows maximum susceptibility to vancomycin. Clindamycin
(100%), Amikacin (50%) and Lenizolid (76%) respectively. Rate of resistance to
Penicillin G: 38 (76%), Tetracycline 19 (38%), Gentamycin 19 (38%), Clindamycin
38(76%), Amoxy-clav 19 (38%), Cefoxitin 32 (64%) and Ciprofloxacin 38 (76%) in
table 4.
Conclusion: Multiple drug resistant strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium are
progressively related to health care associated infections. This study emphasises the
need to screen for HLGR and Vancomycin in clinical isolates, active surveillance and
the prompt reporting of resistance by the laboratories to prevent injudicious use of
antibiotics.

Biofilm formation of Enterococcus species among Diabetic foot ulcer Patients

Sapre Rohit Rajendra, Dr. Rohit Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 616-622

Introduction: Biofilm protects Enterococci from host immune response and antibiotics.
Biofilm-producing Enterococci cause recurrent, chronic, and antibiotic-resistant
infections. According to the National Institute of Health, 80% of infections are related to
biofilm-forming microbes. Apart from biofilm-forming ability, Enterococcus spp. are
known to produce various virulence factors. Biofilm formation is a major mechanism of
adaptation that protects bacteria from antibiotics, due to several characteristics.
Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, descriptive and observational study
conducted in the Department of Microbiology, Index Medical College, Hospital and
Research center Indore from January 2019 December 2021. All isolates of Enterococcus
species during the study period will be included. Enterococci isolated from clinical
specimens like pus, wound swab and aspirates etc. received in Microbiology
Department. All samples were processed by standard bacteriological procedures. Gram
staining was done for pus, wound swab and aspirates and findings were recorded.
Culture was done on 5% sheep blood agar and MacConkey agar. Inoculated plates were
incubated at 37°C for 18- 24 hours.