Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Blood pressure


Analysis of mephentermine and intravenous norepinephrine for maintenance of blood pressure during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section

Dr.Pawan Agrawal, Dr.Shalini Agrawal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 1090-1095

Background: Regional anaesthesia for caesarean delivery is associated with a high incidence of maternal hypotension and may result in fetalacidaemia due to decreased uteroplacental blood flow. The present study was compared mephentermine and intravenous norepinephrine for maintenance of blood pressure during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section.
Materials & Methods: 80parturients scheduled for elective caesarean section under subarachnoid blockwere divided into 2 groups of 40 each. Group I received 6 mg mephentermine for SAIH and group II received8 µg boluses of intravenous norepinephrine. Parameters such as systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Apgar score and maternal complications were recorded.
Results: Group I received 6 mg mephentermine for SAIH and group II received8 µg boluses of intravenous norepinephrine. The mean age in group I was 24.7 years and in group II was 25.2 years, height was 152.2 cm in group I and 156.8 cm in group II, weight was 62.8 kgs in group I and 63.2 kgs in group II, duration of surgery was 45.2 minutes in group I and 46.8 minutes in group II, APGAR score at 1st minute was 7.28 in group I and 7.24 in group II and at 5 minutes was 9.05 in group I and 9.04 in group II. The number of requirement of doses were 1 time seen in 15 in group I and 4 in group II, 2 times seen 14 in group I and 11 in group II, 3 times seen 8 in group I and 13 in group II, 4 times seen 3 in group I and 5 in group II, 5 times seen 0 in group I and 4 in group II, 6 times seen 0 in group I and 2 in group II. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). Side effects reported were Nausea/ vomiting seen 7 in group I and 4 in group II, headache seen 7 in group I and 5 in group II, shivering seen 4 in group I and 3 in group II and hypertension seen in 1 in group II. The difference was non- significant (P> 0.05).
Conclusion: Mephentermine was comparable with intravenous norepinephrine in maintenance of blood pressure during caesarean section.

A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM SULPHATE IN ATTENUATING ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE IN ELECTIVE LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERIES: AN ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Dr. Sreenivas Azmeera, Dr. Chandrashekhar Botla, Dr. Voviliveni Srikala, Dr. B Srinivas, Dr. Bheemanadhuni Anusha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 3336-3341

Aim: The purpose of the present research was evaluating the effects of magnesium sulphate on arterial blood pressure in cases of elective laparoscopic surgeries.
Methodology: 200 patients who underwent laparoscopic abdominal surgery were randomly divided in to two groups, group A and group B. Group A received magnesium sulphate 50 mg/kg diluted in normal saline to total volume of 20 ml at 240 ml/hour over 5 minutes. The control group (group B) received same amount of normal saline (20 ml).
Results: The baseline characteristics of the magnesium sulphate and Control groups were comparable and there was no significant difference between the groups. Systolic and Diastolic BP were higher in Control group than magnesium group. There was no significant difference in sedation levels in both groups.
Conclusion: In our study, we conclude that IV magnesium sulphate, when given before pneumoperitoneum attenuates arterial pressure increase during elective laparoscopic abdominal surgeries. This attenuation is apparently related to reductions in the release of catecholamine, vasopressin or both by magnesium sulphate.

A study to compare and evaluate variation in electrocardiogram, heart rate variability and hypertension during different phases of menstrual cycle to determine the effect of ovarian hormones on cardiovascular function

Parul Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 10072-10077

Purpose: During menstrual cycle the fluctuating level of endogenous sex hormones have
an impact on cardiac autonomic function and may also affect blood volume along with
electrocardiographic pattern. The main purpose of the study was to compare and
evaluate variation in electrocardiogram, heart rate variability and hypertension during
different phases of menstrual cycle to determine the effect of ovarian hormones on
cardiovascular function.
Methods: This was a cross sectional prospective study conducted in 145 healthy female
student who had regular menstrual cycle of 30 ± 3 days and aged between 18 to 24 years
after taking informed consent and institutional ethical clearance. In different phases of
menstrual cycle [Menstrual Phase (day 1-5), Follicular Phase (day 5–14) and Luteal
phase(day 15-28)] blood pressure, lead II electrocardiogram recordings were captured
and by using PHYSIOPAC after connecting the limb leads of ECG in supine resting
position with eyes closed HRV was assessed for 15min.
Results: On electro gram parameters a significant QT interval and RR interval were
observed. Longer QT interval during follicular Phase and shorter QT interval during
Luteal phase were recoded where as shorter RR interval observed during Menstrual
Phase which were longer during luteal phase. During the three phases no significant
variation in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were noticed. An increase resting
heart rate were noted during menstrual phase which was lower during luteal phase. A
non-significant increase in LF nudomain and LF/HF ratio were noted during the luteal
phase as compared to other phases. Compared to luteal phase, during the follicular
Phase, in LF nudomain and LF/HF ratio a non-significant increase were observed.
Conclusion: In healthy young women with regular menstrual cycle sympathovagal
balance were greatly influenced by endogenous sex hormones. Cardiacautonomic
dysfunction and be resulted due to any type of hormonal imbalance which effect
sympathovagal balance. The study also concluded even within range of fluctuations,
ventricular action potentials were were greatly influenced by estrogen as QT and Q Tc
intervals shows changed in healthy young adults.

A study on association of serum uric acid and blood pressure in hypertensive patients at a tertiary hospital

Premaraja R, Bethiun S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1244-1249

Background: Hypertension is an increasing important medical and public health issue. Uric acid exerts a pro-inflammatory effect on endothelial cells which may be associated with MetS risk factors such as elevated triglyceride (TG) levels, hypertension and insulin resistance.5 Present study was aimed to study of association of serum uric acid and blood pressure in hypertensive patients at a tertiary hospital.
Material and Methods: Present study was prospective, comparative, observational study, conducted among cases (Subjects of either gender, age >18 years, diagnosed as hypertensive (first time) were enrolled in this study during a regular routine health check-up at general medicine OPDs) & controls (Age & gender matched normotensives subjects at general medicine OPDs).
Results: In present study, 100 subjects each were studied in hypertensive as well as normotensive group. Mean levels of age, gender, BMI & co-morbidities among both groups were comparable & difference was not significant statistically. Mean pulse rate & respiratory rate were comparable among both groups & difference was not significant statistically. The mean levels of SBP and DBP were significantly more in the hypertensive subjects as compared to normotensive subjects (p<0.001). In present study, prevalence of hyperuricemia was 9% (1% in normotensive and 8% in hypertensive subjects). Hypertensive subjects had increased mean levels of SUA than in the normotensive subjects (p<0.001). In Pearson’s correlation coefficient test, SUA levels were significantly related with SBP and DBP (p<0.001). The average level of TG and HDL were also significantly different between the groups (p<0.05).
Conclusion: A stronger co-relationship for higher levels of SUA concentration was noted with blood pressure hypertension and prehypertension in the participants.

Efficacy of preanesthetic single dose intravenous dexmedetomidine versus intravenous clonidine in patient undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia: Changes in blood pressure

Dr. Nagendra Prasad, Dr. Shivakumar, Dr. Nandini

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 2451-2455

Surgeries involving general anaesthesia where airway manipulation occurred during laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation produces stimulation of epipha1ynx and laryngopharynx giving rise to hae1nodynatnic alteration due to catecholamine surge or response. Haemodynamic changes are accentuated in high risk cardiac patient. After obtaining approval from the institutional ethical committee patients fulfilling the inclusion/exclusion criteria were included in the study after obtaining informed consent. A preanesthetic evaluation of history of surgical and medical illness, drug allergies previous anaesthetic exposure and Baseline investigations of blood, ECG, radiograph of chest and airway examination was done. Patient was kept nil by mouth for at least 8hrs prior to surgery. All patients were premedicated with injection Pantoprazole 40mg (IV) one hour prior to surgery. Preoperative vital parameters like baseline pulse, blood pressure were noted. Systolic blood pressure in significantly lower in Group D patient after 40 minutes of intubation continues to be low at 6th, 8th, 10th, 15th and 20th minutes compared to Group C.

A study on association of serum uric acid and blood pressure in hypertensive patients at a tertiary hospital

Premaraja R, Bethiun S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 2013-2019

Background: Hypertension is an increasing important medical and public health issue. Uric acid exerts a pro-inflammatory effect on endothelial cells which may be associated with MetS risk factors such as elevated triglyceride (TG) levels, hypertension and insulin resistance.5 Present study was aimed to study of association of serum uric acid and blood pressure in hypertensive patients at a tertiary hospital.
Material and Methods: Present study was prospective, comparative, observational study, conducted among cases (Subjects of either gender, age >18 years, diagnosed as hypertensive (first time) were enrolled in this study during a regular routine health check-up at general medicine OPDs) & controls (Age & gender matched normotensives subjects at general medicine OPDs).
Results: In present study, 100 subjects each were studied in hypertensive as well as normotensive group. Mean levels of age, gender, BMI & co-morbidities among both groups were comparable & difference was not significant statistically. Mean pulse rate & respiratory rate were comparable among both groups & difference was not significant statistically. The mean levels of SBP and DBP were significantly more in the hypertensive subjects as compared to normotensive subjects (p < 0.001). In present study, prevalence of hyperuricemia was 9% (1% in normotensive and 8% in hypertensive subjects). Hypertensive subjects had increased mean levels of SUA than in the normotensive subjects (p < 0.001). In Pearson’s correlation coefficient test, SUA levels were significantly related with SBP and DBP (p < 0.001). The average level of TG and HDL were also significantly different between the groups (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: A stronger co-relationship for higher levels of SUA concentration was noted with blood pressure hypertension and prehypertension in the participants.

Correlation analysis of serum calcium level with the blood pressure among patients with essential hypertension in rural population of Himachal Pradesh

Vijay Kumar, Jagjit Singh Bahia, Sharad Lodhi, Sameer Singh Faujdar, Harharpreet Kaur, Sahil Chhabra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1475-1481

Introduction: A high blood pressure that doesn't have a known secondary cause is called as essential hypertension, is a leading cause of death worldwide. Calcium supplementation known to reduce the blood pressure in normal healthy individuals.
Objective: The present study aims towards analysing the correlation between serum calcium level with the blood pressure among patients with essential hypertension.
Methods: 30 cases of essential hypertension patients as cases and 30 suitable healthy age sex matched individuals with normal blood pressure as controls, as per JNC-8 guidelines were recruited in study. Serum calcium level and blood pressure was analysed in all patients.
Results: Systolic Blood Pressure in control group was 111.1 ± 7.570 and in cases was 158.1 ± 9.066. Diastolic Blood Pressure in control group was 72.80±6.183 and in cases was 92.33±6.456. Serum calcium in control group was 9.207 ± 0.7249 and in cases was 8.130 ± 0.4843.
Conclusion: Patients with lower calcium level tends to have raised blood pressure and vice versa. Thus, routine dietary restriction salt in hypertensive individuals can help in better management of hypertension.

EFFECTS OF INDIVIDUALISED DIALYSATE SODIUM IN HEMODIALYSIS

Dr Kawin Gunasekaran; Dr E Ramprasad Elumalai; Dr M Jayakumar; Dr Manikantan Sekar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3177-3194

Sodium is the major extracellular cation in the body and hence and is the major determinant of
extracellular fluid (ECF) content and serum osmolarity . Volume overload contributed by increased
sodium is a major problem in patients on hemodialysis (HD). Sodium entry occurs in hemodialysis
patients from dietary intake, dialysis fluid or from saline infusions given during the hemodialysis session.
Currently, all patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis in our centre and hospitals world-wide are
dialysed with dialysate sodium of 138 meq/L and this dialysate sodium level used as a standard value in
all patients irrespective of their blood sodium values. Patients undergoing dialysis have an individualized
sodium and osmolarity value which are known as sodium and osmolar set point . respectively, and are
unique for each patient and is highly conserved.
A higher dialysate sodium concentration more than the patient’s plasma sodium level will cause sodium
gain during dialysis and increase the total body sodium. This promotes interdialytic fluid ingestion in
order to restore an individual’s sodium and osmolar set point. These patients might be actually having a
lower sodium set point and if so, with each hemodialysis session, more sodium is continuously being
added to their body, contributing to increased thirst, interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) and blood pressure.
Long standing fluid overload can lead to uncontrolled hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and thus,
lead to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Theoretically, it looks advantageous to use tailor made dialysate sodium to avoid addition of excess
sodium to the body during hemodialysis sessions. Several studies have been done regarding the
individualization of sodium prescription in HD patients but the results have been inconsistent. There are
very few studies from India regarding sodium set points in our HD population and by prescribing
Individualized dialysate sodium prescription, co-morbidities mentioned above will be drastically reduced.
Our aim was to investigate and study the beneficial effects of individualized sodium profiling on patients
undergoing dialysis.

Correlation Of Risk Factors For Preeclampsia With Blood Pressure And Proteinuria

Hidayati Ratna; Hayati Farida; Fuadah Z. Dina; Sari K. Melani; Ludyanti L. Nita; Ishariani Linda

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4710-4717

Background: Preeclampsia is related to the inability to adapt to the physiological changes of pregnancy that result in decreased maternal organ perfusion. This complex clinical syndrome in preeclampsia can affect all organ systems such as the hemodynamic system, kidney, retina, and blood chemistry, which is manifested by increased blood pressure and protein urine.
Purpose: This study aimed to determine the correlation of the factors causing preeclampsia with blood pressure and protein urine.
Methods: This correlational study using the 127 respondents, sampling purposive sampling techniques, the independent variable factor in preeclampsia (age, genetics, history of diabetes mellitus, history of hypertension), and the independent variable blood pressure and protein urine. The measuring instrument used is a sheet checklist and analyzed by Spearman rank.
Results: The results showed the risk of preeclampsia in the age factor of 40.9% occurred in the 28-35-year-old respondents; 100% of patients had no history/genetic preeclampsia, 100% of respondents did not have a history of diabetes mellitus, and 88.9% did not have a history of hypertension. Systole blood pressure increased moderately and high by 26.0% and 22.0%, while diastolic blood pressure increased moderately and high by 26.0% and 11.0%. Respondents had positive proteinuria of 52%. The results of the analysis are not found a significant correlation between the factors of age, genetics, history of diabetes, and history of hypertension with blood pressure and preeclampsia protein urine on respondents.
Conclusion: History of hypertension associated with blood pressure and proteinuria in preeclampsia. History of hypertension is related to the condition of the blood vessels that manifest hypertension and decreased renal function (protein urine). Therefore, it is recommended in women with a history of hypertension to control blood pressure and perform routine prenatal care during pregnancy to prevent further complications.

CORRELATION OF RISK FACTORS FOR PREECLAMPSIA WITH BLOOD PRESSURE AND PROTEINURIA

HidayatiRatna .; Hayati Farida; Fuadah Z. Dina; Sari K. Melani; Ludyanti L. Nita; Ishariani Linda

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 1017-1025

Background: Preeclampsia is related to the inability to adapt to the physiological changes of pregnancy that result in decreased maternal organ perfusion. This complex clinical syndrome in preeclampsia can affect all organ systems such as the hemodynamic system, kidney, retina, and blood chemistry, which is manifested by increased blood pressure and protein urine.
Purpose: This study aimed to determine the correlation of the factors causing preeclampsia with blood pressure and protein urine.
Methods: This correlational study using the 127 respondents, sampling purposive sampling techniques, the independent variable factor in preeclampsia (age, genetics, history of diabetes mellitus, history of hypertension), and the independent variable blood pressure and protein urine. The measuring instrument used is a sheet checklist and analyzed by Spearman rank.
Results: The results showed the risk of preeclampsia in the age factor of 40.9% occurred in the 28-35-year-old respondents; 100% of patients had no history/genetic preeclampsia, 100% of respondents did not have a history of diabetes mellitus, and 88.9% did not have a history of hypertension.Systole blood pressure increased moderately and high by 26.0% and 22.0%, while diastolic blood pressure increased moderately and high by 26.0% and 11.0%. Respondents had positive proteinuria of 52%. The results of the analysis are not found a significant correlation between the factors of age, genetics, history of diabetes, and history of hypertension with blood pressure and preeclampsia protein urine on respondents.
Conclusion: History of hypertension associated with blood pressure and proteinuria in preeclampsia. History of hypertension is related to the condition of the blood vessels that manifest hypertension and decreased renal function (protein urine). Therefore, it is recommended in women with a history of hypertension to control blood pressure and perform routine prenatal care during pregnancy to prevent further complications.

THE EFFECTS OF SANDALWOOD AROMATHERAPY (Santalum album) AND BOSSA NOVA MUSIC ON ANXIETY LEVELS OF PEDIATRIC PATIENTS UNDERGOING TOPICAL FLUORIDE TREATMENT

Victor Gradiyanto Mahendra; Ardianti Maartrina Dewi; Udijanto Tedjosasongko; Teguh Budi Wibowo

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 860-865

Background: Anxiety is a condition characterized by strong fear, followed by somatic symptoms that indicate a hyperactive autonomic nervous system. This is a type of emotional disorder that is associated with unexpected and considereddangerous situations. The anxiety of pediatric patients will reduce the treatment success rate. Reducing the anxiety of pediatric patients is very important to increase thetreatment success rate. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of sandalwood aromatherapy and bossa nova music on the anxiety levels of pediatric patients undergoing dental treatment. Methods: This research was conducted in four groups with four different treatments: the control group, the sandalwood aromatherapy group, the bossa nova music group, and the combination group. Each group consisted of 26 subjects. All 104 patients were treated with topical fluoride treatment for the first time. Blood pressure and pulse measurements asindicators of anxiety were performed twice on each sample, before treatment and after treatment. Blood pressure and pulse were measured with a digital sphygmomanometer. Results: There was a significant enhancement in the difference in blood pressure and pulse in the control group and a significant reduction in the difference in blood pressure and pulse in the other group (p <0.05).Conclusion: Sandalwood aromatherapy and bossa nova music can reduce anxiety levelsin pediatric patients undergoing dental treatment, with the largest reduction in anxiety levels in the group treated with a combination of sandalwood aromatherapy and bossa nova music.

Short-Term Sprint Interval Training Improves Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure in Sedentary Overweight Women

Norhazira Abdul Rahim; Nor Shazmiera Asyraf Ishak; Nor Aijratul Asikin Mohamad Shalan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4048-4057

Sprint Interval Training (SIT) has become one of the time-efficient training protocol which capable to improve fitness and health-related measures in healthy as well in overweight individual. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of short term SIT on body mass index (BMI), total body fat percentage, resting heart rate and blood pressure in overweight sedentary women. Eleven women (aged 20.64 ±0.81 years; body mass index, 30.17 (±3.97) kg/m2) participated in this study. After baseline measurement of BMI, total body fat percentage, resting heart rate and blood pressure, participants completed a 2-week SIT intervention, comprising 6 session of 4 to 6 repeats of 30-second Wingate anaerobic sprints protocol on an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer, with 4-minute recovery time between each repetition. The BMI, total body fat percentage, resting heart rate and blood pressure assessment were repeated as post-intervention. Significant decrease in systolic pressure (108 ± 9.1 vs 112.36 ± 12.5 mm Hg, P .04) and diastolic pressure (74.45 ± 6.4 vs 79.73 ± 10.5 mm Hg, P .03) were observed after the 2-week SIT intervention. No significant changes were found in BMI, total body fat percentage and resting heart rate. Thus, the 2-week of SIT improves both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in sedentary overweight women, highlighting the potential for this short-term intervention as an alternative exercise programme for the improvement the cardio metabolic health in overweight individual.

BLOOD PRESSURE PROFILE IN SCHOOL CHILDREN IN RURAL AND URBAN AREA IN AND AROUND KARAD

D. B. Potdar; Prashnt P. Shah; Naredra P. Porval

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 4168-4174

A cross sectional study among 1000 school going children of age group 6 – 16 years was conducted to study the relation of Blood Pressure with variables Like Body Mass Index, Socio Economic Status, Family History of Hypertension, Age and Sex at our tertiary care hospital Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed University, Karad. 1.The study group had 100 (10%) children of 13, 14, 15 and 16 years, 90 (9%) children of 6, 8, 9 and 12 years and 80 (8%) children of 7, 10 and 11 years. 12.Systolic hypertension was observed in 13.3% of overweight and 6.7% of obese children. Systolic prehypertension was observed in 11.7% of overweight and 13.3% of obese children. BMI was significantly associated with pre hypertension and hypertension (SBP) in children (p<0.001). Diastolic hypertension was observed in 16.7% of overweight and 6.7% of obese children. Diastolic prehypertension was observed in 18.3% of overweight and 20% of obese children. Only 1.7% and 0.9% of prehypertension and hypertensive children had normal BMI.