Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Phosphorous


Dr Ramaswami B,Dr Natarajkumar, Dr Rakesh Shaganti

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 331-335

To study the incident of gallstone stone in different age and sex.
Cross-sectional observational study,
Place and duration of study:
Mamata Medical College and General Hospital, Khammam from October 2018 to September 2020.
RESULTS: In the present study, among 50 cases, 41 (82%) were females and 9 (18%) were males
with male to female ratio of 1:4.5. Representing the majority of the study population were females.
Out of these 3 cases two were pigmented, one was cholesterol stone. But Chi-square statistic at 0.866
with P value of 0.64. Out of 41 female patients in the present study, 10 had a history of OCP use at
some point in their life. Among them 5, 4, 1 patients had pigment, cholesterol and mixed stones.
Mean serum bilirubin value was more among pigmented stone group (1.069 mg/dl) as compared to
mixed (0.850 mg/dl) and cholesterol group (0.6 mg/dl). Mean serum cholesterol group (3.382 mg/dl).
CONCLUSION: On the basis of the above observations, it is possible to say that pigment gallstone
patients have high serum bilirubin, calcium and phosphate levels and the type of gallstone doesn’t
depend on age, sex, BMI status and OCP usage.


N. Chandralekha, P. V. Rajini, N. Jyothi, T. Arunmanas, T. Krishnasri Vathsav

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1211-1221

Background:Diabetes Mellitus is the most common metabolic disease and is posing as a major public health problem in the world, developing countries like India in particular. India has the second highest number of diabetics worldwide after China. Diabetes Mellitus is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia due to defective insulin secretion and / or insulin resistance. Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus accounts for more than 85% of the all the diabetics. It can occur at any age but is most common between 40 to 80 years of age. Macro minerals (calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulphur and phosphorus) play an important role in intermediary metabolism and cellular function, including enzyme activities and electrical gradients. The present study of these parameters is essential in clinically diagnosed patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus to show their role in the pathogenesis and to ascertain their role as possible biochemical markers of the disease progress.
Materials and Methods: Observational cross-sectional study was done. STUDY SUBJECT AND SIZEA total of one hundred patients aged between 30 years to 60 years, both male and female patients were selected from King George Hospital attached to Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam. Fifty patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending OP at Department of Endocrinology and fifty healthy non-diabetic subjects were selected. The subjects are divided into two groups, fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Group A (Cases): consisting of 50, type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosed patients Group B (Controls): consisting of 50 healthy non diabetic subjects. Study Period: This study was conducted between December 2020 to November 2021 in the Department of Biochemistry, King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam. Sample Collection: After 12 hours of fasting, 5ml of venous blood is collected from the antecubital vein from each subject under aseptic conditions. Blood was collected in a clot activator vacutainer (red cap tubes) and allowed to clot spontaneously in the tube, and then centrifuged for about 10 minutes at 3000rpm. In case of delay, the sample was stored at -20 degree Celsius for further analysis on the next working day. Carewas taken to prevent hemolysis.The findings were recorded and then tabulated in excel sheets, statistically analyzed using SPSS software. Unpaired t-test was done and expressed in terms of mean and standard deviation. A p-value of < 0.05 is considered as statistically significant.
Results: The (mean±SD) serum triglyceride levels in T2DM cases were 228±116.03 mg/dl and in healthy controls 103±18.23 mg/dl. The (Mean±SD) serum total cholesterol levels in T2DM cases were 208.26±48.14 mg/dl and in controls 164.18±12.71 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serum HDL-C levels in T2DM cases were 33.82±7.89 mg/dl and in controls 45.16±3.35 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serumLDL-C levels in T2DM cases were 128.36±44.80 mg/dl and in controls 99.74±9.23 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serum VLDL-C levels in T2DM cases were 45.68±23.20 mg/dl and in controls 20.47±3.31 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serum calcium levels in T2DM cases were 9.12±0.79 mg/dl and in controls 9.83±0.53 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serum magnesium levels in T2DM cases were 1.87±0.35 mg/dl and in controls 2.30±0.36 mg/dl. The (mean±SD) serum phosphoruslevels in T2DM cases were 2.92±0.64 mg/dl and in controls 3.06±0.70 mg/dl. There is no statistical significance in the serum phosphorus levels in between the two groups.
Conclusion: in this present study. The serum triglyceride (TG) levels, serum total cholesterol levels, serum LDL-C Levels,VLDL-C Levels were significantly increased in the T2DM cases compared to the controls. The serum HDL-C levels were significantly decreased in the T2DM cases when compared to the controls. The serum calcium levels, Serum magnesium levels and serum phosphorous levels were significantly decreased in the T2DM cases when compared to the controls.

Study of Serum Calcium, Magnesium and Phosphorous Levels in Hypothyroidism

Bonala Sharat Babu, Azmatulla Shaik, Md. Siddique Ahmed Khan, Naveed Altaf

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1286-1292

Background: Thyroid disorders are the most common endocrine abnormality in the
world secondary to diabetes mellitus. Thyroid hormones are essential for growth,
neuronal development, reproduction and regulation of energy metabolism. It influences
the metabolism of all substrates including minerals. Many studies have shown that
mineral metabolism is frequently disturbed in thyroid disorders.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on sixty newly confirmed
hypothyroid cases based on the thyroid profile and sixty euthyroid cases were recruited
as controls. Blood samples were collected from all the patients for the estimation of
serum T3, T4, FT3, FT4, TSH, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium by auto analyzer
method. Modified spectrophotometric micro-method was used to measure Serum
copper using Bathocuprine Disulphonate Disodium Salt (BCDS) and Guanidine
hydrochloride salt. The Statistical software namely SPSS 18.0, and R environment
ver.3.2.2 were used for the analysis of the data.
Results: It was found that the levels of serum sodium, potassium and calcium were
significantly decreased in cases than the controls. Serum magnesium and phosphorus
were significantly elevated in cases than controls.
Conclusion: Serum calcium, magnesium and phosphorous levels are significantly
altered in patients having hypothyroidism. Thyroid diseases have wide spread systemic
manifestations including their effects on bone and mineral metabolism. Also thyroid
hormone affects the glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, tubular reabsorption
and excretion of minerals which have direct effect on Calcium, Magnesium and
phosphorous level. Thus monitoring of these minerals in hypothyroid patient will be of
great benefit in improving clinical manifestation and can be treated appropriately.