Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : infants

Right internal jugular vein, right supraclavicular and right infraclavicular subclavian vein approach to central venous cannulation in pediatric patients: A randomized comparative study

Dr. Vipul Sharma Dr. Abha Juneja

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 2341-2355

Background: Central venous catheterization (CVC) is an important procedure for infant patients for different purposes like nutritional support, surgical operation, hemodynamic monitoring and medications. Different approaches for CVC in children are internal jugular vein, supraclavicular subclavian and infraclavicular subclavian. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative effectiveness and complication risks of these three cannulation locations in infants.
Method: Assuming the effect size of 0.5 between groups, at 5% confidence level and 80% power, 10 patients were randomly assigned to each group - Group A: right internal jugular vein, Group B: right supraclavicular subclavian, Group C: right Infraclavicular subclavian. Parameters assessed were - number of attempts, successful placement of central line at superior vena casa-right atrium (SVC-RA) junction, time for insertion, complications like arterial puncture, incidence for post-op local infection, hemothorax, pneumothorax, hematoma formation. Data was compared using chi square test and ANOVA test.
Results: Time taken for catheterization in Group C was the least followed by Group A then Group B. Number of attempts taken for a successful placement of catheter in 1st attempt was maximum in Group C followed by Group A and B. It was noted that 2 of 10 patients had arterial puncture in Group A during catheterization. There was 100% successful placement in all 3 groups. No incidence of haematoma formation, haemothorax, pneumothorax, post-op local infection seen.
Conclusion: Infraclavicular approach takes the least amount of time and number of attempts for catheterization, with no incidence of any complications

Effect Of Oromotor Stimulation In Preterm Infants In Intensive Care Unit

Alice Jeba J; Prathap Suganthirababu; Shivaprakash sosale; Vignesh Srinivasan; Vanitha Jayaraj; Divyalaxmi. P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 252-262

Purpose:Oromotor interventions are used to stimulate thefeeding process orally among infants of preterm. To find the impact of oral motor mediationamong preterm infants alongwith suckling of non-nutritive and conversionperiod ofkangaroo mother care from tube feeds to spoon feeding of partial/full and breast feeds of partial in pre-term infants.
Methods:This study of randomized controlled trail was directed in the neonatal unit of level III at Tertiary Care hospital, Bangalore, from May 2019 - August 2019. One hundred infants(28-37weeks) were randomized as intervention group (n=50) and control (n=50) group. Both the groups were further subdivided into very preterm(28.0-31.6 weeks) (n=25) and moderate to latepreterminfants (32.0- 36.6 weeks) (n=25) regarding their gestational age. Preterm newborn who were in intervention group received five minutes of premature infant oral motor intervention (POMI), two times consecutively for ten days along with routine care and in control group with routine care only, which includes nonnutritive sucking and kangaroo mother care. Then transition duration was evaluated between both the groups from gavage to spoon feed of partial or full and partial breast feeds.

Challenges In Initiation And Pattern Of Breast Feeding In Government Maternity/Teaching Hospitals In Warangal

Dr. K.Vasudev , Dr. Kodam Rajeev, Dr.K Sri Harsha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 4932-4945

BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding is considered to be an important practice for enhancing infant health and wellbeing. Breastfeeding offers a wide range of psychological and physical health benefits in the long-term and short-term for young children, infants, and mothers. The study therefore sought to assess the challenges in initiation of breast feeding among mothers admitted at a teaching hospital.
METHODS:This study used a retrospective questionnaire to collect data. The advantage of using a questionnaire is standardized response as women are asked the same set of questions in the same order.The questionnaire was in English and questions are asked in their own language. Mother’s and caretakers were asked about each question.Random sampling was used when selecting the mothers to be interviewed from those who were admitted for delivery in maternity and teaching hospitals in postpartum period during hospital stay.
RESULTS: Among the 200 participants 45.5% of mothers gave first feeds to their baby within one hour, 73%of the neonates were given Direct breast feeding on day 1,5% of mothers had difficulty in initiation of feeds. 48.5% of mothers had delay in initiation of feeds,2.5%of the mothers had inverted nipple,1.5% of the mothers had taboo regarding breast feeding, 2.5% of the mothers preferred formula feeds.
CONCLUSION: Based on the findings, it was recommended that mothers should be encouraged and sensitized to know the importance of exclusive breastfeeding, and extension of maternity period is also important to enable them attend to their babies

Study on Evaluating the Nutritional Status of Preterm Very Low Birth Weight Infants at Discharge

Poornima Modi, Siddharth Ramji, Sangeeta Yadav

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 5939-5944

Background: The risk factor that is linked with both the morbidity and mortality is estimated to be low birth weight (LBW). LBW is defined by the World Health Organization as weight at birth less than 2500 g. Therefore this study was carried out to evaluate the nutritional status of preterm very low birth weight infants at discharge.
Materials and Methodology: This study was carried out as a prospective cohort study which was conducted in the Newborn unit of Department of Pediatrics at Maulana Azad Medical College and associated Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. During the study period, which was from April 2009- March 2010, the initial screening and enrolment took place between April 2009 to October 2009. A 130 preterm neonates weighing less than 1500 grams were screened for eligibility. 80 subjects were finally enrolled for the study and 51 completed the complete follow up to 3 months corrected post-natal age.
Results: There was no significant difference with regard to any of the maternal characteristics. In none of the 80 infants enrolled for the study was there any evidence of chorio-amnionitis or chronic illness in mother and none of the mothers were smokers. There was no significant difference for the baseline neonatal characteristics between subjects who completed the study and those who were loss to follow up.
Conclusion: Exclusive breast feeding does not decrease the burden of extra uterine growth restriction among very low birth weight preterm infants. It is possible that the extra uterine growth restriction for weight and length would decrease if the infants were followed for a longer time, which is the limitation of this study.

Radiological profile of dengue among infants at a tertiary care hospital with special reference to increased resistive index of middle cerebral artery: A cross sectional study

Dr Santosh Karpur Dr Anupam Bahe Dr Deepali Vagdalker Dr Mahesh Chander D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1594-1604

Background: Ultrasonography is readily available and is non-invasive which gives quick results. It tells about severity of dengue among infants. It is a promising tool. It can help in management and assessing severity of dengue.
Objective: To study radiological profile of dengue among infants with special reference to increased resistive index of middle cerebral artery
Methods: Retrospective study on subjects admitted with infant dengue was done for two years. Data of 98 infants admitted with Dengue were collected from medical records department. Data of infant dengue with congenital heart disease, comorbidities like sepsis and known case primary immunodeficiency were excluded. Radiological findings of ultrasound abdomen & thorax of the subjects were recorded. 

A Hospital Based Prospective Study to Assess the Risk Factors of Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) in Infants Below 6 Months of Age

Vijay Singh, Brajesh Kumar Singhal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1388-1392

Background: Acute malnutrition is a public health problem of epidemic proportions.
Feeding approaches for infants who are under 6 months of age with severe acute
malnutrition should prioritize establishing, or re-establishing, effective exclusive
breastfeeding by the mother or other caregiver. The aim of this study is to identify the
various risk factors and determinants of severe acute malnutrition as defined by WHO
growth reference standards in infants aged below 6 months of age at district hospital in
Materials& Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted in the
Department of Pediatrics, District hospital, Dholpur, Rajasthan, India during one year
period. 30 comprised infants with SAM as defined by current WHO guidelines:
weight‐ for‐ length Z‐ score (WLZ) <−3 and/or bilateral nutritional oedema (WHO,
2013); the other comprised age‐ and sex‐ matched infants who were not severely
malnourished (control group) defined as WLZ≥−2to<2and mid‐ upper‐ arm
circumference (MUAC)≥125 mm.
Results:Mean age of Cases and Controls was 16.03±1.18 and 20.38±1.23 weeks
respectively. Mean length of infants was 60.3±3.12 cm in cases and 67.7±2.78 cm in
control group, which was statistically significant (P<0.05*). The statistically significant
of MUAC (mm) in between groups, which was shorter arm circumferences in
malnourished infants. The duration of exclusive breast feeds was less (8.9±1.86 weeks)
as compared to control group (20.8±4.36 weeks), which was statistically significant
(P<0.05*).Mothers of the SAM infants were significantly lighter, shorter, and had lower
MUAC than control mothers.
Conclusion: The study findings will help to increase the knowledge about the factors
associated with severe acute malnutrition. There is a statistical correlation of Severe
Acute Malnutrition with rural area, maternal Illiteracy and low socioeconomic status,
and failure of exclusive breast feeding for 6 months.

Assessment of Prevalence and Determinants of Anaemia among Infants attending well-baby clinic at Primary Health Care Centers, Makkah Al-Mokarramah, 2021

Mohammed mansour alqurashi, Aliaa Lutfe Hennawe, Mohammad Ali Siddiq

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 3325-3344

Anemia is defined as a hemoglobin concentration of less than 11 g/dL in children. Anemia was found to be prevalent in 56.6 percent of the population. The significant prevalence of anemia shows that it might be a contributing factor in hospitalization, especially given the short length of stay and the likelihood that the patient was anemic at the time of enrollment. According to the World Health Organization, Iron Deficiency Anemia is a global dietary problem. At least one third of the population has been anemic at some point in their lives. Since children are more susceptible to anemia, this is particularly crucial. It could be attributed to the patients' poor overall dietary condition, including their microelement intake. Increased penetration of supplements and fortifying programs, as well as other measures aimed at preventing and controlling anemia, are strongly advised.  Anemia is a global problem that can affect the neurodevelopment and behaviour of infants. A study shows that 52% of infants attending well-baby clinics in Saudi Arabia had iron deficiency anaemia. Aim of the study: To assessment of Prevalence and Determinants of Anaemia among Infants attending well-baby clinic at Primary Health Care Centres, Makkah Al-Mokarramah, 2021.Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Makkah Al-Mokarramah primary healthcare centers (Al-Ka’akyah) in January, 2021. Infants who visited the well-baby clinic for vaccination/routine follow-up were selected through convenience sampling technique. A questionnaire filled out by the researcher through an interview with the mother of infants was utilized for data collection. Results. Ninety-nine ( 1 year old) infants have included in the study wherein males represent 54.5% of them . All were of Saudi- nationality and majority of them (94.9%) live with both parents. Slightly more than one-quarter of them (27.3%) were first birth order. More than three-fourth (83.8%) had weight of >3 kg. For their respective mothers, all (99%) except one were Saudis, having the age to range between 23 and 45 years with a mean of 28.8 years (SD=3.7). Conclusion. This study provides evidence of a gap in assessment to anaemia is a common problem among infants aged one year in Makkah Al-Mokarramah as it affects almost one-quarter of them also iron deficiency anemia(IDA) is still the most prevalent type of anemia; however, it was found in only 6.3% participants