Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Variations


Dr. Sachendra Kumar Mittal Dr Rekha Parashar Dr. Dimpy Gupta Dr. Raviraj D. Walwante Dr. Raviraj D. Walwante

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 2022-2027

Background – The brachial artery is the extension of the axillary artery starting at the lower margin of the teres major muscle and is the major artery of the upper extremity. The brachial artery reaches the cubital fossa and bifurcates into the radial and ulnar artery. The ulnar artery further gives short trunk called common interosseous artery which in turn divided into anterior and posterior interosseous.  In this study we observed that the anterior interosseous artery instead of arising from the ulnar artery it took origin from brachial artery and there was absence of common interosseous artery. Ulnar artery is very much thin which is continuing as its normal course in forearm as well in hand. Aim - To study the variations in origin of anterior interosseous artery. Material and Method- Dissection of the upper limb in dissection hall of anatomy department of National Institute of Medical Science & Research Rajasthan, India, in 24 cadavers of both sexes, who has donated their precious body to NIMS & Research institute. Result – We found higher origin of anterior interosseous artery in five cadavers out of 24 cadavers (20.83%); in that four were male cadaver and one were female cadaver. All variations were same in right upper limb of both cadavers. Conclusion- The purpose of this article is to highlight the need for the awareness of the potential existence of such anatomical variation during vascular and re-constructive surgery and how it can be preoperatively detected by color Doppler imaging, which would help the surgeons and clinicians to plan out vascular and re-constructive surgery and therapeutic interventions

Complete Dorsal Wall Agenesis in the Human Sacrum and its Importance in Caudal Epidural Anaesthesia

Chandra Bhushan Chandan, Sanjay Kumar, Md. Kashif Akhtar, Binod Kumar, Rajiv Ranjan Sinha, Avanish Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 747-754

Background: The sacrum, an enormous triangular bone, is formed when the five sacral vertebrae fuse together. While the dorsal wall of the sacral canal is generated by the fusing of the laminae, spines, and ossified ligamentum flava, the ventral wall is created by the fusion of the sacral vertebra's body. Numerous variations can be found in the sacral canal's dorsal wall. It might be entirely open all the way down. By injecting medications into the spinal canal, caudal epidural anaesthesia provides both analgesia and anaesthesia. One of the contraindications of caudal epidural block is the full agenesis of the sacral dorsal wall.
Aim & Objective: The objectives of the present study were to document the dorsal wall agenesis of sacrum among the sacra which belong to the North Indian population and compare the findings with various races of the world.
Materials and methods: The present study has been carried out on 164 male & 112 Female (Total - 276 sacrum) undamaged dry sacrum after calculating the sacral indices and sexing of sacra.
Results: Sacrum with complete agenesis of dorsal wall are found in 3 among 276 sacrum (1.08%), in which 2 (0.72%) belongs to male & 1 (0.36%) belongs to female. So, compared to females, males are more likely to have a complete agenesis of the dorsal wall of the sacrum.
Conclusion: It's a rare variation, and therefore knowledge about it may be beneficial for anthropologists, radiologists, orthopaedicians surgeons, and neurosurgeons, as well as anaesthetics during caudal epidural anaesthesia. Understanding these variances could increase the success rate of the caudal epidural block.

Morphometric and Topographic Study of Coronary Ostia in Human Cadavers by Dissection Method

G.Rohini Devi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1807-1814

Background: Preoperative diagnosis of coronary ostial deformities is also very crucial
in congenital heart diseases such as Fallot’s tetralogy and transposition of arterial
supply. Anatomical understanding of coronary orifices may reduce invasive procedure
morbidity and mortality.The study's objectives were:1) Measure the diameters of the
coronary ostia and coronary artery roots. 2) Measure the distance between the coronary
ostia and the aortic sinus.3)To measure the distance of coronary ostia to the
commissures of aortic leaflets. 4) To examine the relationship between the coronary
ostia and the sinotubular junction.5) Note any accessory or single ostia.
Materials and Methods: The present investigation used 40 human cadaver hearts frozen
with 10% formalin from Govt Medical College, SuryapetTelngana and Viswa Bharathi
Medical College, Kurnool, AP, India.The diameters of the coronary ostia and coronary
artery roots were measured, as well as the distance between the ostia and the aortic
leaflet commissures.
Results: The mean diameter of the left coronary ostium was statistically bigger than the
right coronary ostium. The mean distance of the right coronary ostium from the aortic
sinus was significantly higher than the left.It has deviated to the right commissure
towards right posterior aortic sinus, and the left coronary ostium approximately to the
centre. The diameter of coronary arteries decreased significantly from the ostia to the
roots. From left coronary ostium to artery root, the mean diameter decreased. Most of
the time, the right coronary ostium was below the sinotubular junction, whereas the left
was at the junction. Anterior aortic sinus has many coronary orifices, with one (2.5%)
specimen having triple ostia. Left posterior aortic sinus was the origin of one right
Conclusion: The findings of this study contribute to the body of knowledge already
available on the morphology and topography of coronary ostia.This highlights the need
of analyzing the diameter variations of coronary ostia and roots, their relations to
sinotubular junction and aortic commissures, as well as looking for various orifices. As
inability to recognise can cause issues during angiography.