Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Neuropathy

Clinical Profile of Diabetic Retinopathy in Tertiary Care Centre

Shraddha Gaul, Vivek Sahasrabuddhe

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 425-434

India is emerging as diabetic capital of world as 2nd most affected country in the world. Common microvascular complications are neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy. It is most common cause of preventable blindness all over the world. Hence has been included in VISION 2020. Global prevalence of DR was found to be 22.27%. In India the incidence and prevalence of diabetes and thereby DR is increasing exponentially in urban as well as rural population and involves population from all socioeconomic strata. The present study was undertaken to study the clinical profile of DR in known diabetics. It aimed to know the various factors affecting progression and pathogenesis of DR, to grade the DR, to know the complications and visual morbidity due to DR in our institution

A study of the clinical profile and factors associated with diabetic foot at tertiary health care center

Vijay Govind Patel, Sachin S Jain, Pramod Nagorao Lokare, Swapnil Madankar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 1235-1239

Diabetes is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases: in 2010, one study
reported that 285 million adults worldwide had diabetes and this figure is projected to
rise to 439 milion by the year 2030. Aims and Objectives: To study the Clinical profile
and Factors associated with Diabetic foot at Tertiary health care center. Methodology:
This was a prospective study of consecutive Diabetic patients with foot complications
admitted in the surgical wards of Surgical department of a tertiary health care center
during the period of January 2016 – January 2017. A total of 168 cases were analyzed
during this period. Detailed history and thorough clinical examination was done in all
cases. All details of the clinical features and associated features and all the details of
investigations carried out were noted. Statistical analysis was done by Chi- square test
calculated by SPSS 19 version software. Result The majority of the patients were in the
age groups 60-69 were 30.00%, followed by 50-59-24%. The majority of the patients
were Male-52.98% and Female were 47.02%. There was significant family history of
diabetes mellites in 68.00% of patients (p < 0.01). The majority of the patients developed
lesions by Trauma i.e. 69.00% and Spontaneously in 31.00%, this was statistically
significant (P<0.01). As per Clinical Pattern Abscess was present in 3% cases, cellulitis
in 25% Cases, Ulcer in 52% cases and Gangrene in 29 % Cases and Joint involvement
in 5%. Most of the patients presented with Wagner Grade II type of foot lesions. i.e.
58.33%. Hence early and effective management can save the limb. The arteriopathy was
present in 89% as compared to absent 11% (P<0.01). Neuropathy was present in 26%as
compared to absent in 74% of patients presenting with diabetic foot lesions. Patients
with Neuropathy presented with Higher Grades of Diabetic foot lesions. Conclusion: It
can be concluded from our study that the majority patients were in the age group of 60-
69, the associated factors were family history, history of trauma, presence of
arteriopathy and neuropathy etc.


Ali Hanif Bhatti, Muhammad Faraz Shamshad, Dr Shiny Teja Kolli, Dr Praveen Kumar Komminni, Usman Ismail, Dr Amit Bhalla, Dr Immanuel Raju Tullimalli

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 40-44

Background: The present study was undertaken for evaluating serum vitamin D levels and its relation to diabetic peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients.
Materials & methods: A total of 100 type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled in the present study. Complete demographic and clinical details of all the patients was obtained. Clinical examination was carried out in all the patients and data was recorded. assessment of peripheral neuropathy was done by neuropathy disability score (NDS) and nerve conduction studies. The NDS was established by bilateral examination of the pin–prick sensation, temperature sensation, vibration test, and Achilles tendon reflex. Serum levels were obtained and vitamin D levels were evaluated using auto-analyser. Correlation of vitamin D levels was done using auto-analyser. All the results were recorded and analysed using SPSS software.
Results: DPN was present in 56 percent of the patients. Mean vitamin D levels among the patients with and without DPN was 19.12 ng/ml and 32.95 ng/ml respectively. While analysing and comparing statistically, significant results were obtained.
Conclusion: Significant correlation exists between DPN and serum vitamin D levels among type 2 diabetic patients.

Pattern of GBS in Kashmir, a Northern Region in India

Irfan Yousuf wani, Zhahid Hassan, Tanveer Hassan baba, Summyia Farooq , Iqra Mehraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 1218-1225

Background: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is said to be most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis worldwide. It is also one of the important life-threatening emergencies requiring critical cares in neurology. There are many subtypes of GBS like acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP), acute motor axonopathy (AMAN) and acute motor sensoryaxonopathy (AMSAN).  GBS shows a lot of variation in the demographic variables like gender distribution and seasonal variation as seen in different studies. The frequency of different variants of GBS is also quite variable. AIDP is more common in Europe and North America whereas axonal subtypes are more often seen in Asia and South America. We conducted this study over a period of Two years to determine these features of GBS in our population.
Material and Methods:92 patients comprising of 49 male and 43 female patients were included in this study. All these patients were admitted in our hospital and were evaluated as per the established protocol. Baseline investigations were done in all the patients. Neurophysiology and CSF analysis was also done.
Results: In our study we found that most of the patients had AIDP. A preceding precipitating event was present in 31 patients. There was a significant seasonal variation in our population with majority of the cases occurring in spring season.  We also found that there were a significant number of patients who presented to us in postpartum period.
Conclusion: This study shows that knowing the demographic variations of GBS patients of a region is important so as to prepare the healthcare facilities for better management of such cases.

The associated risk factors and the prevalence of diabetic foot ulcer - A cross sectional study

Dr.UroojNajami, Dr. Faisal Mumtaz, Dr.PrabodhBansal, Dr Gopal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2824-2830

Background: Diabetes Mellitus is a worldwide epidemic, affecting over 346 million people globally, with India ranking second with 65.1 million diabetic patients. Foot ulceration is the most common consequence of diabetes mellitus.It affects about 15% of diabetic individuals over the course of their lives and is quite frequent.To a considerable extent, it is preventable if the risk factors are identified early. The aim of present study is to evaluate the association of risk factorswith diabetic foot ulcer and to estimate prevalence of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU).
Material and Methods: A systematic random sample of 500 diabetic patients was selected from patients attending the outpatient department of General Surgery, National Capital Region Institute of Medical Sciences, Meerut. A standardized form was used to record data obtained from reviewing the medical records, interviewing, and examining the patients.
Results:The sample had a male-to-female ratio of 48 percent. The average age of the participants was 55 years, and they had diabetes for an average of 8.9 years. The prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers was 4.8%, sensory neuropathy was 15.3%, lower limb ischemia was 8.2%,and amputation was 2%. Ulceration was linked to male gender, neuropathy, and having diabetes for a longer period of time.
Conclusion:Future efforts should focus on educating both healthcare professionals and patients about proper foot care. To ascertain the true prevalence of diabetic foot problems, community-based research is also required.